Whitby

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Whitby (disambiguation).
Whitby
Whitby harbour overlooked by the Abbey ruins on the skyline.
Whitby and River Esk
Whitby Town Arms.png
Arms of Whitby Town Council featuring three green ammonites.
Whitby is located in North Yorkshire
Whitby
Whitby
 Whitby shown within North Yorkshire
Population 13,213 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid reference NZ893109
Civil parish Whitby
District Scarborough
Shire county North Yorkshire
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WHITBY
Postcode district YO21, YO22
Dialling code 01947
Police North Yorkshire
Fire North Yorkshire
Ambulance Yorkshire
EU Parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
UK Parliament Scarborough and Whitby
List of places
UK
England
Yorkshire

Coordinates: 54°29′09″N 0°37′14″W / 54.4858°N 0.6206°W / 54.4858; -0.6206

Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Borough of Scarborough and English county of North Yorkshire. Prior to local government reorganisations in the late 1960s, it was part of the North Riding of Yorkshire. Situated on the east coast of Yorkshire at the mouth of the River Esk, Whitby has an established maritime, mineral and tourist heritage. Its East Cliff is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey, where Caedmon, the earliest recognised English poet, lived. The fishing port developed during the Middle Ages, supporting important herring and whaling fleets,[2][3] and was (along with the nearby fishing village of Staithes) where Captain Cook learned seamanship.

Tourism started in Whitby during the Georgian period and developed further on the arrival of the railway in 1839. Its attraction as a tourist destination is enhanced by its proximity to the high ground of the North York Moors National Park, its Heritage Coastline and by its association with the horror novel Dracula. Jet and alum were mined locally. Whitby Jet, which was mined by the Romans and Victorians, became fashionable during the 19th century.

The earliest record of a permanent settlement is in 656, when as Streanœhealh it was the place where Oswy, the Christian king of Northumbria, founded the first abbey, under the abbess Hilda. The Synod of Whitby was held there in 664. In 867, the monastery was destroyed by Viking raiders. Another monastery was founded in 1078. It was in this period that the town gained its current name, Whitby (from "white settlement" in Old Norse). In the following centuries Whitby functioned as a fishing settlement until, in the 18th century, it developed as a port and centre for shipbuilding and whaling, the trade in locally mined alum, and the manufacture of Whitby jet jewellery.

The abbey ruin at the top of the East Cliff is the town's oldest and most prominent landmark. Other significant features include the swing bridge, which crosses the River Esk and the harbour, which is sheltered by the grade II listed East and West piers. The town's maritime heritage is commemorated by statues of Captain Cook and William Scoresby, as well as the whalebone arch that sits at the top of the West Cliff. The town also has a strong literary tradition and has featured in literary works, television and cinema, most famously in Bram Stoker's novel Dracula.

While Whitby's cultural and historical heritage contribute to the local economy, the town does suffer from the economic constraints of its remote location, ongoing changes in the fishing industry, relatively underdeveloped transport infrastructure, and limitations on available land and property. As a result, tourism and some forms of fishing remain the mainstay of its economy. It is the closest port to a proposed wind farm development in the North Sea, 47 miles (76 km) from York and 22 miles (35 km) from Middlesbrough. There are transport links to the rest of North Yorkshire and North East England, primarily through national rail links to Middlesbrough and road links to Teesside, via both the A171 and A174, and Scarborough by the former.

According to the 2011 UK census, the town had a population of 13,213,[1] a decrease on the 2001 UK census figure of 13,594.[4]

History

Whitby was called Streanæshalc, Streneshalc, Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, and Streunes-Alae in Lindissi in records of the 7th and 8th centuries. Prestebi, meaning the "habitation of priests" in Old Norse, is an 11th century name. Its name was recorded as Hwitebi and Witebi, meaning the "white settlement" in Old Norse, in the 12th century, Whitebi in the 13th century and Qwiteby in the 14th century.[5]

Abbey

Main article: Whitby Abbey
The picturesque ruins of Whitby Abbey are reflected in the abbey pond

A monastery was founded at Streanœhealh in AD 657 by King Oswiu or Oswy of Northumbria, as an act of thanksgiving, after defeating Penda, the pagan king of Mercia. At its foundation, the abbey was an Anglo-Saxon 'double monastery' for men and women. Its first abbess, the royal princess Hild, was later venerated as a saint.[6] The abbey became a centre of learning and here Caedmon the cowherd was "miraculously" transformed into an inspired poet whose poetry is an example of Anglo-Saxon literature. The abbey became the leading royal nunnery of the kingdom of Deira, and the burial-place of its royal family. The Synod of Whitby, in 664, established the Roman date of Easter in Northumbria at the expense of the Celtic one.[7]

The monastery was destroyed between 867 and 870 in a series of raids by Vikings from Denmark under their leaders Ingwar and Ubba. Its site remained desolate for more than 200 years until after the Norman Conquest of 1066.[5] After the Conquest, the area was granted to William de Percy who, in 1078 donated land to found a Benedictine monastery dedicated to St Peter and St Hilda.[8] William de Percy's gift included land for the monastery, the town and port of Whitby and St Mary's Church and dependent chapels at Fyling, Hawsker, Sneaton, Ugglebarnby, Dunsley, and Aislaby, five mills including Ruswarp, Hackness with two mills and two churches.[9] In about 1128 Henry I granted the abbey burgage in Whitby and permission to hold a fair at the feast of St Hilda on 25 August. A second fair was held close to St. Hilda's winter feast at Martinmas. Market rights were granted to the abbey and descended with the liberty. Whitby Abbey surrendered in December 1539 when Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries.

Town

Captain Cook's statue in front of the Royal Hotel, built by George Hudson.

In 1540 the town had between 20 and 30 houses and a population of about 200.[10] The burgesses, who had little independence under the abbey, tried to obtain self-government after the dissolution of the monasteries. The king ordered Letters Patent to be drawn up granting their requests, but it was not implemented. In 1550 the Liberty of Whitby Strand, except for Hackness, was granted to the Earl of Warwick who in 1551 conveyed it to Sir John York and his wife Anne who sold the lease to the Cholmleys.[11] In the reign of Elizabeth I, Whitby was a small fishing port. In 1635 the owners of the liberty governed the port and town where 24 burgesses had the privilege of buying and selling goods brought in by sea. Burgage tenure continued until 1837, when by an Act of Parliament, government of the town was entrusted to a board of Improvement Commissioners, elected by the ratepayers.[5]

At the end of the 16th century Thomas Chaloner visited alum works in the Papal States[12] where he observed that the rock being processed was similar to that under his Guisborough estate. At that time alum was important for medicinal uses, in curing leather and for fixing dyed cloths and the Papal States and Spain maintained monopolies on its production and sale. Chaloner secretly brought workmen to develop the industry in Yorkshire, and alum was produced near Sandsend Ness 3 miles (5 km) from Whitby in the reign of James I.[13] Once the industry was established, imports were banned and although the methods in its production were laborious, England became self-sufficient.[14][15] Whitby grew significantly as a port as a result of the alum trade and by importing coal from the Durham coalfield to process it.[16]

Whitby grew in size and wealth, extending its activities to include shipbuilding using local oak timber. In 1790–91 Whitby built 11,754 tons of shipping, making it the third largest shipbuilder in England, after London and Newcastle.[17] Taxes on imports entering the port raised money to improve and extend the town's twin piers, improving the harbour and permitting further increases in trade. In 1753 the first whaling ship set sail to Greenland and by 1795 Whitby had become a major whaling port. The most successful year was 1814 when eight ships caught 172 whales, and the whaler, the Resolution's catch produced 230 tons of oil. The carcases yielded 42 tons of whale bone used for 'stays' which were used in the corsetry trade until changes in fashion made them redundant.[18] Blubber was boiled to produce oil for use in lamps in four oil houses on the harbourside. Oil was used for street lighting until the spread of gas lighting reduced demand and the Whitby Whale Oil and Gas Company changed into the Whitby Coal and Gas Company. As the market for whale products fell, catches became too small to be economic and by 1831 only whaling ship, the Phoenix, remained.[19]

Whitby benefited from trade between the Newcastle coalfield and London, both by shipbuilding and supplying transport. In his youth the explorer James Cook learned his trade on colliers, shipping coal from the port.[20] HMS Endeavour, the ship commanded by Cook on his voyage to Australia and New Zealand, was built in Whitby in 1764 by Tomas Fishburn as a coal carrier named Earl of Pembroke. She was bought by the Royal Navy 1768, refitted and renamed.[21]

Whitby jet mourning jewellery became popular in late Victorian England.

Whitby developed as a spa town in Georgian times when three chalybeate springs were in demand for their medicinal and tonic qualities. Visitors were attracted to the town leading to the building of "lodging-houses" and hotels particularly on the West Cliff.[5] Then, in 1839, the Whitby and Pickering Railway connecting Whitby to Pickering and eventually to York was built, and played a part in the town's development as a tourism destination. George Hudson, who promoted the link to York, was responsible for the development of the Royal Crescent which was partly completed.[22] For 12 years from 1847, Robert Stephenson, son of George Stephenson, engineer to the Whitby and Pickering Railway, was the Conservative MP for the town promoted by Hudson as a fellow protectionist.[23]

The black mineraloid jet, the compressed remains of ancestors of the monkey-puzzle tree, is found in the cliffs and on the moors and has been used since the Bronze Age to make beads. The Romans are known to have mined it in the area.[24][25] In Victorian times jet was brought to Whitby by pack pony to be made into decorative items. It was at the peak of its popularity in the mid-19th century when it was favoured for mourning jewellery by Queen Victoria after the death of Prince Albert.[26]

The advent of iron ships in the late 19th century and the development of port facilities on the River Tees led to the decline of smaller Yorkshire harbours. The Monks-haven launched in 1871 was the last wooden ship built Whitby and a year later the harbour was silted up.[27][28]

On 30 October 1914, the hospital ship Rohilla was sunk, hitting the rocks within sight of shore just off Whitby at Saltwick Bay. Of the 229 people on board, 85 lost their lives in the disaster; most are buried in the churchyard at Whitby.[29] In a raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby in December 1914, the town was shelled by the German battlecruisers Von der Tann and Derfflinger. In the final assault on the Yorkshire coast the ships aimed their guns at the signal post on the end of the headland. Whitby Abbey sustained considerable damage in the attack which lasted ten minutes. The German squadron responsible for the strike escaped despite attempts made by the Royal Navy.[30]

During the early 20th century the fishing fleet kept the harbour busy and few cargo boats used the port. It was revitalised as a result of a strike at Hull docks in 1955 when six ships were diverted and unloaded their cargoes on the fish quay. Endeavour Wharf, near the railway station, was opened in 1964 by the local council. The number of vessels using the port in 1972 was 291, increased from 64 in 1964. Timber, paper and chemicals are imported while exports include steel, furnace-bricks and doors.[31] The port is owned and managed by Scarborough Borough Council since the Harbour Commissioners relinquished responsibility in 1905.

A marina was started in 1979 by dredging the upper harbour and laying pontoons. Light industry and car parks occupy the adjacent land. More pontoons were completed in 1991 and 1995.[32] The Whitby Marina Facilities Centre was opened in June 2010.[33]

Governance

Old Town Hall, a grade II* listed building

By an Act of 1837 government of the town was entrusted to a board of Improvement Commissioners, elected by the ratepayers. A Local Board was formed in 1872, and lasted until Whitby Urban District Council was formed under the Local Government Act 1894.[34] The townships of Whitby, Ruswarp and Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre were formed into a Parliamentary borough under the Reform Act of 1832 returning one member until the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.[5]

Since 1974 Whitby has been administered by Scarborough Borough Council, one of the seven district councils in North Yorkshire.[35] For borough council purposes the town comprises three wards, Mayfield, Streonshalh and Whitby West Cliff. The borough council is a non-metropolitan district, responsible for housing, planning, leisure and recreation, waste collection, environmental health and revenue collection.[36] North Yorkshire County Council is a non-metropolitan county providing education, transport, highways, fire, waste disposal, social and library services.[37] At the lowest level of governance Whitby has a town council which, for election and administrative purposes, is divided into six electoral wards represented by 19 councillors responsible for burial grounds, allotments, play areas and street lighting. Elections to the town council are held every four years.[38]

In the UK parliament the town is represented by a Conservative, Robert Goodwill, who was elected member for the Scarborough and Whitby constituency in 2010.[39] Whitby lies within the Yorkshire and the Humber constituency of the European Parliament, which in the May 2014 European Election elected three UKIP, two Labour and one Conservative MEPs.[40]

Geography and geology

Whitby Bridge, spanning the River Esk, opens to allow shipping access to the upper harbour.

Whitby is situated on the east coast of Yorkshire facing the North Sea in a deep valley at the mouth of the River Esk. It has been a bridging point since at least medieval times and several bridges have spanned the river. The current bridge, built in 1908, is a swing bridge with a 75-foot (23 m) span that separates the upper and lower harbours which have a total area of around 80.1 acres (32.40 ha). The houses are built of brick or stone, often with red pantiled roofs, in narrow, steep streets, on both sides of the river.[41]

The town is surrounded on its landward sides by the moorland of the North York Moors National Park and the North Sea abuts it on the seaward side. The coastal areas are designated part of the North Yorkshire and Cleveland Heritage Coast.[42] This stretch of coast, known as the 'Dinosaur Coast', the 'Fossil Coast' or the 'Jurassic Coast', is around 35 miles (56 km) long, stretching from Staithes in the north, to Flamborough in the East Riding of Yorkshire. At Whitby dinosaur footprints are visible on the beach.[43][44] The rock strata contain fossils and organic remains including jet. Fossils include the petrified bones of an almost complete crocodile and a specimen of plesiosaurus measuring 15 feet 6 inches (4.72 m) in length, and 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) in breadth was discovered in 1841. Smaller fossils include ammonite, or "snake stones" from the alum shales and at Whitby Scar and nautilites in the lower beds of the lias strata. The Hildoceras genus of ammonite is named in honour of St. Hilda of Whitby.[41][45] The Rotunda Museum in Scarborough has a comprehensive collection of fossils from the area.

The harbour and the mouth of the River Esk are on a geological fault. On the east side the cliff is tall, 187 feet (57 m), and consists of alternating layers of shale, sandstone and clay.[46] On the west side the cliff is much lower and has a deep capping of boulder clay over a sandstone base making it less stable and liable to slippage. Both cliffs are being eroded quite rapidly.[47]

Climate

The area generally has warm summers and relatively mild winters. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. Its latitude means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing unsettled and windy weather particularly in winter. Between depressions there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fine weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry settled conditions which can lead to drought. The two dominant influences on the climate of the Whitby area are shelter against the worst of the moist westerly winds provided by the North York Moors and the proximity of the North Sea. Late, chilly springs and warm summers are a feature of the area but there are often spells of fine autumn weather. Onshore winds in spring and early summer bring mists or low stratus clouds (known locally as sea frets) to the coast and moors.[48]

Climate data for Whitby 60m asl, 1971-2000, Sunshine 1976-2000
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
6.9
(44.4)
8.6
(47.5)
9.9
(49.8)
12.8
(55)
16.0
(60.8)
18.3
(64.9)
18.4
(65.1)
16.3
(61.3)
13.0
(55.4)
9.5
(49.1)
7.7
(45.9)
12.01
(53.61)
Average low °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.6
(34.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.0
(39.2)
6.5
(43.7)
9.3
(48.7)
11.6
(52.9)
11.6
(52.9)
9.6
(49.3)
6.8
(44.2)
4.2
(39.6)
2.5
(36.5)
5.98
(42.78)
Precipitation mm (inches) 51.7
(2.035)
35.0
(1.378)
40.3
(1.587)
40.4
(1.591)
42.2
(1.661)
47.6
(1.874)
43.0
(1.693)
48.7
(1.917)
48.5
(1.909)
49.2
(1.937)
51.2
(2.016)
60.2
(2.37)
558
(21.968)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.8 78.6 115.4 143.8 192.7 179.5 193.5 175.4 138.5 108.7 67.8 46.1 1,496.8
Source: Calculated from Met Office raw monthly data[49]

Demography

According to the 2011 UK census, Whitby parish had a population of 13,213 living in 6,097 households.[1] In the 2001 UK census of the total number of 5,973 homes 2,034 were rented and 3,939 were owner occupied.[50] Of the 5,506 economically active persons aged between 16 and 74, 420 were unemployed.[51] The number of people working in the service industry was 4,113.[51] Approximately 2,500 people were aged under 16, 8,400 were aged 16–64, and 2,700 aged 65 and over.[52] The mean age of the population was 41.78 years.[52] The number of people who travel to work by motorised transport is 3,134[51] but 2,190 households have no cars or vans.[53]

Population change

Population growth in Whitby from 1801 to 2011
Year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1939[a] 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Whitby CP 8,125 7,886 8,820 7,501 6,349 5,879 5,811
Ruswarp CP 3,141 4,236 4,839 5,097 5,019 4,831 6,195
Helredale CP 387 411 504
Hawsker CP (part) 590 665 741 816 79 79 79
Population 10,974 10,275 12,584 11,725 11,682 12,875 11,856 12,787 14,400 13,414 11,834 11,218 12,589 11,451 12,698 11,674 11,675 12,327 12,980 13,632 13,594 13,213

Whitby CP/AP[54]

Note: Between 1801 and 1925 Whitby comprised Whitby, Ruswarp and part of Hawsker civil parishes and (between 1894 and 1925) Helredale civil parish, all of which were merged on 1 April 1925 into the current Whitby area.[55]

Religion

St Mary's Church

In the three wards that make up the Whitby district of North Yorkshire, out of a population of 13,596 there are 10,286 who stated that their religion was Christian in the 2001 UK census. There were 19 Muslims, 17 Buddhists, 12 Jews, 3 Sikhs and 499 people had no religious affiliations.[56][57][58]

St Mary's church is an ancient foundation, St Ninian's opened in Baxtergate in 1778 and St John's, also on Baxtergate, was consecrated in 1850. St Michaels was opened in 1856 and St Hilda's on the West Cliff was built in 1885. The Roman Catholic Church dedicated to St Hilda was built in 1867 on Baxtergate.[5] There are places of worship for nonconformists including a United Reform Church; two Methodist chapels are no longer used.[59] The Mission to Seafarers maintains a Christian ministry and has a chapel, reading room and recreational facilities.[60]

The Bishop of Whitby is a suffragan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of York, in the Province of York.[61] The town lies within the Central Vicariate of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough.[62]

Economy

The marina was built to develop and diversify the local economy.

Tourism supported by fishing is the mainstay of Whitby's economy in an isolated community with poor transport infrastructure and restricted by building constraints in the surrounding North York Moors National Park.[63][64] The economy is governed by the changing fortunes of fishing, tourism and to some extent, manufacturing. Structural changes have led to concentrations of deprivation, unemployment and benefit dependence. A narrowing employment base and dependence on low wage and low skill sectors has resulted in younger age groups leaving the area. There are few business start-ups and small and medium sized enterprises. Older people who make increasing demands on the area's health and social care capacity have moved into the area. Demographic changes, Whitby's relative isolation from the region's main growth areas and decline in traditional employment sectors pose an economic challenge.[65]

The town has a variety of self-catering accommodation, holiday cottages, caravans and campsites, and guest houses, inns, bed & breakfast establishments and hotels. The jet industry declined at the end of the nineteenth century but eight shops sell jet jewellery, mainly as souvenirs to tourists.[66] In 1996, Whitby West Cliff qualified for a 'Tidy Britain Group Seaside Award'. The town was awarded "Best Seaside Resort 2006", by Which? Holiday magazine.[67]

The harbour has a total area of about 80 acres (32 ha) and is used by commercial, fishing and pleasure craft. Inshore fishing, particularly for crustaceans and line fish, takes place along the coast. Lobsters, brown and velvet crabs are important to the local fishery. From May to August, salmon is found in the Esk and small open boats are licensed to net these off the harbour entrance. There are around 40 licensed angling party boats. The commercial catch is no longer herring but has been replaced by cod, haddock, and other fish caught within 12 miles (19 km) of the coast.[68] A fish market on the quayside operates as need arises.[69] The ready supply of fresh fish has resulted in an abundance of "chippies" in the town, including the Magpie Cafe which Rick Stein has described as the best fish and chip shop in Britain.[70]

The Whitby Marina project, jointly funded by Scarborough Borough Council, Yorkshire Forward and the European Regional Development Fund was developed to diversify the local economy.[71] The remaining shipbuilding firm, Parkol Marine, is a family run business on the east side of the river.[72] Founded in 1988, the boatyard has two berths for new build and a dry dock for repairs.[73] St Hilda's Business Centre provides office space for a range of businesses. Whitby Business Park is a 49 acres (20 ha) site located by the A171 road, 2 miles (3.2 km) from the harbour on the southern outskirts of the town. Companies on the park include Supreme Plastics, Whitby Seafoods and Botham's of Whitby alongside major retailers, Homebase and Sainsbury's.[74]

The east coast has limited conventional energy generation capacity, but Whitby is the closest port to a proposed development on Dogger Bank, ideally placed to provide the offshore wind power industry with support vessel operations and logistics.[75][76] The Dogger Bank wind farm could include up to 2,600 giant 400-foot (120 m) turbines covering more than 3,300 square miles (850,000 ha).[77]

Transport

From 2007, Whitby railway station has been used by steam and heritage diesel locomotives from the North Yorkshire Moors Railway

Whitby is situated on the A171 road from Scarborough to Guisborough which originally passed over the swing bridge. A high level bridge over the Esk Valley was built in 1980 to avoid the bridge and ease congestion in the town centre. The A174 accesses coastal towns to the north and the A169 crosses the moors to Pickering. Whitby is served by the Yorkshire Coastliner bus line, operating from Leeds, Tadcaster, York, Scarborough, Bridlington, Pickering and Malton with connections beyond Yorkshire.[78] Arriva runs bus services connecting Whitby to Scarborough and Middlesbrough. The nearest airport, about 45-mile (72 km) miles from Whitby, is Durham Tees Valley Airport, which has a regular service from Amsterdam, Schipol airport.[79]

The town is served by Whitby railway station which is the terminus of the Esk Valley Line from Middlesbrough operated by Northern Rail. It was formerly the northern terminus of the Whitby, Pickering and York line, and in 2007 the North Yorkshire Moors Railway began a summer service between Pickering and Whitby operated by steam locomotives. The Scarborough and Whitby Railway following a scenic route along the coast was built in 1885 requiring construction of the red brick Larpool Viaduct across the Esk Valley into Whitby.[80] The line closed as a result of the Beeching axe in 1965 and the trackbed is used as a footpath, bridleway and by cyclists.[81] The Whitby, Redcar and Middlesbrough Union Railway, had a station at Whitby West Cliff and ran close to the cliffs to the north of the town. It opened in 1883 and closed in 1958.[82]

The coastal section of the 110-mile (180 km) Cleveland Way National Trail passes through Whitby.[83]

The Port of Whitby is strategically placed for shipping to Europe, especially Scandinavia, and is capable of handling cargoes of grain, steel products, timber and potash. Vessels of up to 3,000 tonnes deadweight tonnage are received at the wharf, which can load or unload two ships simultaneously.[84] As of 2004 54,000 square feet (5,000 m2) of dock space is used to store all-weather cargo and there ia a 17,000 square feet (1,600 m2) warehouse for weather-critical cargoes.[85]

Public services

Whitby lifeboat station before it was replaced in 2007.

A wide range of health care services is provided by the Whitby Community Hospital, run by the Scarborough and North East Yorkshire Health Care NHS Trust.[86] There are five general practitioners and five dentists in the area.[87][88] Yorkshire Ambulance Service provides hospital transport throughout Yorkshire.[89]

Whitby fire station, run by North Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service, is crewed between 8 am and 6 pm.[90] The town's two police stations are provided by the North Yorkshire Police Authority.[91] The lifeboat station built in 2007, on the east bank, is operated by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. The crew members are unpaid volunteers and the station has two lifeboats, an inshore D class lifeboat the OEM Stone III and an all-weather Trent class lifeboat, the George and Mary Webb.[92]

North Yorkshire County Council waste management services provide a household waste recycling centre at Whitby Industrial Estate, and operates an alternate weekly collection of household waste, whereby the type of waste collected alternates between recyclables and landfill waste.[93][94] The water supply, predominantly from the River Esk, is treated at Ruswarp Water Treatment Works and distributed from there by Yorkshire Water who also deal with the town's sewerage.[95] CE Electric UK is responsible for delivering electricity and Northern Gas Networks supply piped gas.[96][97]

Education

Whitby has a three tier school system, primary, middle (11–14) and Whitby Community College (11–19), which gained specialist school status in September 2002, specialising in technology. The College, Caedmon and Eskdale Schools (11–14) formed a confederation in 2004 and collaborate closely and support the feeder primary schools, Springhead Special School, Thornaby Community School and the Adult Learning Service.[98][99][100] The primary schools are St Hilda's Roman Catholic Primary School, Stakesby Community Primary School, West Cliff Primary School, Airy Hill Community Primary School and East Whitby Community Primary School. North Yorkshire County Council provides education services.[101]

The Whitby and District Fishing Industry Training School offers training for new entrants to the fishing industry and experienced fishermen.[102]

Landmarks

The whalebone arch on the West Cliff commemorates Whitby's historic link with the whaling industry.

The swing bridge spanning the Esk divides the upper and lower harbours and joins the east and west sides of the town. Whitby developed as an important bridging point of the River Esk and in 1351 permission was granted for tolls to be taken on the bridge for its maintenance. In 1609 a survey for a new bridge was commissioned while in 1628 it was described as a drawbridge where men raised planks to let vessels pass and tolls were collected. The bridge posts were rebuilt in stone at a cost of £3,000 in 1766. This structure was replaced by a four-arched bridge between 1833 and 1835, one arch made of cast iron swivelled to allow vessels to pass.[5][41] This bridge was replaced between 1908 and 1909 by the current electric swing bridge.[103]

The bridge allowed the town to spread onto the west bank, whilst the east bank, the Haggerlythe, is dominated by St Mary's Church and the ruins of Whitby Abbey which is owned by English Heritage. St Mary's Church is a grade I listed building on the site of a Saxon church. The church's ancient foundation dates from the 12th century. Over time it has been extensively altered and enlarged but retains several features including box pews. The East Cliff is quite a distance by road from the church, the alternative is to climb the 199 steps of the "Church Stairs"[104] or use the footpath called "Caedmon's Trod".[105] The stone stairs, which replaced the original wooden steps, were built about 200 years old ago and renovated between 2005 and 2006. There are landings to assist coffin bearers on their journey to the graveyard on the cliff top.[106]

The harbour is sheltered by the grade II listed east and west piers each with a lighthouse and beacon with fixed lights. The west lighthouse, of 1835, is the taller at 84 feet (25.5 m) and the east lighthouse, built in 1855, is 54 feet (16.5 m) high. On the west pier extension is a foghorn that sounds a blast every 30 seconds during fog.[107] Whitby Lighthouse, operated by Trinity House, is located outside the town, to the south east, on Ling Hill.

On the West Cliff is a statue of Captain James Cook who served his apprenticeship in the town, and a whalebone arch, commemorates the whaling industry. It is the second such arch, the original is preserved in Whitby Archives Heritage Centre. By the inner harbour is a statue commemorating William Scoresby, designer of the crow's nest.[108]

On the outskirts of town to the west is the 19th-century Sneaton Castle built by James Wilson who sold his sugar plantation where he had over 200 slaves and moved to Whitby.[109] Alongside it is St Hilda's Priory,[110] the mother house of the Order of the Holy Paraclete. The castle was used as a school and is now a conference centre and hotel in association with the priory.

Culture, media and sport

Whitby Pavilion Complex houses the Pavilion Theatre.

Frank Meadow Sutcliffe left a photographic record of the town, harbour, fishing and residents in late-Victorian times. His most famous photograph entitled "Water Rats" was taken in 1886. He became famous internationally as a great exponent of pictorial photography. He exhibited his work in Tokyo, Vienna, France, the U.S.A. and Great Britain winning over 60 gold, silver and bronze medals. He retired in 1922 and became curator of Whitby Museum.[111] The Royal Photographic Society made him an honorary member in 1935. A gallery of his work is located on Flowergate.[112]

Pannett Park was built on land purchased by a local philanthropist and politician Alderman Robert Pannett in 1902. After his death in 1928, the trust he set up created a public park and art gallery.[113] In 1931 Whitby Museum was built behind the gallery by the Whitby Literary and Philosophical Society. It holds a collection of the archaeological and social history of jet and has on display a "Hand of Glory".[114] The Friends of Pannett Park, formed in 2005, successfully bid for a Heritage Lottery Fund grant to refurbish the park.[115] There has been a lifeboat in Whitby since 1802 and the old boathouse, built in 1895 and used until 1957, is a museum displaying the Robert and Ellen Robson lifeboat, built in 1919.[116]

The Penny Hedge in place in the harbour.

The ancient Penny Hedge ceremony is performed on the eve of Ascension Day commemorating a penance imposed by the abbot on miscreant hunters in the Middle Ages.[117] The hunters using a knife costing a penny had to cut wood in Eskdaleside and take it to Whitby harbour where it was made into a hedge that would survive three tides. This tradition is carried out annually on the east side of the upper harbour.[118]

The Whitby Gazette was founded in 1854 by Ralph Horne, a local printer. The first issues were records of visitors and lodgings rather than a newspaper.[119] The publication became a weekly newspaper in 1858, with a short spell of being published twice weekly between 2000 and 2012.[120] Local radio stations are BBC Tees and Yorkshire Coast Radio.[121][122]

The Pavilion Theatre built in the 1870s in West Cliff hosts a range of events during the summer months.[123] For over four decades the town has hosted the Whitby Folk Week, and since 1993 the bi-annual Whitby Gothic Weekend for members of the Goth subculture. "Whitby Now" is an annual live music event featuring local bands in the Pavilion which has taken place since 1991.[124] Since 2008, the Bram Stoker Film Festival has taken place in October.[125]

Whitby Regatta Boat Race 2009 (photograph taken from the safety boat).

Wind surfing, sailing and surfing take place off the beaches between Whitby and Sandsend[126] and the area is visited by divers. Whitby has various sports facilities including the town cricket and football pitches and tennis courts. The Cleveland Way Long Distance Footpath follows the coast between Saltburn and Filey running along the developed frontage of Whitby.

The Whitby Regatta takes place annually over three days in August.[127] The competition between three rowing clubs – Whitby Friendship ARC, Whitby Fishermen's ARC and Scarborough ARC – forms the backbone of the weekend.[127] The event has expanded to include a fair on the pier, demonstrations, fireworks and military displays – including the spectacle of the Red Arrows aerobatics display team of the Royal Air Force.

Whitby Town F.C., formed in 1892, is a semi-professional football club which plays in the Northern Premier League at the 3,200 capacity Turnbull Ground on Upgang Lane.[128] Golfing facilities range from "pitch and putt" to Whitby Golf Club whose 18-hole golf course is situated on the cliff tops to the north west of the town.[129]

Literature

The abbey ruins sit atop the East Cliff with the old town below on the east bank of the River Esk.

The town has a strong literary tradition and can even be said that the earliest English literature comes from Whitby as Cædmon, the first known Anglo Saxon poet[130] was a monk at the order that used Whitby Abbey during the abbacy of St. Hilda (657–680).[131] Part of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula was set in Whitby, incorporating pieces of local folklore, including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri. Stoker discovered the name "Dracula" at the old public library. One scholar has suggested that Stoker chose Whitby as the site of Dracula's first appearance in England because of the Synod of Whitby, given the novel's preoccupation with timekeeping and calendar disputes.[132][133] Elizabeth Gaskell set her novel Sylvia's Lovers partly in the town which she visited in 1859[134] and Lewis Carroll stayed at 5, East Terrace between July and September 1854: his first publications may have been published in the Whitby Gazette.[135]

Charles Dickens is known to have visited Whitby and in a letter of 1861 to his friend Wilkie Collins, who was at the time in Whitby, Dickens says:

In my time that curious railroad by the Whitby Moor was so much the more curious, that you were balanced against a counter-weight of water, and that you did it like Blondin. But in these remote days the one inn of Whitby was up a back-yard, and oyster-shell grottoes were the only view from the best private room.[136][137]

Wilkie Collins stayed in Whitby to work on his novel, No Name. He was accompanied by Caroline Graves, the inspiration for The Woman in White.[138] Mary Linskill was born in a small house at Blackburn's Yard in 1840. She reached a wide readership when her second novel, Between the Heather and the Northern Sea, was published in 1884. Her last novel For Pity's Sake, was published posthumously in 1891.[139] James Russell Lowell, the American writer, visited Whitby while ambassador in London 1880–85, staying at 3 Wellington Terrace, West Cliff.[140][141] On his last visit in 1889, he wrote:

This is my ninth year at Whitby and the place loses none of its charm for me.[142]

G. P. Taylor, a former Church of England curate in Whitby, is now a celebrated author. His best-selling book Shadowmancer was set in Whitby.

The novel Possession: A Romance by A. S. Byatt set in the town was adapted into a 2002 feature film called Possession starring Gwyneth Paltrow.[143]

A crime novel series by James Whitworth is set in Whitby. The first two novels are Death's Disciple and The Eve of Murder.

Other literary works referencing Whitby include:

Twin cities

Whitby is twinned with a number of towns across the globe. Most were either visited by Captain Cook in ships that were built in Whitby – and one was named after Whitby by settlers from England.

See also

Notes

a There was no United Kingdom census in 1941.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  2. ^ "Blessing The Herring Fleet – British Pathe". britishpathe.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  3. ^ "Whaling in Whitby – Whitby Online". whitbyonline.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 
  4. ^ "2001 Census: Key Statistics: Parish Headcounts: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Page, William, ed. (1923). Parishes: Whitby. A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Victoria County History (British History Online): 506–528. Retrieved 5 September 2010 
  6. ^ Bede (1994). McClure, J.; Collins, R., eds. The Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Oxford University Press. pp. 150–151. 
  7. ^ Lapidge, Michael; et al., eds. (1999). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Blackwell. pp. 155, 472. 
  8. ^ Hinson, Colin. "GENUKI: Whitby History". Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  9. ^ Dugdale, William, Sir (1817–1830). "Dugdale's Monasticon Volume 1". Monasticon Anglicanum: a History of the Abbies and other Monasteries, Hospitals, Frieries, and Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, with their Dependencies, in England and Wales. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  10. ^ "A Brief History – Whitby". Whitby Sights. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  11. ^ Page, William, ed. (1923). The liberty of Whitby Strand. A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Victoria County History (British History Online): 502–505. Retrieved 5 September 2010 
  12. ^ Balston, John. "The Whatmans and Wove Paper – In Defence of Alum – 2. England". John Balston. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  13. ^ "Chaloner, Thomas (1561–1615) (DNB00) – Wikisource". Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "Coast – Point 7 – Alum". Where I Live – North Yorkshire. BBC. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  15. ^ Lloyd, Chris (26 July 2008). "Taking the waters". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  16. ^ "Alum Quarrying, The effect of extractive industry on the Yorkshire Coastal Landscape". East Yorkshire Coast – Geology and Geomorphology. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  17. ^ White, Andrew (1993). A History of Whitby. Chichester: Phillimore & co. p. 69. ISBN 0-85033-842-5. 
  18. ^ Young, George (1824). A picture of Whitby and its environs. Whitby: R. Rogers. p. 199. 
  19. ^ "Whitby Whalers". Whitby Sights. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  20. ^ Simpson, David (2009). "Coal Mining in North East England". England's North East. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  21. ^ McLintock, A.H., ed. (1966). "Ships, Famous". An Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage/Te Manatū Taonga, Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 5 May 2009. 
  22. ^ "Coast – Point 9 – Royal Crescent". Where I Live – North Yorkshire. BBC. 29 September 2006. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  23. ^ Seatrobe, JB (29 October 2010). "They were also MPs: Robert Stephenson (1803–1859)". Total Politics. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  24. ^ "Superstitions". Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Durham Mining Museum – Mine & Quarry Engineering". Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  26. ^ "Jet Jewellery". Whitby Museum. 6 April 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  27. ^ "Records of the Smales Brothers, shipowners and shipbuilders". Access to Archives. The National Archives. 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  28. ^ "Whitby Port – Whitby Sights". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  29. ^ "The RNLI rescue of The Rohilla,1914 at saltwick bay – Whitby". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  30. ^ "Whitby WWI Raids". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "Whitby Port". Whitby Sights. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  32. ^ "Whitby – History". Yorkshire Ports. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  33. ^ "Whitby Marina Facility". Yorkshire Forward. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  34. ^ "Parishes – Whitby | A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2 (pp. 506–528)". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  35. ^ "Local Development Framework and Local Plan Proposals Map". Scarborough. Borough Council. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  36. ^ "Scarborough Borough Council Homepage – Whitby | Scarborough | Filey". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  37. ^ "Home : North Yorkshire County Council". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  38. ^ "Councillors and Clerks". Whitby Town Council. 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  39. ^ "Robert Goodwill MP, Scarborough and Whitby – TheyWorkForYou". theyworkforyou.com. 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  40. ^ "European Election 2014: Yorkshire and The Humber". BBC News. May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  41. ^ a b c Lewis, Samuel, ed. (1848). Whitby. A Topographical Dictionary of England (British History Online): 543–551. Retrieved 5 September 2010 
  42. ^ "Natural England – North Yorkshire and Cleveland". naturalengland.org.uk. 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  43. ^ Kent, Sir Peter (1980). British Regional Geology. Eastern England from the Tees to the Wash. London: HMSO. pp. 52–60. ISBN 0-11-884121-1. 
  44. ^ Buhaenko, Helen (28 March 2009). "Coast watch: Tracing the footsteps of dinosaurs and Dracula in Whitby". The Independent (London: INM). ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  45. ^ "Hildoceras bifrons | Natural History Museum". 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  46. ^ "Geology of Whitby, North Yorkshire". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  47. ^ White, Andrew (1993). A History of Whitby. Phillimore. p. 1. ISBN 0-85033-842-5. 
  48. ^ "Regional Climates: North East England". The Met Office. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  49. ^ "Whitby Climate". UKMO. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  50. ^ "2001 Census: Parish Profile – Accommodation and Tenure: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  51. ^ a b c "2001 Census: Parish Profile – Work and Qualifications: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "2001 Census: Parish Profile – People: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  53. ^ "2001 Census: Parish Profile – Households: Area: Whitby CP (Parish)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  54. ^ "Whitby CP/AP Population Change". Vision of Britain. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  55. ^ "Whitby Census transcripts". 
  56. ^ "2001 Census: Topics – Religion (KS07): Area: Mayfield (Ward)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  57. ^ "2001 Census: Topics – Religion (KS07): Area: Whitby West Cliff (Ward)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  58. ^ "2001 Census: Topics – Religion (KS07): Area: Streonshalh (Ward)". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  59. ^ The Ancient Parish of Whitby. GenUKI. Retrieved 20 July 2011 
  60. ^ "Charity overview". charitycommission.gov.uk. 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  61. ^ Crockford's Clerical Directory 2008/2009 (100th edition). Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7151-1030-0. 
  62. ^ "Parishes". middlesbrough-diocese.org.uk. 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  63. ^ "Report on Whitby and the North York Moors National Park". Whitby Town Council. December 2010. 
  64. ^ "Whitby Marina, North Yorkshire". Yorkshire Forward. 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. [dead link]
  65. ^ "The Yorkshire And Humber Plan – Draft For Public Consultation – December 2005". 2005. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  66. ^ Campbell, Sophie (17 February 2010). "Whitby: The return of the jet age". The Daily Telegraph (London: TMG). ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  67. ^ "Whitby voted best seaside resort in UK". Whitby Gazette. 12 May 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  68. ^ "Shoreline Management Plan". Mouchel Consulting Limited. September 1997. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  69. ^ "Whitby Harbour Fishing". Yorkshire Ports. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  70. ^ Richardson, Belinda (23 September 2006). "Are you ready to order? This week: The Magpie, Whitby, North Yorkshire". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  71. ^ "Whitby Marina : the business coast | Scarborough Whitby Filey business website". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "Parkol planning to expand shipbuilders' site". Whitby Gazette. 27 March 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  73. ^ "Whitby Harbour | Whitby UK |wonderfulwhitby.co.uk". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  74. ^ "Business Parks". The Business Coast. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  75. ^ "Offshore wind". Whitby and Scarborough Offshore Wind. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  76. ^ Hayes, Julie (21 July 2010). "Windfarm project presents "massive" business opportunities". York Press. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  77. ^ Jeeves, Paul (26 May 2011). "UK firms becalmed in wind power race". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  78. ^ "Coastliner bus services – Summary". getdown.org.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  79. ^ "Whitby and North York Moors National Park Maps & Travel | Visit Whitby". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  80. ^ "Hawsker". Disused Stations. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  81. ^ "The Cycle Route". Moor to Sea Cycle. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  82. ^ "Whitby West Cliff". Disused Stations. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  83. ^ "Home – Cleveland Way". National Trails. Natural England. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  84. ^ "Whitby Harbour – Cargo – Berthing". Yorkshire Ports. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  85. ^ "About Whitby". About Whitby. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  86. ^ "Overview – Whitby Community Hospital – NHS Choices". nhs.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  87. ^ "GP practices/doctors surgeries in and around Whitby". nhs.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  88. ^ "Dentists in and around Whitby". nhs.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  89. ^ "About Us – Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust". yas.nhs.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  90. ^ "Station Contact Details : Contact Us : North Yorkshire Fire & Rescue Service". northyorksfire.gov.uk. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  91. ^ "New police office for Whitby – North Yorkshire Police". northyorkshire.police.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  92. ^ Whitby Lifeboat. Whitby Lifeboat. Retrieved 20 July 2011 
  93. ^ "Whitby household waste recycling centre". Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  94. ^ "Household waste – rubbish collections". Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  95. ^ "Message board". Yorkshire Water. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  96. ^ "Homepage". ce-electricuk.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  97. ^ "£125k gas upgrade for Whitby". northerngasnetworks.co.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  98. ^ Whitby Community College About us. Whitby Community College. Retrieved 19 July 2011 
  99. ^ Caedmon School. Caedmon School. Retrieved 19 July 2011 
  100. ^ Eskdale School. Eskdale School. Retrieved 19 July 2011 
  101. ^ "North Yorkshire County Council : Online mapping". maps.northyorks.gov.uk. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  102. ^ "Whitby & District Fishing Industry Training School – Apprenticeships in North Yorkshire UK". whitbyfishingschool.co.uk. 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  103. ^ "Whitby Bridge". Yorkshire Ports. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  104. ^ http://www.cabe.org.uk/case-studies/whitby-abbey-visitor-centre/evaluation
  105. ^ "Background Information: Whitby Abbey". English Heritage. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  106. ^ "199 Steps Church Stairs". Whitby Sights. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  107. ^ "Whitby – History". 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  108. ^ "Whitby's West Cliff". Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  109. ^ James Wilson – Whitby and Sneaton Castle, Open2, retrieved 19 July 2011 
  110. ^ "Sneaton Castle". British Listed Buildings Online. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  111. ^ Hiley, Michael. Sutcliffe, Francis Meadow [Frank] (1853–1941), photographer. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press). Retrieved 19 July 2011 (subscription required)
  112. ^ "The Sutcliffe Gallery – Photographs of Whitby". Frank Sutcliffe-Photographs of Whitby. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  113. ^ "Pannett Park, Whitby – Conservation Management Plan". Friends of Pannett Park, Whitby Town Council, Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  114. ^ "Pannett park museum and art gallery". The Whitby Seagull. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  115. ^ "History of Pannett Park". Pannett Park. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  116. ^ "The RNLI Whitby Museum". Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  117. ^ "Crowd gathers for ancient Whitby custom of Penny Hedge". Whitby Gazette. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  118. ^ "The Penny Hedge". North York Moors National Park Authority. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  119. ^ "Whitby Gazette – First Issue". The Whitby Seagull. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  120. ^ "Whitby Gazette". British Newspapers. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  121. ^ "BBC Tees was BBC Radio Cleveland!". BBC Tees. BBC. 11 August 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  122. ^ "Yorkshire Coast Radio – Home Page". Yorkshire Coast Radio. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  123. ^ "Whitby Pavilion Theatre – Whitby Pavilion Complex". Discover Yorkshire Coast. Scarborough Borough Council. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  124. ^ Scales, Jean (28 April 2008). "Organisers invite to town musical talent". Whitby Gazette. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  125. ^ "Bram Stoker Film Festival – Official Site". Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  126. ^ "FT.com / Pursuits – Off the beaten coast". ft.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  127. ^ a b "History of the Regatta". Whitby Regatta 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  128. ^ Whitby Town FC. napit.co. Retrieved 19 July 2011 
  129. ^ Whitby Golf Club. Whitby Golf Club. Retrieved 22 July 2011 
  130. ^ The twelve named Anglo-Saxon poets are Æduwen, Aldhelm, Alfred the Great, Anlaf, Baldulf, Bede, Cædmon, Cnut, Cynewulf, Dunstan, Hereward, and Wulfstan (or perhaps Wulfsige). Most of these are considered by modern scholars to be spurious—see O'Donnell 2005, Introduction 1.22. The three for whom biographical information and documented texts survive are Alfred, Bede, and Cædmon. Cædmon is the only Anglo-Saxon poet known primarily for his ability to compose vernacular verse, and no vernacular verse survives that is known to have been written by either Bede or Alfred. There are a number of verse texts known to have been composed by Cynewulf, but we know nothing of his biography. (No study appears to exist of the "named" Anglo-Saxon poets—the list here has been compiled from Frank 1993 (http://www.arts.manchester.ac.uk/mancass/thetollerlecture/: Roberta Frank), Opland 1980, Sisam 1953 and Robinson 1990).
  131. ^ Website Whitby Abbey on Cædmon, visited 12 September 2012
  132. ^ "Killing Time: Dracula and Social Discoordination" in Economics of the Undead Eds. Glen Whitman and James Dow (Rowman & Littlefield, 2014), chapter 23
  133. ^ Bram Stoker's Notes for Dracula: A Facsimile Edition by Robert Eighteen-Bisang & Elizabeth Miller (McFarland, 2008), pp. 244–46.
  134. ^ "Sylvia's Lovers, unpopular with Whitby folk – but a very good read". Darlington and Stockton Times. 7 December 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  135. ^ "Lewis Carroll plaque set to be unveiled in terrace". Whitby Gazette. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  136. ^ "The Black Horse Inn: Black Horse People". the-black-horse.com. 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  137. ^ "Open Correspondence – Letter written from Charles Dickens to Mr W Wilkie Collins". opencorrespondence.org. 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011. [dead link]
  138. ^ "The Public Face of Wilkie Collins: The Collected Letters | The Wilkie Collins Journal". acc.wilkiecollinssociety.org. 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  139. ^ "Mary Linskill © Orlando Project". orlando.cambridge.org. 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  140. ^ "Henry James, James Russell Lowell, and George Du Maurier in Whitby". nq.oxfordjournals.org. 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  141. ^ "James Russell Lowell". xroads.virginia.edu. 2001. Retrieved 31 July 2011. "Whitby" 
  142. ^ Russell Lowell, James (2011). Letters of James Russell Lowell Part Two – Google Books. p. 376. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  143. ^ "Possession: A Romance by A. S. Byatt – Whitby Online". whitbyonline.co.uk. 1889. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  144. ^ Robinson, Peter (1990). Caemon's Song. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-83304-5. 
  145. ^ Faber, Michael (2001). The Hundred and Ninety-nine Steps. Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84195-199-4. 
  146. ^ "Kim Wilkins: The Resurrectionists – an infinity plus review". 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2011.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  147. ^ "Whitby Witches by Robin Jarvis – Whitby Online". 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  148. ^ "Painting the town red (From The Northern Echo)". 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  149. ^ "Mayor Maurice heading down under". Whitby Gazette. 17 December 2001. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  150. ^ "Twin City Whitby, England". Porirua City Council. Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  151. ^ "Council hosts international visitor". Scarborough Borough Council. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  152. ^ "This is Nottingham | Twinning can boost economy". 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  153. ^ "10 Things you need to know about The Volcano Lesley Vainikolo – mirror.co.uk". Daily Mirror (London: Trinity Mirror). ISSN 9975-9950. OCLC 223228477. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  154. ^ "World-Wide Links | Visit Whitby". visitwhitby.com. 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 
  155. ^ "Visit marks 20th anniversary". Whitby Gazette. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 

Further reading

External links