Whore of Babylon
The Whore of Babylon or "Babylon the Great" is a Christian figure of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible. Her full title is given as "Babylon the Great, the Mother of Prostitutes and Abominations of the Earth." (Greek: Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ μήτηρ τῶν πορνῶν καὶ τῶν βδελυγμάτων τῆς γῆς; transliterated Babylōn ē Megalē, ē mētēr tōn pornōn kai tōn bdelygmatōn tēs Gēs.)
- 1 Symbolism
- 2 Preterist interpretations
- 3 Historicist and idealistic interpretations
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
The Whore is associated with the Antichrist and the Beast of Revelation by connection with an equally evil kingdom. (The word "Whore" can also be translated as "Idolatress".) The Whore's apocalyptic downfall is prophesied to take place in the hands of the beast with seven heads and ten horns. There is much speculation within Christian eschatology on what the Whore and Beast symbolize as well as the possible implications for contemporary interpretations.
The “great whore”, of the biblical book of Revelation is featured in chapters 17 and 18. Many passages define symbolic meanings inherent in the text.
|17:1||And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will shew unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:|
|17:2||With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. ["Fornication" is interpreted/translated as "idolatry" in the Amplified Bible (AMP), the New American Bible mentions "harlotry"]|
|17:3||So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.|
|17:4||And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:|
|17:5||And upon her forehead was a name written a mystery: Babylon The Great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the Earth. [King James Version);' the New International Version uses "prostitutes" instead of "harlots"].|
|17:6||And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.|
|17:9||And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sat. [King James Version); the New International Version Bible and the New American Bible use "hills" instead of "mountains"].|
|17:10||And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he comes, he must continue a short space.|
|17:11||And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goes into perdition.|
|17:12||And the ten horns which thou saw are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour with the beast.|
|17:15||And he said unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sat, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.|
|17:18||And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth.|
Rome and the Roman Empire
Many Biblical scholars believe that "Babylon" is an allegory of the pagan Roman Empire at the time it persecuted Christians, before the Edict of Milan in 313: perhaps specifically, at the time, referencing some aspect of Rome's rule (brutality, greed, paganism). Some exegetes interpret the passage as a scathing critique of a servant people of Rome who do the Empire's bidding, interpreting that the author of Revelation was speaking of the Herodians - a party of Jews friendly to Rome and open to her influence, like the Hellenizers of centuries past - and later, corrupt Hasmoneans, where the ruler of Jerusalem or Roman Judaea exercised his power at the pleasure of the Emperor, and was dependent on Roman influence, like Herod the Great in the Gospel according to Luke.
In 4 Ezra (2 Esdras/4 Esdras; see the article on the naming conventions of the Books of Ezra), 2 Baruch and the Sibylline oracles, "Babylon" is a cryptic name for Rome. Elsewhere in the New Testament, in 1 Peter 5:13; some speculate that "Babylon" is used to refer to Rome. In Revelation 17:9 it is said that she sits on "seven mountains" (the King James Version Bible—the New International Version Bible uses the words "seven hills"), typically understood as the seven hills of Rome. A Roman coin minted under the Emperor Vespasian (ca. 70 AD) depicts Rome as a woman sitting on seven hills.
According to the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "The characteristics ascribed to this Babylon apply to Rome rather than to any other city of that age: (a) as ruling over the kings of the earth (Revelation 17:18); (b) as sitting on seven mountains (Revelation 17:9); (c) as the center of the world's merchandise (Revelation 18:3, 11–13); (d) as the corrupter of the nations (Revelation 17:2; 18:3; 19:2); (e) as the persecutor of the saints (Revelation 17:6)."
Many Biblical scholars and theologians point out that although Rome was the prevailing pagan power in the 1st century when the Book of Revelation was written, the symbolism of the whore of Babylon refers not to an invading infidel of foreign power, but to an apostate false queen, a former "bride" who has been unfaithful and who, even though she has been divorced and cast out because of unfaithfulness, continues to falsely claim to be the "queen" of the spiritual realm. This symbolism did not fit the case of Rome at the time. Proponents of this view suggest that the "seven mountains" in Rev 17:9 are the seven hills on which Jerusalem stands and the "fall of Babylon" in Rev 18 is the fall and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD The dress of the whore of Babylon is similar to the Jerusalem High Priest (Exodus 28:6).
Several Old Testament prophets referred to Jerusalem as being a spiritual harlot and a mother of such harlotry (Isaiah 1:21; Jeremiah 2:20; Jeremiah 3:1–11; Ezekiel 16:1–43; Ezekiel 23, Galatians 4:25). Some of the these Old Testament prophecies as well as the warnings in the New Testament concerning Jerusalem are in fact very close to the text concerning Babylon in Revelation, suggesting that John may well have actually been citing those prophecies in his description of Babylon.
For example, in Matthew 23:34–37 and Luke 11:47–51, Jesus himself assigned all of the bloodguilt for the killing of the prophets and of the saints (of all time) to the Pharisees of Jerusalem, and, in Revelation 17:6 and 18:20,24, almost identical phrasing is used in charging that very same bloodguilt to Babylon. This is also bolstered by Jesus' statement that "it's not possible for a prophet to be killed outside of Jerusalem." (Luke 13:33).
Historicist and idealistic interpretations
Many protestant and non-catholic churches interpret the Whore of Babylon to be the Catholic Church which is in union with the pope. Some of their views are:
- Di voi pastor s'accorse il Vangelista,
- quando colei che siede sopra l'acque
- puttaneggiar coi regi a lui fu vista...
- (Shepherds like you the Evangelist had in mind when he saw the one that sits upon the waters committing fornication with the kings.)
Historicist interpreters commonly used the phrase "Whore of Babylon" to refer to the Roman Catholic Church. Reformation writers from Martin Luther (1483–1546) (who wrote On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church), John Calvin (1509–1564), and John Knox (1510–1572) (who wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women) taught this association. The Catholic Church denies the claim that it is being referred to by the Book of Revelation as the Whore of Babylon.
Most early Protestant Reformers believed, and the modern Seventh-day Adventist Church teaches, that in Bible prophecy a woman represents a church. "I have likened the daughter of Zion To a lovely and delicate woman." (Jeremiah 6:2 nkjv) A harlot, it is argued, is representative of a church that has been unfaithful:
- "Go, take yourself a wife of harlotry
- And children of harlotry,
- For the land has committed great harlotry
- By departing from the LORD.” (Hosea 1:2 nkjv)
They also believed that the primary location of this unfaithful church is stated in the same chapter.
- "And the woman whom you saw is that great city which reigns over the kings of the earth." (Revelation 17:18)
Identification of the Pope as the Antichrist was written into Protestant creeds such as the Westminster Confession of 1646. The identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Whore of Babylon is kept in the Scofield Reference Bible (whose 1917 edition identified "ecclesiastical Babylon" with "apostate Christendom headed by the Papacy").
Some traditionalist Catholics who hold the position of Sedevacantism, most notably the Most Holy Family Monastery, believe that a counterfeit bride – a Counter-Catholic Church – will arise in the end times in order to deceive faithful Catholics; they teach that this counterfeit Church is the Roman Catholic Church after the Second Vatican Council.
Seventh-Day Adventist view
Because Ellen Gould White, one of the founders of the Seventh-Day Adventists, concluded that "Spiritual Babylon" would have worldwide influence, affecting "all nations", she wrote, in a book called The Great Controversy (often reprinted as "America in Prophecy": one of the large corpus of Ms White's writings), that Imperial Rome could not meet the criteria, as she wrote that it only had influence in the Old World (the New World had not yet been discovered at the time of Jesus). Thus, Ellen Gould White concluded that the true "Whore of Babylon" must be the "Roman" Catholic Church (disregarding the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches), giving lasting impetus and inspiration to the strong anti-Catholicism present throughout much of Adventism through its history.
The world empire of false religion
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Whore of Babylon represents "the world empire of false religion", referring to all elements of worldly religions that do not adhere to biblical truth as published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (WTS) and as interpreted and defined by the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses (the institutional and leadership organizations of Jehovah's Witnesses). This includes, but is not limited to, Christendom, a term they use to refer to "professed Christianity" (Nominal Christianity) as opposed to "true Christianity". Jehovah's Witnesses literature often mentions the Catholic religion when discussing The Great Harlot of Babylon, and the subsequent attack on her by the political powers, signaling the beginning of the "great tribulation".
They believe that the harlot—the empire of false religion and an enemy of God—has persecuted God's prophets and people, and that 'false religion'—all religions that do not follow Bible teaching;commits and has committed "fornication" with the world's political and commercial elements.
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The Twelve Tribes communities, a new religious movement that has some things in common with Christianity and Messianic Judaism but does not self-identify as Christian, views Christianity itself (both Catholic and Protestant) as the whore of Babylon.
- πόρνη: From Greek. Fr. transliteration; pornē; English; prostitute/whore. 2) Metaphor; an idolatress; a) of "Babylon" i.e. Rome, the chief seat of idolatry. "Dictionary and Word Search for pornē (Strong's 4204)". Blue Letter Bible. 1996–2011. Retrieved on: 3 Nov 2011.
- The Lifting of the Veil: Acts 15:20-21, By Avram Yehoshua. Google Books
- Rome or Jerusalem? A Protestant Study on the Whore of Babylon in Revelation
- The Interpretation of Revelation
- Hunting the Whore of Babylon. Catholic Answers
- Ch 17: Babylon the whore. Commentary on Revelation
- What is the whore of Babylon / mystery Babylon? Catholic Questions.
- Women in scripture: a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew
- L. Michael White, Understanding the Book of Revelation, PBS
- Helmut Köster, Introduction to the New Testament, Volume 2, 260
- Pheme Perkins, First and Second Peter, James, and Jude, 16
- James L. Resseguie, Revelation unsealed: a narrative critical approach to John's Apocalypse, 138
- Watson E. Mills, Mercer Commentary on the New Testament, 1340
- Nancy McDarby, The Collegeville Bible Handbook, 349
- Carol L. Meyers, Toni Craven, Ross Shepard Kraemer Women in scripture: a dictionary of named and unnamed women in the Hebrew, p. 528
- David M. Carr, Colleen M. Conway, Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts, 353
- David Criswell, She Who Restores the Roman Empire: The Biblical Prophecy of the Whore of Babylon, 86
- Larry Joseph Kreitzer Gospel images in fiction and film: on reversing the hermeneutical flow, 61
- By Mary Beard, John A. North, S. R. F. Price Religions of Rome: A history,
- David M. Rhoads, From every people and nation: the book of Revelation in intercultural perspective, 174
- Charles T. Chapman, The message of the book of Revelation, 114
- Norman Cheadle, The ironic apocalypse in the novels of Leopoldo Marechal, 36
- Peter M. J. Stravinskas, The Catholic answer book, Volume 1, 18
- Catherine Keller, God and power: counter-apocalyptic journeys, 59
- Brian K. Blount, Revelation: A Commentary, 346
- Frances Carey, The Apocalypse and the shape of things to come, 138
- Richard Dellamora, Postmodern apocalypse: theory and cultural practice at the end, 117
- A. N. Wilson, Paul: The Mind of the Apostle, 11
- Gerd Theissen, John Bowden, Fortress introduction to the New Testament , 166
- 4 Ezra 3:1–2, 28–31
- 2 Baruch 10:1–3, 11:1, 67:7
- Sibylline oracles 5.143, 159–60
- Wall, R. W. (1991). New International biblical commentary: Revelation (207). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.
- Bratcher, R. G., & Hatton, H. (1993). A handbook on the Revelation to John. UBS handbook series; Helps for translators (248). New York: United Bible Societies.
- Davis, C. A. (2000). Revelation. The College Press NIV commentary (322). Joplin, Mo.: College Press Pub.
- Mounce, R. H. (1997). The Book of Revelation. The New International Commentary on the New Testament (315). Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
- Beckwith, Isbon T. The Apocalypse of John. New York: MacMillan, 1919; reprinted, Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2001.
- Alan James Beagley, The 'Stitz Im Leben' of the Apocalypse with Particular Reference to the Role of the Church's Enemies, 1987, 92–108
- David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation, 1987, 421–-66
- J. Massyngberde Ford, Revelation, ed, Anchor Bible, vol. 38, 1975, 283–286
- Peter Gaskell, Is She Jewish? Is She Roman? The Identity of the Whore of Babylon in the Book of Revelation, 2003
- Kenneth Gentry, Four Views of Revelation, 1998, 73–79
- Edmondo Lupieri, A commentary on the Apocalypse of John, 2006, 281
- Bruce Malina, 1995, 206–220
- Iain Provan, "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 from an Old Testament Perspective," JSNT, 64, 1996, 81–100
- J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: A Critical Inquiry into the New Testament Doctrine of Our Lord's Second Coming, 1887, 482–98
- Milton S. Terry, Biblical Apocalyptics: A Study of the Most Notable Revelations of God and of Christ, 1898, 426–39
- Hunting the Whore of Babylon
- Douglas Connelly. "The Indispensable Guide to Practically Everything: Bible Prophecy and End Times". ISBN 978-0-8249-4772-9
- A commentary on the Apocalypse of John, Edmondo Lupieri, p.7
- Revelation: The Apocalypse of St. John By John Drane, Richard Harries, p. 53
- A new and original exposition of the book of Revelation, pp. 252–253
- "And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH."
- Bilhartz, Terry D. Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-8386-3227-0.
- Edwards, Jr., Mark. Apocalypticism Explained: Martin Luther, PBS.org.
- Commentary on Daniel and Revelation. Google Books.
- Keys To Bible Symbols see Woman, pure and Woman, corrupt on bottom of page
- See also "They have committed adultery with their idols" (Ezekiel 23:37).
- Walvoord, John F. "Every Prophecy of the Bible". pg. 603–610. ISBN 978-1-56476-758-5.
- LaHaye, Tim. "Revelation Unveiled". pg. 262–271. ISBN 978-0-310-23005-2 (softcover).
- "Is the Vatican II sect the Whore of Babylon prophesied in the Apocalypse?". Most Holy Family Monastery. Retrieved 2010-04-03.
- The Great Controversy
- What Does The Bible Really Teach - Jehovah's Witnesses Official Web Site
- The Watchtower, April 15, 1962, p. 229 par. 6 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | "Christendom Has Failed God! After Her End, What?"
- The Watchtower, October 15, 1961, p. 229 par. 6 "When All Nations Unite Under God's Kingdom" Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania | Revelation 11:15-18:
- What Does the Bible Really Teach? p. 219 par. 2 - p. 220 par. 3 published by Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
- "Who Will Play the Part?".
- Harper's Bible Dictionary Paul J. Achtemeier, general editor (1985, Harper Collins), ISBN 0-06-069863-2
- The NIV Study Bible, Kenneth Barker, general editor. (1995, Zondervan) ISBN 0-310-92589-4
- The New Oxford Annotated Study Bible with Apocrypha, Bernhard W. Anderson, Bruce Metzger, general editors. (1991, Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-528356-2
- John Coleman, Conspirators' Hierarchy, 4th ed., Carson City: Joseph Holding Corp., 2006.
- R. A. Coombes, America, The Babylon: America’s Destiny Foretold In Biblical Prophecy, Leathers Pub, 1998.
- Walter Wink, Engaging the Powers, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.
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