White jazz is jazz played by white musicians. This developed at the end of the 19th century in New Orleans with Papa Jack Laine's Reliance Brass Band being formed in 1888. Bix Beiderbecke was a later pioneer of the genre in the Mid-West.
- Bob Yurochko (1993), A Short History of Jazz, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 10, ISBN 9780830415953, "He is known as 'The Father of White Jazz'..."
- "white jazz", Oxford English Dictionary, 2013, "jazz as played by white musicians"
- Imamu Amiri Baraka (2000). The LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader (2 ed.). Basic Books. p. 42. ISBN 1560252383.
- The Rough Guide to Jazz, 2004, p. xcix, ISBN 1843532565, "George Vital Laine - called "Papa Jack" because he was a father figure to dozens of young white New Orleans jazzmen — formed his own ragtime band in 1888..."
- Andrew R. L. Cayton, Richard Sisson, Chris Zacher, ed. (2006). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. p. 569. ISBN 0253003490.
- Philip Larkin (2004). Jazz Writings. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 94. ISBN 0826476996.
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