Whitehead Mark 1 torpedo
|Whitehead Mark 1 torpedo|
Whitehead torpedo mechanism, published 1891
|Type||Anti-surface ship torpedo|
|Place of origin||Austria-Hungary|
|Used by||United States Navy|
|Manufacturer||Torpedofabrik Whitehead & Co.
E. W. Bliss Company
|Variants||Whitehead Mk 1B|
|Length||140 inches (3.55 meters)|
|Diameter||17.7 inches (45 centimeters)|
|Effective firing range||800 yards|
|Warhead weight||118.5 lbs|
|War Nose Mk 1 contact exploder|
|battleships and torpedo boats|
The Whitehead Mark 1 torpedo was the first Whitehead torpedo adopted by the United States Navy for use in an anti-surface ship role after the E. W. Bliss Company of Brooklyn, New York secured manufacturing rights in 1892. The US Navy made an initial acquisition of 100 Mark 1s, which, by the time they entered American service, were faster, had longer range and carried a larger warhead than Robert Whitehead's earlier models.
The Mark 1 was ordinarily assembled into three sections: the warhead, the air flask and the after-body. The warhead's charge of dry guncotton weighed 98 3/4 pounds plus 20% water. The Mark 1 was what was known as a "cold-running" torpedo. The three-cylinder reciprocating engine ran on cold, compressed air which was stored in the air flask, which had a capacity of 7.154 cubic feet at 1350 pounds per square inch. The after-body carried the engine and the tail, which contained the propellers.
The Mark 1 guidance component included the Pendulum-and-hydrostat control device which was called the "Whitehead Secret". This version of the Whitehead torpedo lacked the gyroscope gear designed by Ludwig Obry, which was incorporated in a later Whitehead model, the Mark 3.
- "Chronology: Torpedo in Word and Picture". Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "United States of America Torpedoes Pre-World War II". Retrieved 24 June 2013.
- Silverstone, Paul (2006). The New Navy, 1883-1922. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. xxiii. ISBN 0-415-97871-8.
- The Whitehead Torpedo:. Bureau of Ordnance, United States Navy. 1898.