White Tower Hamburgers
|Industry||Fast Food Restaurant|
|Founded||1926 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin |
|Founder(s)||John E. Saxe
Thomas E. Saxe
|Number of locations||Peak: 230|
|Products||Hamburgers, soft drink|
White Tower Hamburgers was founded in 1926 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and with its similar white fortress-like structure, is considered an imitator of White Castle. The chain was successful and expanded to other cities, including Chicago, Indianapolis, Cleveland, Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, New York City, Albany, Boston and as far south as Richmond, Virginia. During the Great Depression, White Tower sold hamburgers for five cents.
The whiteness of the restaurant was meant among other things to evoke hygienic conditions, and the chain had staff dressed as nurses, dubbed the "Towerettes," to help make this argument.
John E. Saxe and Thomas E. Saxe started White Tower Hamburgers after investigating various White Castle locations, observing operations and hiring a White Castle operator. The first location opened near Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. By the end of 1927, there were six locations in Milwaukee and Racine, Wisconsin. In 1929, White Tower put 30 locations in Detroit alone. Despite the Depression, White Tower expanded to 130 locations. White Tower placed many of their locations near train and trolley stops.
In 1929, White Castle sued White Tower in Minnesota for unfair competition and White Tower counter-sued in Michigan as White Tower had arrived in Michigan first. The Minnesota case ended in 1930 in favor of White Castle, forcing White Tower to end its use of similar building designs, slogans and name. The Michigan case dragged on until 1934, revealing the hiring away of a White Castle location operator and photographing of the latest White Castle to keep up on design. The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit later affirmed the lower court's rulings that they had copied White Castle deliberately. White Castle refrained from forcing a name change for White Tower but did require new locations to pay a royalty fee, and to send photos of the locations. Having to change its look, White Tower first used an art deco, then modernistic designs. Territorially, White Tower and White Castle stayed away from each other from then on.
In 1941, White Tower Management Corporation moved its headquarters to Six Suburban Ave., Stamford, CT.
At its peak in the mid-1950s, the chain had 230 stores in several states. It tested the "Tower-O-Matic" automated restaurant in the 1950s and 60s with little success. It also attempted a sit-down restaurant called Marbett's. Many later suburban White Tower restaurants featured curb service with car hops.
Brock Saxe took over as president of White Tower Management Corporation in 1970 from his father, T.E. Saxe, when he retired. Brock changed the name of White Tower Corporation to Tombrock Corporation on the corporation's 50th anniversary as it also owns a chain of steakhouses called Brock's. With the migration of people to the suburbs and most of the White Tower locations in the city, by 1979 only 80 Tombrock Corporation-owned locations remained. Tombrock Corporation branched out into franchising Burger Kings and Golden Skillet Chicken. Today, Tombrock Corporation, having exited the restaurant business as an operator, is a real estate investment and management company based in New Canaan, Connecticut.
The last White Tower Restaurant is located at 1515 West Sylvania Avenue in Toledo, OH.
- Hogan, David Gerard (1997). Selling 'em by the Sack: White Castle and the Creation of American Food (1st ed.). NYU Press. pp. 52–55. ISBN 0-8147-3567-3.
- "Roadside Highlight: White Tower Hamburgers". Buildings with Taste: Fast Food Restaurants. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- As Hamburgers Go, So Goes America? The Economist, Aug 21st 1997
- Funderburg, Anne Cooper (2001). "Make it Quick!". Sundae Best: A History of Soda Fountains. Popular Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-87972-854-X. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- White Tower System Inc. v. White Castle System of Eating Houses Corp., 1937
- "White Tower & Marbett's". dvrbs.com. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Swart, Hannah W. (September 1980). "Bookmarks/Wisconsin: White Towers review". Wisconsin Academy review (Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters) 26 (4): 48. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- History of Tombrock
Stamford, Ct-True facts-1977 Stamford