Who's That Girl (Madonna song)
|"Who's That Girl"|
|Single by Madonna|
|from the album Who's That Girl|
|Released||June 30, 1987 (U.S.)
July 14, 1987 (UK)
|Format||7", 12", Cassette, CD single|
|Genre||Latin pop, dance-pop|
|Madonna singles chronology|
"Who's That Girl" is a song by American singer-songwriter Madonna from the soundtrack album of the motion picture of same name. It was released on June 30, 1987, by Sire Records as the first single from the album. It later appeared on the 1991 UK compilation EP The Holiday Collection, which was released to accompany the 1990 compilation album The Immaculate Collection, and has since been included on the two-disc edition of her 2009 greatest hits album Celebration. While shooting for the film, then called Slammer, Madonna had requested Patrick Leonard to develop an uptempo song that captured the nature of her film persona. She later added the lyrics and vocals to the demo tape developed by Leonard, and decided to call both the song and the movie "Who's That Girl".
Featuring instrumentation from drums, bass, and stringed instruments, "Who's That Girl" continued Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture by incorporating Spanish lyrics and using the effect of double vocals. Although it received mixed reactions from reviewers, the song became Madonna's sixth single to top the Billboard Hot 100, while peaking atop the charts in countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, Ireland and Belgium. It was also nominated for "Best Song From A Motion Picture" at the 1988 Grammy Awards and "Best Original Song" at the 1988 Golden Globe Awards.
The music video portrayed a different persona of Madonna, rather than her film character for which it was released. Like the song, it incorporated Hispanic culture and portrayed her dressed in Spanish style as a young lady in search of a treasure. Madonna performed the song once on the Who's That Girl World Tour in 1987. The song has been covered by many artists and has appeared in compilations and tribute albums.
- 1 Background
- 2 Composition
- 3 Reception
- 4 Music video
- 5 Live performance and covers
- 6 Formats and track listing
- 7 Credits and personnel
- 8 Charts and certifications
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
In 1986, Madonna was shooting for her third motion picture Who's That Girl, known at the time as Slammer. Needing songs for the soundtrack of the movie, she contacted Patrick Leonard and Stephen Bray, who had written and produced her third studio album True Blue in 1986. Madonna explained to them that she needed an uptempo song and a downtempo song. She came to the studio one Thursday as Leonard developed the chorus of the song. He handed over that cassette to Madonna, who went to the backroom and finished the melody and the lyrics of the song, while Leonard worked on the other parts of the song.
After finishing the lyrics, Madonna declared that she wanted the song to be named "Who's That Girl" and changed the movie to the same, rather than Slammer, considering it to be a better title. In Fred Bronson's The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits book, Leonard explained that the song was recorded in one day with Madonna adding her vocals only once. Additional instrumental tracks with guitars and percussion were included by Leonard and Bray later. Regarding the development of the music for the film, Madonna further explained
"I had some very specific ideas in mind, music that would stand on its own as well as support and enhance what was happening on screen and the only way to make that a reality was to have a hand in writing the tunes myself. [...] The songs aren't necessarily about Nikki [her character name in the movie] or written to be sung by someone like her, but there's a spirit to this music that captures both what the film and the characters are about, I think."
A sample to Madonna's "Who's That Girl", where the lyrics for the chorus include Spanish words.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
The song is composed in Madonna's typical style—mingling the drum machine, a bubbling bass synth line, and the sound of stringed instruments. The three parts of the song, namely the bridge, where Madonna sings "what can help me now", the chorus and the verse flow together strongly. The chorus has a haunting effect in it.
The song epitomizes Madonna's interest with Hispanic culture that continued after the release of "La Isla Bonita", by adding Spanish phrases in the chorus and over the trumpets of the second verse, and also by the added instrumental break in the middle. It also uses the sonic effect brought about by the combination of multiple vocal lines, which had been previously used by groups like The Beach Boys in their singles "God Only Knows" (1966) and "I Get Around" (1964) as well as R.E.M.'s singles "Fall on Me" (1986) and "Near Wild Heaven" (1991). "Who's That Girl" employs this effect on the last chorus where three or four different vocal hooks are intertwined.
Critical reaction to the song has been mixed. In his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, author Rikky Rooksby explained that the song was Madonna's best take on her original music style. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic commented that "Who's That Girl" along with "Causing a Commotion" were not amongst Madonna's best singles. Biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his book Madonna: An Intimate Biography called the song "quintessential Madonna music" and went on to describe it as "funky, sassy and melodic, with a Latin accent."
Noah Robischon from Entertainment Weekly opined that with the both the song and the movie, Madonna had pushed "synergy over the borderline." Bill Lamb of About.com said that the song, along with the second single from the soundtrack "Causing a Commotion", was not an example of Madonna's best music. Enio Chiola of PopMatters.com listed "Who's That Girl" as one of the top-fifteen singles of Madonna's career, stating that it is an "insta-party from the moment in begins." The song was nominated for "Best Song From A Motion Picture" at the 1988 Grammy Awards and "Best Original Song" at the 1988 Golden Globe Awards.
"Who's That Girl" was released in the United States in June 1987. It debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 at number 43, reached the top of the chart in its seventh week, maintained the top position for one week, and spent 16 weeks on the chart. It became Madonna's sixth number-one single in the United States, making her the first artist to accumulate six number-one singles in the 1980s, and the first female performer to get that many number-ones as a solo act. The song peaked at number forty-four on the Hot Dance Club Play chart. In 2000, the song came tenth in a vote conducted to determine the favourite Madonna song. In Canada, the song debuted at the 83rd position of the RPM singles chart on July 11, 1987, reached the top for one week on August 29, 1987, and stayed on the chart for 23 weeks. It placed at 12 on the RPM Year-end chart for 1987.
In the United Kingdom, "Who's That Girl" was released on July 14, 1987, and debuted at number three on the UK Singles Chart, climbing to number one the next week to become Madonna's fifth number-one single in the United Kingdom. According to The Official Charts Company, the song has sold 380,000 copies there. Across Europe, "Who's That Girl" also topped the singles charts in Belgium, Italy, Ireland, and the Netherlands, as well as peaking in the top five in Austria, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. It was certified gold by the Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique for shipment of 500,000 copies in France.
The music video was shot over two days, at A&M Studios in Hollywood, California. Madonna had adopted a garish, platinum blond hairstyle for the Who's That Girl movie which she used in the music video; it was her way of reviving the comedy heroine of the 1930s Hollywood screwball comedies. She continued with her Hispanic look from the "La Isla Bonita" music video, this time she appeared dressed boyishly in a wide-brimmed Spanish hat and bolero jacket—a combination which would later become a fashion trend.
The music video, directed by Peter Rosenthal, begins with Madonna entering a park. After meeting two children and a teenage boy, they start roaming around the park, with Madonna singing the song. These scenes are interchanged with scenes from the motion picture, which show Madonna as the movie character Nikki Fynn. As the music video progresses, Madonna is shown to be in search of an Egyptian treasure casket. After being directed to it by a version of the High Priestess tarot card displaying her cartoon impersonation, Madonna opens it to find a huge diamond. She looks up happily to the children. The video ends with them continuing dancing and Madonna carrying away the casket.
The video portrayed a different image of Madonna rather than her real self. According to Vincent Canby of The New York Times, Madonna at that time was shrewdly pragmatic about her persona and appearance—resembling Marilyn Monroe, but with the "comic tartness" of Jean Harlow. This persona was reflected in the second half of the Who's That Girl film. However, the music video chose not to capture her real self and qualities, or to promote the movie for which it was specifically created. Instead, it concentrated on the humorous off-putting personality of Madonna's film character depicted in the first half of the film.
Live performance and covers
Madonna performed the song live only once, on her 1987 Who's That Girl World Tour where it was performed as a part of the encore. Madonna came out on the stage in a bright red flamenco dress and performed the song, assisted by her backup singers Niki Haris, Donna De Lory and Debra Parson. Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl – Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo, Japan, on June 22, 1987, and Ciao, Italia! – Live from Italy, filmed in Turin, Italy, on September 4, 1987.
The song has been covered many times, mostly on tribute albums. In 1999, The Countdown Singers made a sound-alike cover version for the album Hit Parade of 80's, Vol. 2. The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) made an instrumental version of the song for the 1998 album Material Girl: RPO Plays Music of Madonna. German actress Eva Mattes covered the song for her 2006 album Language of Love. In 2007, The Bubonic Plague recorded a cover of the song that was included on the tribute album Through the Wilderness.
Formats and track listing
Credits and personnel
- Madonna – lyrics, producer, vocals
- Patrick Leonard – lyrics, producer
- Michael Barbiero – additional production, audio mixing
- Steve Thompson – additional production, audio mixing
Credits adapted from the album's liner notes.
Charts and certifications
"Let It Be" by Ferry Aid
|Italian Singles Chart number-one single
July 18, 1987 – October 9, 1987
"Bad" by Michael Jackson
"It's a Sin" by Pet Shop Boys
|Irish Singles Chart number-one single
July 18, 1987 – July 25, 1987
"La Bamba" by Los Lobos
|UK Singles Chart number-one single
July 26, 1987
"I Want Your Sex" by George Michael
|Dutch Top 40 number-one single
August 1, 1987 – August 22, 1987
"I Just Can't Stop Loving You" by Michael Jackson
|Belgian VRT Top 30 number-one single
August 8, 1987 – August 15, 1987
"I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For" by U2
|US Billboard Hot 100 number-one single
August 22, 1987
"La Bamba" by Los Lobos
"Heart and Soul" by T'Pau
|Canadian RPM Singles Chart number-one single
August 29, 1987
- Bronson 2003, p. 203
- Rooksby, p. 68
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (July 21, 1987). "allmusic ((( Who's That Girl > Overview )))". Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- Taraborelli, p. 126
- Robischon, Noah (July 27, 2001). "Dating Madonna". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- Lamb, Bill (1987). "Madonna Discography: Annotated list of Madonna's albums". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "The Top 15 Madonna Singles of All Time".
- Metz & Benson 1999, p. 301
- "The Billboard Hot 100: Aug 22, 1987". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1987-08-22. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- Strecker, Erin (2014-08-22). "Flashback Friday: Madonna's 'Who's That Girl' Hit No. 1". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- DeKnock, Jan (August 22, 1987). "Madonna Soars to Top of the Charts for the Sixth Time". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Company). Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Poll: 'Vogue' Is Fave Madonna Chart-Topper". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. September 15, 2000. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- "Top Singles – Volume 46, No. 14, July 11, 1987". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. July 11, 1987. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Top Singles – Volume 46, No. 21, August 29, 1987". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. August 29, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Top Singles – Volume 47, No. 10, December 12, 1987". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. December 12, 1987. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Top 100 Singles of '87". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. December 27, 1986. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- "Chart Stats – Madonna – Who's That Girl". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Chart Stats – Madonna". The Official UK Charts Company. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Madonna: The Official Top 40". MTV. MTV Networks. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "Radio 2 – Top 30 van zaterdag 08 augustus 1987" (in Dutch). VRT Top 30. August 8, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "The Irish Charts – All there is to know". Irish Recorded Music Association. July 9, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Madonna: Discografia Italiana" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. 1984–1999. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- "De Nederlandse Top 40". Dutch Top 40 (in Dutch). Radio 538. 1987 – week 31. Retrieved 2009-04-25. Check date values in:
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl (Song)" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. September 1, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Chartverfolgung: Madonna – Whos's That Girl" (in German). Media Control Charts. July 27, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "InfoDisc : Les Certifications (Singles) du SNEP (Bilan par Artiste) – Search for "Madonna"". Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Kellner, p. 275
- Morton, p. 199
- Metz, p. 309
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl music video". MTV. September 6, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- Canby, Vincent (August 23, 1987). "Film View; In Search of Madonna's Persona". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- Madonna (1987). Who's That Girl – Live in Japan (VHS). Warner-Pioneer Japan.
- Phares, Heather. "allmusic ((( Ciao Italia: Live in Italy (Video) > Overview )))". Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- "allmusic ((( Hit Parade of 80's, Vol. 2 ))) Overview". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- Hill, Melinda. "allmusic ((( Material Girl: RPO Plays Music of Madonna > Overview )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "allmusic ((( Language of Love > Overview )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "allmusic ((( Through the Wilderness: A Tribute to Madonna > Overview )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- Who's That Girl (UK 7-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. W 8341.
- Who's That Girl (UK 12-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. W8341T.
- Who's That Girl (UK 12-inch Picture Disc liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. W8341TP.
- Who's That Girl (US 12-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. 0-20692.
- Who's That Girl (UK 12-inch Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. W 8341 (TX).
- Who's That Girl (German CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Sire Records. 1987. 7599 20692-2.
- Who's That Girl (Liner notes). Madonna. Warner Bros. Records. 1987. 925611-2.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (doc ). Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl (Chanson)" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. September 19, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl (Song)". Verdens Gang. 1987 – week 31. Retrieved 2009-04-25. Check date values in:
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl (Song)". Sverigetopplistan. July 7, 1929. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Madonna – Who's That Girl (Song)" (in German). Swiss Music Charts. July 26, 1987. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Artist Chart History: Madonna". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 2009-04-25. Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- "Top 100 Singles of 1987".
- "Jaaroverzichten 1987" (in Dutch). MegaCharts. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- "Top Annuali Singles: 1987" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- "Jahreshitparaden 1987" (in Deutsch). Swiss Music Charts. Hung Medien. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- "End Of Year Chart - Top 50 Singles of 1987". Retrieved 2012-11-28.
- "Top Pop Singles 1987". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1987-12-31. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- "Dance Sales Singles/Albums 1987 (Top Dance Singles)". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1986-12-31. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
- "France Singles Certifications". Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique.
- "BPI Certified Awards Search-Artist Madonna". British Phonographic Industry.
- Bronson, Fred (2003). The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits. Billboard Books. ISBN 0-8230-7677-6
- Kellner, Douglas (1995). Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity, and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10570-6.
- Metz, Allan; Benson, Carol (1999). The Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Group. ISBN 0-8256-7194-9.
- Morton, Andrew (2002). Madonna. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-312-98310-7.
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004). The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9883-3.
- Taraborrelli, Randy J. (2002). Madonna: An Intimate Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2880-4.
- Madonna.com > Discography > Who's That Girl
- "Who's That Girl" lyrics at MTV
- Full lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics