White Buffalo Calf Woman
White Buffalo Calf Woman (Lakota: Pte Ska Win / Pteskawin / Ptesanwi) is a sacred woman of supernatural origin, central to the Lakota religion as the primary cultural prophet. Oral traditions relate that she brought the "Seven Sacred Rituals" to the Teton Sioux.
The traditional story is that, long ago, there was a time of famine. The chief of the Lakotas sent out two scouts to hunt for food. As the young men travelled they saw a figure in the distance. As they approached they saw that it was a beautiful young woman in white clothing. One of the men was filled with desire for the woman. He approached her, telling his companion he would attempt to embrace the woman, and if he found her pleasing, he would claim her as a wife. His companion warned him that she appeared to be a sacred woman, and to do anything sacrilegious would be folly. The man ignored the other's advice.
The companion watched as the other approached and embraced the woman, during which time a white cloud enveloped the pair. After a while, the cloud disappeared and only the mysterious woman and a pile of bones remained. The remaining man was frightened, and began to draw his bow, but the woman beckoned him forward, telling him that no harm would come to him. As the woman spoke Lakota, the young man decided she was one of his people, and came forward. When he arrived, she pointed to a spot on the ground where the other scout's bare bones lay. She explained that the Crazy Buffalo had compelled the man to desire her, and she had annihilated him.
The man became even more frightened and again menaced her with his bow. At this time, the woman explained that she was wakan/holy and his weapons could not harm her. She further explained that if he did as she instructed, no harm would befall him and that his tribe would become more prosperous. The scout promised to do what she instructed, and was told to return to his encampment, call the Council and prepare a feast for her arrival.
The woman's name was PtesanWi which translated White Buffalo Calf Woman. She taught the Lakotas seven sacred rituals and gave them the chanunpa or sacred pipe which is the holiest of all worship symbols. After teaching the people and giving them her gifts, PtesanWi left them promising to return. Later, the story became attributed to the goddess Wohpe, also known as Whope, or Wope.
When Roman Catholic missionaries first came among the Lakota, their stories of the Virgin Mary and Jesus became associated with the legend of White Buffalo Calf Woman. The syncretic practice of identifying Mary with PtesanWi and Jesus with the chanunpa continues among Lakota Christians to this day.
The story of PtesanWi is associated with the white buffalo.
- Walker, James R.: Lakota Belief and Ritual (University of Nebraska Press, 1980, ISBN 0-8032-2551-2 ; Bison Books, 1991 ISBN 0-8032-9731-9)
- Powers, William K.: Ogalala Religion (University of Nebraska Press, 1975,1977; ISBN 0-8032-8706-2)
- Neihardt, John G. : The Sixth Grandfather (University of Nebraska Press, 1984; ISBN 0-8032-6564-6
- Little Eagle, Lionel: Greengrass Pipe Dancers (Naturegraph Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-87961-250-9)
- Pickering, Robert B. : "Seeing the White Buffalo". (Denver Museum of Natural History & Johnson Books), 1997; ISBN 1-55566-181-5 & 1-55566-182-3.