White Star Line

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White Star Line
Type Subsidiary of Cunard Line
Industry Shipping, transportation
Successor(s) Cunard White Star Line
Founded 1845 (1845) in Liverpool,
Area served Transatlantic
Parent Carnival Corporation & plc
Website http://www.cunard.co.uk/

The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company or White Star Line of Boston Packets, more commonly known as just White Star Line, was a prominent British shipping company, today most famous for their ground-breaking vessel Oceanic of 1870, their ill-fated vessel RMS Titanic, and the World War I loss of Titanic's sister ship Britannic.

In 1934 White Star merged with its chief rival, Cunard Line, which operated as Cunard-White Star Line until 1950. Cunard Line then operated as a separate entity until 2005 and is now part of Carnival Corporation & plc. As a lasting reminder of the White Star Line, modern Cunard ships use the term White Star Service to describe the level of customer care expected of the company.[1]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

White Star Line flag

The first company bearing the name White Star Line was founded in Liverpool, England, by John Pilkington and Henry Wilson in 1845. It focused on the UK–Australia trade, which increased following the discovery of gold in Australia. The fleet initially consisted of the chartered sailing ships RMS Tayleur, Blue Jacket, White Star, Red Jacket, Ellen, Ben Nevis, Emma, Mermaid and Iowa. Tayleur, the largest ship of its day, wrecked on its maiden voyage to Australia at Lambay Island, near Ireland, a disaster that haunted the company for years.[2]

In 1863, the company acquired its first steamship, the Royal Standard.

The original White Star Line merged with two other small lines, The Black Ball Line and The Eagle Line, to form a conglomerate, the Liverpool, Melbourne and Oriental Steam Navigation Company Limited. This did not prosper and White Star broke away. White Star concentrated on Liverpool to New York services. Heavy investment in new ships was financed by borrowing, but the company's bank, the Royal Bank of Liverpool, failed in October 1867. White Star was left with an incredible debt of £527,000, (£40,715,117 as of 2014),[3] and was forced into bankruptcy.

The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company[edit]

On 18 January 1868, Thomas Ismay, a director of the National Line, purchased the house flag, trade name and goodwill of the bankrupt company for £1,000, (£78,505 as of 2014),[3] with the intention of operating large ships on the North Atlantic service. Ismay established the company's headquarters at Albion House, Liverpool.

Adriatic of 1871, (3,888 GRT)

Ismay was approached by Gustav Christian Schwabe, a prominent Liverpool merchant, and his nephew, shipbuilder Gustav Wilhelm Wolff, during a game of billiards. Schwabe offered to finance the new line if Ismay had his ships built by Wolff's company, Harland and Wolff.[4] Ismay agreed, and a partnership with Harland and Wolff was established. The shipbuilders received their first orders on 30 July 1869. The agreement was that Harland and Wolff would build the ships at cost plus a fixed percentage and would not build any vessels for the White Star's rivals. In 1870 William Imrie joined the managing company. As the first ship was being commissioned, Ismay formed the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company to operate the steamers under construction.

Britannic and Germanic of 1874, (5,000 GRT)

White Star began with six ships of the Oceanic class: Oceanic (I), Atlantic, Baltic, and Republic, followed by the slightly larger Celtic and Adriatic. White Star began operating again in 1871 between New York and Liverpool (with a call at Queenstown).

It has long been customary for many shipping lines to have a common theme for the names of their ships. White Star gave their ships names ending in -ic, such as Titanic. The line also adopted a buff-coloured funnel with a black top as a distinguishing feature for their ships, as well as a distinctive house flag, a red broad pennant with two tails, bearing a white five-pointed star.

The first substantial loss for the company came only four years after its founding, occurring in 1873 with the sinking of the SS Atlantic and the loss of 535 lives near Halifax, Nova Scotia. While en route to New York from Liverpool amidst a vicious storm, the Atlantic attempted to make port at Halifax when a concern arose that the ship would run out of coal before reaching New York. However, when attempting to enter Halifax, she ran aground on the rocks and sank in shallow waters. Despite being so close to shore, a majority of the victims of the disaster drowned. The crew were blamed for serious navigational errors by the Canadian Inquiry, although a British Board of Trade investigation cleared the company of all extreme wrongdoing.[5]

Oceanic of 1899, (17,272 GRT)

During the late nineteenth century, White Star operated many famous ships, such as Britannic (I), Germanic, Teutonic, and Majestic (I). Several of these ships took the Blue Riband, awarded to the fastest ship to make the Atlantic crossing.

In 1899 Thomas Ismay commissioned one of the most beautiful steam ships constructed during the nineteenth century, the Oceanic (II). She was the first ship to exceed the Great Eastern in length (although not tonnage). The building of this ship marked White Star Line's departure from competition in speed with its rivals. Thereafter White Star concentrated on comfort and economy of operation instead.

In the late nineteenth century, shipbuilders had discovered that when speed through water increased above about 20 knots (23 mph; 37 km/h), the required additional engine power increased in logarithmic proportion: that is, each additional increment of speed required a larger increase in engine power and fuel consumption. With the coal-fired reciprocating steam engines of the time, exceeding about 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) required very high power and fuel consumption.

For this reason, the White Star Line committed to comfort and reliability rather than to speed. For example, White Star's Celtic cruised at 16 knots (18 mph; 30 km/h) with 14,000 horsepower, while Cunard's Mauretania made 24 knots (28 mph; 44 km/h) with 68,000 horsepower.

Adriatic of 1907 (24,541 GRT), the largest of the Big Four

Between 1901 and 1907, White Star brought "The Big Four" (all around 24,000 tons) into service: Celtic, Cedric, Baltic, and Adriatic. These ships carried massive numbers of passengers: 400 passengers in First and Second Class, and over 2,000 in Third Class. In addition, they had extremely large cargo capacities, up to 17,000 tons of general cargo.

In 1902 White Star Line was absorbed into the International Mercantile Marine Co. (IMM), a large American shipping conglomerate. Bruce Ismay ceded control to IMM in the face of intense pressure from shareholders and J. P. Morgan, who threatened a rate war. IMM was dissolved in 1932.

The White Star Line and emigration[edit]

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, millions of people emigrated from Europe to the United States and Canada. White Star was among the first shipping lines to have passenger ships with inexpensive accommodation for third-class passengers, in addition to places for higher paying first- and second-class. The Oceanic-class liners of 1870–1872 carried up to 1,000 third-class passengers, as did the vast majority of White Star's ships thereafter. The White Star Line's "Big Four", a quartet of revolutionary liners which had large passenger and freight capacities, had the largest carrying capacity for third-class passengers: Celtic of 1901, with capacity for 2,352 third-class passengers; Cedric of 1903 and Baltic of 1904 each had a third-class carrying capacity of 2,000; the fourth ship, Adriatic of 1907, had a third-class carrying capacity of 1,900.

White Star advertised extensively for emigrant passengers. When the Line began operations in 1870, the majority of their business in the emigration trade was centred on Great Britain, and Irish emigrants remained a chief source of income for much of the company's history. From the start, a great deal of their business also came from Scandinavia, with Norway and Sweden being the largest areas of success. As the years passed, the company expanded its services into continental Europe, eventually tapping into the massive streams of emigrants from Italy, from the Slavic regions of Central Europe under the control of the Austro-Hungarian empire, and nations such as Romania and Bulgaria in southeastern Europe struggling with slowed economic growth and overpopulation. Also included was Europe's massive population of Ashkenazi Jews from several areas of Eastern Europe generally known as the Pale of Settlement (a region within the Russian Empire designated under anti-Semitic governmental policies as the only area in which Jews were allowed to settle permanently, and which included primarily areas of far western Russia, the modern-day countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, and the remnants of the former kingdom of Galicia, an historic ethnic region with a huge Jewish population, now divided between southeastern Poland and the western Ukraine). The Line eventually expanded their services of travel across all regions of Europe, spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Middle East. No exact figures are available, but White Star liners may have carried as many as two million emigrants to North America. They maintained a handful of shipping routes for passengers, including these most widely used ones:

As a means of competing with Cunard (which had faster ships), White Star gave their third-class facilities modest luxuries. These included division of steerage passengers into two areas of each vessel. In those days, most shipping lines (Cunard, Hamburg-Amerika, and North German Lloyd among them) housed their third-class passengers in large open-berthed dormitories usually located at the forward end of the vessel; but the White Star Line strictly kept to the policy of dividing their third-class accommodations into two areas on each ship. Quarters for single men, usually found in old-fashioned open-berth dormitories, were located in the forward areas of the vessel; these quarters differed greatly from those found on ships of other lines as they were much less crowded. Single women, married couples and families were berthed in private two-, four-, and six-berth cabins in the after areas of the vessel.

The reasons for doing so cannot be better explained than within an investigation done in secret by the American Immigration Commission. During the years when immigration to the United States was at its peak, American agent Anna Herkner disguised herself as a Bohemian immigrant and made three trans-Atlantic crossings on ships of three different lines to carry out an investigation of the conditions of steerage in secret. Although the actual report omits the names of the vessels she travelled on, records at Ellis Island reveal which ships she had included in her study: in 1905, she made a westbound crossing in steerage aboard the North German Lloyd line's Friedrich Der Grosse, followed in 1907 by the Hamburg Amerika Line's Pennsylvania, and finally, in 1909, she sailed aboard the White Star Line's Cedric. While aboard Friedrich Der Grosse and the Pennsylvania she witnessed stewards sexually assaulting female steerage passengers, a severe lack of medical care, and scarcely tolerable food provided to steerage passengers. Aboard Cedric, however, Herkner was surprised at how well she was treated and how well passengers were provided for. In her report, she described her cabin, which she shared with three other women, as private, comfortable, and clean. She noted that each cabin had a bell by which a steward could be summoned, features such as mirrors, hooks to hang clothing on, and private wash basins. The food was of better quality, and the open deck space allotted to steerage passengers was far greater than on the other two ships.[6]

Third-class accommodations on the White Star Line included dining rooms with linens and silverware – and menu cards which had postcards on the back, so that emigrants could write to relatives back home and suggest that they, too, travel with White Star. Additionally, each ship also had a reading room and smoke room allotted to passengers in steerage.

Olympic class ships[edit]

Titanic of 1912 (46,328 GRT)

The Cunard Line was the chief competitor to White Star. In response to Cunard's Lusitania and Mauretania, White Star ordered the Olympic class liners: Olympic, Titanic, and Britannic (II). While Cunard was famed for the speed of their ships, the Olympic class were to be the biggest and most luxurious ships in the world. The Olympic was the only ship of this class that was profitable for White Star. Titanic sank on her maiden voyage, while Britannic was requisitioned by the British government before she was fully fitted, and used as a hospital ship during World War I. Britannic sank after hitting a mine on 21 November 1916.

Interwar years[edit]

In 1922 the White Star Line gained Majestic and Homeric; two former German liners which had been ceded to Britain as war reparations, ostensibly as a replacement for the war losses of the Britannic and Oceanic. Majestic was then the world's largest liner and became the company's flagship. The two former German liners operated successfully alongside Olympic for an express service on the Southampton-New York route until the Great Depression reduced demand after 1930.

In 1927 the White Star Line was purchased by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (RMSPC), making RMSPC the largest shipping group in the world.[7][8]

In 1928 a new Oceanic (III) was proposed and her keel was laid down that year at Harland and Wolff. The thousand foot long liner was to have been a motor ship propelled by the new diesel-electric propulsion system, but the ship was never completed due to financial issues. Oceanic's keel was dismantled and the steel was used in two new smaller motor ships: Britannic (III) and Georgic. Both of these ships entered service by 1932; they were the last liners White Star had built.

RMSPC ran into financial trouble, and was liquidated in 1932. A new company, Royal Mail Lines Limited, took over the ships of RMSPC and their subordinate lines including White Star.[9]

MV Georgic; the last ship to be built for the White Star Line before the merger.

Cunard merger[edit]

Cunard-White Star Logo

In 1933 White Star and Cunard were both in serious financial difficulties because of the Great Depression, falling passenger numbers and the advanced age of their fleets. Work was halted on Cunard's new giant, Hull 534 (later the Queen Mary) in 1931 to save money. In 1933 the British government agreed to provide assistance to the two competitors on the condition that they merge their North Atlantic operations. The agreement was completed on 30 December 1933.

The merger took place on 10 May 1934, creating Cunard-White Star Limited. White Star contributed ten ships to the new company while Cunard contributed 15 ships. Because of this, and since Hull 534 was Cunard's ship, 62% of the company was owned by Cunard's shareholders and 38% of the company was owned for the benefit of White Star's creditors. White Star's Australia and New Zealand services were not involved in the merger, but were separately disposed of to Shaw, Savill & Albion later in 1934. A year after this merger, Olympic, the last of her class, was removed from service. She was scrapped in 1937.

In 1947 Cunard acquired the 38% of Cunard White Star they did not already own, and on 31 December 1949 they acquired Cunard White Star's assets and operations, and reverted to using the name "Cunard" on January 1, 1950. From the time of the 1934 merger, the house flags of both lines had been flown on all their ships, with each ship flying the flag of its original owner above the other, but from 1950, even Georgic[10] and Britannic,[11] the last surviving White Star liners, flew the Cunard house flag above the White Star burgee until they were each withdrawn from service, in 1956 and 1961 respectively. Just as the retiring of Cunard Line's RMS Aquitania in 1949 marked the end of an era, so the retirement of the Britannic and therefore the last vestiges of the famous White Star Line was similarly noted world-wide.[12] All other ships flew the Cunard flag over the White Star flag until 1968.

White Star Line today[edit]

Last surviving White Star ship, SS Nomadic, as she appeared in 2012, docked in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

The White Star Line's Head Offices still exist in Liverpool, standing on James Street within sight of the more grandiose headquarters of their rivals, the Cunard Building. The building has a plaque commemorating the fact that the building was the head office of the White Star Line. J. Bruce Ismay, the owner of the line who sailed on Titanic, had his office in the building. The White Star Line's London offices, named Oceanic House, still exist today. They are just a street off Trafalgar Square, and one can still see the name on the building over the entrances.

The French passenger tender Nomadic, the last surviving vessel of the White Star Line, was purchased by the Northern Ireland Department for Social Development in January 2006. She has since been returned to Belfast, where she has been fully restored to her original and elegant 1912 appearance under the auspices of the Nomadic Preservation Society along with the assistance of her original builders, Harland and Wolff. She is intended to serve as the centerpiece of a museum dedicated to the history of Atlantic steam, the White Star Line, and its most famous ship, the Titanic. The historic Nomadic was opened ceremoniously to the public on 6 January, 2013 to much fanfare and world-wide media attention.[citation needed]

Cunard Line itself has, since 1995, introduced White Star Service as the brand of services on their ships RMS Queen Mary 2, MS Queen Victoria and the MS Queen Elizabeth. The company has also created the White Star Academy, an in-house programme for preparing new crew members for Cunard ships.[13]

The White Star flag is raised on all Cunard ships and on the Nomadic in Belfast, Northern Ireland every 15 April in memory of the Titanic disaster.

Fleet events[edit]

  • On 21 January 1854 Tayleur wrecked off Lambay Island, with the loss of 380 lives, out of 652 on board.
  • In 1873 Atlantic was wrecked near Halifax, costing 535 lives.[14]
  • In 1893 Naronic vanished on the Atlantic ocean with 74 crew after departing Liverpool for New York. Wreckage found included deck spars and at least two lifeboats, but no trace of her crew. Her wreck has never been found.
  • In 1907 Suevic ran aground off the southwest coast of England, but in the largest rescue of its kind, all 456 passengers and 141 crewmembers were rescued. The ship was later deliberately broken in two, with the stern half being rebuilt with a new bow.
  • In 1909 the Republic foundered off the New England coast after a collision with the Italian liner Florida. Four lives were lost in the collision and the ship remained afloat for over 39 hours before foundering. The remainder of the passengers were rescued.
  • In September 1911 Olympic was involved in a collision with the warship HMS Hawke in the Solent, badly damaging both ships.
  • On 14–15 April 1912 Titanic was lost after colliding with an iceberg, taking 1,502 passengers and crew with her.
  • The first White Star ship lost during World War I was Arabic, torpedoed off the Old Head of Kinsale Ireland on 19 August 1915 killing 44.
  • In 1915 the Ionic was narrowly missed by a German torpedo in the Mediterranean Sea. No lives were lost.
  • On 28 June 1915 the Armenian, a vessel built for the Leyland Line but leased to the White Star Line, was sunk by a torpedo fired by SM U-24 20 miles off the coast of Cornwall, carrying a cargo of 1,400 mules. 29 crew and all the mules were lost.
  • On 3 May 1915 the former Germanic (then in service as a Turkish troop transport) was torpedoed by the British submarine HMS E14. The ship survived the attack with no fatalities.
  • In May 1916 Ceramic was narrowly missed by two torpedoes from unidentified U-boat in Mediterranean Sea.
  • In 1916 the Cymric was torpedoed three times and sunk off the southern coast of Ireland by U-20, noted as the same submarine responsible for the tragic sinking of the Lusitania the year before. Five lives were lost and the ship stayed afloat for almost three days before foundering.
  • On 21 November 1916, the second sister ship of Titanic, HMHS Britannic, was lost after striking a mine laid by U-73[15] in the Kea Channel of the Aegean Sea off the coast of Greece. It sank in 57 minutes with the loss of 30 lives and was the largest vessel sunk in the war.
  • On 25 January 1917 Laurentic struck two mines laid by U-80 and sank with a loss of 354 lives.
  • In May 1917 Afric was torpedoed and sunk by UC-66, in English Channel, killing 22 crew members.
  • In June 1917 Ceramic was narrowly missed by one torpedo from unidentified U-boat in English Channel.
  • In August 1917 Delphic was torpedoed 135 miles off Bishop Rock by German U-boat UC-72 and sank with the loss of five lives.
  • On 12 May 1918, Olympic rammed and sank the U-boat U-103 which had tried, and failed, to torpedo it. The torpedo actually struck Olympic but failed to detonate. However several bow plates on Olympic were dented from the collision with the U-boat. Later, while Olympic was in Dry Dock, a large circular-shaped dent was found in the side of her hull, appearing to be the same size as the head of the standard torpedoes used by the German U-Boats.
  • On 19–20 July 1918 Justicia (owned by the British Government and managed by White Star) was torpedoed twice by U-46 but she remained afloat. Later in the same day, she was torpedoed two more times by U-46 and again managed to stay afloat. The next morning, as she was towed by HMS Sonia, she was torpedoed two more times by U-124 and finally sank, killing 16 crew members.
  • In September 1918 Persic was torpedoed by U-87 off of the Isles of Scilly, but was able to limp off and outrun the sub. She was towed in and repaired, resuming service.
  • In October 1917 RMS Celtic ran up on a mine laid by U-88 near Cobh, Ireland, killing 17. She was repaired and put back into military service. In June 1918, she was torpedoed by UB-77 in the Irish Sea, killing seven. Once again, she was able to escape the sub and limp into port with her own steam. She was repaired and once again put back into service, serving through the remainder of the war without incident.
  • On 15 May 1934, while steaming in a fog, Olympic rammed the Lightship Nantucket, sinking it and killing seven of the crew.
  • In November 1940 Laurentic was torpedoed and sunk by U-99 off Northern Ireland with the loss of 49 lives.

Notable captains[edit]

Fleet[edit]

1853–1899[edit]

Ship Built In service for White Star Line Tonnage
Red Jacket 1853 1853–1878 2,305 GRT
White Star[16] 1854 1854-1867+ 2,340 GRT
Blue Jacket 1854 1854–1869 1,790 GRT
Tayleur 1854 Sank on her maiden voyage (1854) 4,000 GRT
Oceanic 1870 1870–1895 3,707 GRT
Atlantic 1871 1871–1873 3,707 GRT
Baltic 1871 1871–1889 2,122 GRT
Tropic 1871 1871–1873 2,122 GRT
Asiatic 1871 1871–1903 2,122 GRT
Republic 1872 1872–1910 3,984 GRT
Adriatic 1872 1872–1899 3,888 GRT
Celtic 1872 1872–1898 1,867 GRT
Traffic 1872 1872–1896 155 GRT
Belgic 1873 1873–1888 2,652 GRT
Gaelic 1873 1873–1896 2,685 GRT
Britannic 1874 1874–1903 5,004 GRT
Germanic 1875 1875–1903 5,008 GRT
Arabic 1881 1881–1915 4,368 GRT
Coptic 1881 1883–1908 4,448 GRT
Doric 1883 1883–1911 4,784 GRT
Ionic 1883 1883 - 1900 4,753 GRT
Belgic 1885 1885–1899 4,212 GRT
Gaelic 1885 1885–1905 4,206 GRT
Cufic 1885 1885–1896 4,639 GRT
Runic 1889 1889–1895 5,043 GRT
Teutonic 1889 1889–1921 9,984 GRT

1890–1909[edit]

Ship Built In service for White Star Line Tonnage
Majestic 1890 1890–1914 9,965 GRT
Nomadic 1891 1891–1903 5,749 GRT
Tauric 1891 1891–1929 5,728 GRT
Magnetic 1891 1891–1935 619 GRT
Naronic 1892 1892–1893 6,594 GRT
Bovic 1892 1892–1921 6,583 GRT
Gothic 1893 1893–1906 7,755 GRT
Cevic 1894 1894–1914 8,301 GRT
Pontic 1894 1894–1930 394 GRT
Georgic 1895 1895–1916 10,077 GRT
Delphic 1897 1897–1917 8,273 GRT
Cymric 1898 1898–1916 13,096 GRT
Afric 1898 1899–1917 11,948 GRT
Medic 1899 1892–1921 11,973 GRT
Persic 1899 1899–1935 11,973 GRT
Oceanic 1899 1899–1914 17,272 GRT
Runic 1900 1900-1930 12,482 GRT
Suevic 1900 1900–1928 12,531 GRT
Celtic 1901 1901–1928 21,035 GRT
Athenic 1902 1902–1928 12,345 GRT
Corinthic 1902 1902–1931 12,367 GRT
Ionic 1903 1903–1934 12,352 GRT
Cedric 1903 1903–1931 21,073 GRT
Victorian 1895 1903–1904 8,825 GRT
Armenian 1895 1903–1915 8,825 GRT
Arabic 1903 1903–1915 15,801 GRT
Romanic 1898 1903–1912 11,394 GRT
Cretic 1903 1903–1904 13,507 GRT
Republic 1903 1903–1909 15,400 GRT
Canopic 1900 1904–1925 12,268 GRT
Cufic 1895 1904–1923 8,249 GRT
Baltic 1904 1904–1933 23,876 GRT
Gallic 1894 1907–1913 12,352 GRT
Adriatic 1907 1907–1935 24,541 GRT
Laurentic 1908 1908–1917 14,892 GRT
Megantic 1909 1909–1933 14,878 GRT

1910–1919[edit]

Ship Built In service for White Star Line Tonnage
Zeeland 1901 1910–1911 11,905 GRT
Nomadic 1911 1911–1925 1,273 GRT
Traffic 1911 1911–1927 675 GRT
Olympic 1911 1911–1935 45,324 GRT
Belgic 1903 1911–1913 9,748 GRT
Zealandic 1911 1911–1926 8,090 GRT
Titanic 1912 Sank on her maiden voyage (1912) 46,328 GRT
Ceramic 1913 1913–1934 18,400 GRT
Vaderland 1900 1914–1917 11,899 GRT
Lapland 1909 1914–1920 17,540 GRT
Britannic 1914 1915–1916 48,158 GRT
Belgic 1914 1917–1923 27,132 GRT
Justicia 1914 1917–1918 32,234 GRT
Vedic 1918 1918–1934 9,302 GRT
Bardic 1918 1919–1925 9,332 GRT

1920–1949[edit]

Ship Built In service for White Star Line Tonnage
Gallic 1918 1920–1933 11,905 GRT
Mobile 1909 1920–1920 16,960 GRT
Arabic 1909 1920–1931 16,786 GRT
Homeric 1913 1922–1935 35,000 GRT
Haverford 1901 1921–1922 11,635 GRT
Poland 1897 1922–1925 8,282 GRT
Majestic 1914 1922–1936 56,551 GRT
Pittsburgh 1922 1925–1926 16,322 GRT
Doric 1923 1923–1935 16,484 GRT
Delphic 1918 1925–1933 8,002 GRT
Regina 1917 1925–1945 16,313 GRT
Albertic 1920 1927–1934 18,940 GRT
Calgaric 1918 1927–1934 16,063 GRT
Laurentic 1927 1927–1940 18,724 GRT
Britannic 1929 1929–1949 26,943 GRT
Georgic 1932 1932–1949 27,759 GRT

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "www.thecunarders.co.uk is coming soon!" (in Ukrainian). Thecunarders.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Bourke, Edward J (2003). Bound for Australia. p. 18. ISBN 0-9523027-3-X. 
  3. ^ a b UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2014), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  4. ^ Barczewski, Stephanie (2006). Titanic: A Night Remembered. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 213. ISBN 1-85285-500-2. Retrieved 27 March 2008. 
  5. ^ Greg Cochkanoff and Bob Chaulk, SS Atlantic: The White Star Line's First Disaster at Sea, (Goose Lane Editions, Frederiction, 2009) p. 99.
  6. ^ "Steerage conditions, importation and harboring of women for immoral purposes, immigrant homes and aid societies, immigrant banks .. : United States. Immigration Commission (1907–1910)". Archive.org. 10 March 2001. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "Fact file – PortCities Southampton". Plimsoll.org. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  8. ^ "The Royal Mail Story: The Kylsant years". Users.on.net. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  9. ^ "The Royal Mail Story: Royal Mail Lines, Ltd". Users.on.net. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  10. ^ "Georgic". Chris' Cunard Page. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  11. ^ "Britannic". Chris' Cunard Page. Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Roy (1964). White Star. Prescot, England: T. Stephenson & Sons Ltd. p. 181. 
  13. ^ http://www.cunard.co.uk/cruise-ships/cunard-experience/white-star-service/
  14. ^ Greg Cochkanoff and Bob Chaulk, SS Atlantic: The White Star Line's First Disaster at Sea, (Goose Lane Editions, Frederiction, 2009) p. 163.
  15. ^ Uboat.net largest ships sunk
  16. ^ Lloyds register 1860

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]