White-headed munia

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White-headed munia
White-headed Munia.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Estrildidae
Genus: Lonchura
Species: L. maja
Binomial name
Lonchura maja
(Linnaeus, 1766)

The white-headed munia (Lonchura maja) is a species of estrildid finch found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. This species is also introduced to Portugal. It is found in wetlands habitat. The status of the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Description[edit]

Smallish (11 cm), white headed brown finch. Similar to the chestnut munia but paler brown and entire head and throat white. Young birds are brown on upperparts with underparts and face buff. Iris-brown; bill-grey; feet-pale blue. Voice: high-pitched 'pee-pee'.

Distribution and status[edit]

Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali and Celebes. In Java and Bali this is a fairly common and widespread bird up to 1500 m.

Behaviour[edit]

It frequents marshes and reedbeds. Like other munias form large flocks during rice harvest but spread out in pairs during breeding season. General behaviour similar to other munias.

Feeding[edit]

Rice and Grass seeds.

Breeding[edit]

Four to five, occasionally six, white eggs are laid in a typical munia ball-shaped grass nest. Breeding is recorded in West Java for February.

Origin[edit]

Origin and phylogeny has been obtained by Antonio Arnaiz-Villena et al..[2] Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lonchura maja". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study". The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029.