The period of Ancient Egyptian history known as wehem mesut (Manuel de Codage transliteration: wHm msw.t) can be literally translated as Repetition of Births, but is usually referred to as the Era of the Renaissance. It began in about year 19 of the reign of Ramesses XI, around the end of the New Kingdom and the start of the Third Intermediate Period. It marks a final waning of the power of the centralised monarchy, with Ramesses XI still nominally pharaoh, but with Herihor as High Priest of Amun in Thebes and Smendes in Tanis ruling respectively Upper and Lower Egypt.
It was traditionally thought to end around Year 10 first month of Shemu day 25 of this period (or Year 28 proper of Ramesses XI) when a letter dating to the Late Ramesside Period shows that the High Priest Piankh was still in Nubia fighting a war against the Viceroy of Kush Pinehesy. However, a graffito in Upper Egypt dates the return of Piankh to Thebes to the third month of Shemu day 23 or 3 days after the start of Ramesses XI's 29th regnal year which is equivalent to the start of Year 11 of the Wehem Mesut. More recently, Professor K.A. Kitchen has argued that the Late Ramesside Letter 41 (not 62) (cf. Wente, 75f; cf 15) with reference to West Theban graffito No.1393 likely shows that the Whm-Mswt reached a Year 12 or Year 30 proper of Ramesses XI.
- Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 309.
- Andrzej Niwinski, Bürgerkrieg, militärischer Staatsstreich und Ausnahmezustand in Ägypten unter Ramses XI. Ein Versuch neuer Interpretation der alten Quellen [Civil war, military coup d'etat and exceptional situations in Egypt under Rameses XI: An attempt at new interpretation of old sources]
- José Lull, Los sumos sacerdotes de Amón tebanos de la wHm mswt y dinastía XXI [The Theban High Priests of Amun during the wHm mswt and the 21st Dynasty]
- Late Ramesside Letter 9 in "Late Ramesside Letters" by Edward F. Wente, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization (SAOC) 33, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1967. pp.11-12 & 37-38
- Kenneth A. Kitchen, "The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt: An Overview of Fact and Fiction" in The Libyan Period in Egypt, Historical Studies into the 21st-24th Dynasties:Proceedings of a Conference at Leiden University, 25–27 October 2007, G.P.F. Broekeman, R.J. Demaree and O.E. Kaper, (eds), Nederlands Instituut Voor Heit Nabije Oosten, Leuven: Peeters, 2009. p.193
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