View of Whyalla CBD Hummock Hill lookout
|Population||20,088 (2011 census)|
|Time zone||ACST (UTC+9:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||ACDT (UTC+10:30)|
|Location||395 km (245 mi) from Adelaide|
|LGA(s)||City of Whyalla|
Whyalla // is the third most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia after Adelaide and Mount Gambier. It is a seaport located on the east coast of the Eyre Peninsula. The town is known as the 'Steel City' due to its integrated steelworks and ship-building heritage. The port of Whyalla has been exporting iron ore since 1903.
It was founded as Hummock's Hill in 1901 by the Broken Hill Proprietary Company (BHP) as the end of a tramway bringing iron ore from Iron Knob in the Middleback Ranges to sea. Its first shipment was transported across Spencer Gulf to Port Pirie where it was used in lead smelters as a flux. A jetty was built to transfer the ore and the first shipment was sent in 1903. The early settlement consisted of small cottages and tents clustered around the base of the hill. The Post Office opened in 1901 as Hummock's Hill and was renamed Whyalla on 1 November 1919.
The arid environment and lack of natural fresh water resources made it necessary to import water in barges from Port Pirie.
In 1905 the town's first school opened. It was originally called Hummock Hill School, and was subsequently renamed as Whyalla Primary School and Whyalla Higher Primary School. The school's current name is Whyalla Town Primary School.
On 16 April 1920 the town was proclaimed as Whyalla. The ore conveyor on the jetty was improved and ore began to be shipped to the newly built Newcastle, New South Wales steelworks. The town grew slowly until 1938.
The BHP Indenture Act was proclaimed in 1937 and provided the impetus for the construction of a blast furnace and harbour. In 1939 the blast furnace and harbour began to be constructed and a commitment for a pipeline from the Murray River was made. A shipyard was built to provide ships for the Royal Australian Navy during World War II. The population began rising dramatically and many new facilities, including a hospital and abbatoirs, were built.
In 1941 the first ship from the new shipyard, HMAS Whyalla, was launched and the blast furnace became operational. By 1943 the population was more than 5,000. On 31 March 1943, the Morgan-Whyalla pipeline became operational. In 1945 the city came under combined company and public administration and the shipyard began producing commercial ships. In 1948 displaced persons began arriving from Europe.
In 1958 the Company decided to build an integrated steelworks at Whyalla and it was completed in 1965. In the following year, salt harvesting began and coke ovens were built. The population grew extremely rapidly, and the South Australian Housing Trust was building 500 houses a year to cope with the demand. Plans for a city of 100,000 were produced by the Department of Lands. A second pipeline from Morgan was built to cope with the demand.
In 1970 the city adopted full local government status. Fierce competition from Japanese ship builders resulted in the closing of the shipyards in 1978, which were at the time the largest in Australia. From a peak population of 33,000 in 1976 the population dropped rapidly. A decline in the BHP iron and steel industry since 1981 also impacted employment.
The BHP long products division was divested in 2000 to form OneSteel which is the sole producer of rail and steel sleepers in Australia. On 2 July 2012, Onesteel formally changed its name to Arrium.
From 2004 northern South Australia enjoyed a mineral exploration boom and Whyalla found itself well placed to benefit from new ventures, being situated on the edge of the Gawler Craton. The city experienced an economic upturn with the population slowly increasing and the unemployment rate falling to a more typical level.
Since its beginnings as Hummock Hill, the town has served as a port for the shipment of iron ore from deposits along the Middleback Range. In 2007, new transshipment handling processes were implemented, which allowed Arrium (formerly Onesteel) to load iron ore onto larger Capesize bulk carrier vessels in deeper water. The transshipment process involves the filling of barges with ore which is then transferred into the receiving vessels at one of three transshipment anchorages.
In April 2014 Arrium loaded its largest Capesize cargo. The MV Tian Fa Hai was loaded with about 198,000 wet metric tonnes (wmt) of iron ore – significantly more than the average load of about 170,000 wmt. At the time the company was on track to meet its annual export target of 12 million tonnes.
|Climate data for Whyalla|
|Record high °C (°F)||49.5
|Average high °C (°F)||30.2
|Average low °C (°F)||17.6
|Record low °C (°F)||5.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||14.4
|Avg. precipitation days||3.0||3.3||4.1||5.0||9.0||11.0||10.8||10.1||7.8||6.7||4.8||4.7||80.3|
According to the 2011 Census the population of the Whyalla area was 21,988 (including Mullaquana) people, making it the second largest urban area in the state outside of Adelaide. Approximately 50.5% of the population were male, 74% are Australian born and 4.2% were Indigenous.
The most popular industries for employment were Metal Manufacturing (18%), School Education (5.5%) and Health (4.1%), while the unemployment rate is approx. 8.1%. The median weekly household income is A$932 or more per week, compared with $1,106 in Adelaide. 19.6% of the population identify themselves as Catholic, while a higher 33.5% identify with no religion at all.
Road: The Lincoln Highway passes directly through Whyalla. The city is served by Premier Stateliner which operates four coach (bus) services to and from Adelaide (via Pt Augusta) each week day (less on weekends) and one service each way to Pt. Lincoln. There are however occasional exceptions to the week day route due to lack of demand to travel through Whyalla.
Rail: A narrow gauge so-called tramway was built to Iron Knob to supply iron ore originally used as flux when smelting copper ore. This ore became the basis of the steelworks. As the Iron Knob deposits were worked out, the railway was diverted to other sources of ore at Iron Monarch, Iron Prince, Iron Duke and Iron Baron.
To enable interchange between the BHP's other steelworks in Newcastle and Port Kembla of specialised rollingstock, the railway system within the Whyalla steelworks was converted to standard gauge circa 1963.
Some iron ore is exported from Whyalla. In 2007, steps were being taken to export iron ore from Peculiar Knob, 600 km away. To meet this increased demand, a balloon loop is being installed in 2013 at the port for both gauges.
Sea: There is a small boat marina, sailing club, and boat ramp on the coastline below Hummock Hill. Iron ore is exported through an off-shore facility.
Though maintaining strong effort for the tourism industry, Whyalla has struggled to compete with other cities in the area in regards to tourism. Such attractions possessed by the city to attract more tourists include HMAS Whyalla.
HMAS Whyalla was a World War II-era corvette. It was the first ship built in the city of Whyalla and was named after the city. The ship was landlocked as a tourist attraction in 1987, the main attraction of the Whyalla Maritime Museum.
In the late 1990s the spectacular annual migration of the Australian Giant Cuttlefish Sepia apama to the reef areas in the Spencer Gulf north of Whyalla around Black Point and Point Lowly became recognised by international divers. It has also come to the attention of divers of Whyalla, that the same area in which the cuttlefish breed is, just a few months later, the place of congregation for squid, which also come there to breed. This has only come to the attention of locals in 2005. There are also dolphins that frequent the local marina.
The Whyalla Conservation Park provides an example of the natural semi-arid environment.
The Hummock Hill lookout provides excellent views across the town, the port and the coast.
Whyalla is home to the annual Snapper Fishing Competition. Those who have not fished commercially in the past 12 months are invited to try their luck over a weekend. Prizes are awarded bases on individual fish weights. Tagging also takes place at this time.
State & Federal
|2006 State Election |
|2007 Federal Election |
Whyalla is part of the state electoral district of Giles, which is presently held by Labor MP Eddie Hughes. Giles was previously held by Labor MP Lyn Breuer from 1997 until her retirement in 2014. In federal politics, the city is part of the division of Grey, and has been represented by Liberal MP Rowan Ramsey since 2007. Grey is held with a margin of 8.86% and is considered safe-liberal. The results shown are from the largest polling station in Whyalla Norrie — which is located at Nicolson Avenue Primary School.
Primary schools in Whyalla include Whyalla Town Primary School, Fisk Street Primary School, Long Street Primary School, Hincks Avenue Primary School, Memorial Oval Primary School, Whyalla Stuart Campus, Nicolson Avenue Primary School, Sunrise Christian School, St Teresa's and Our Lady Help of Christians.
Tertiary education is provided by the Spencer Institute of TAFE, and the Whyalla Campus of the University of South Australia. UniSA Whyalla's academic programs include business, social work, nursing and research opportunities in rural health and community development.
Whyalla has two sister cities:[verification needed]
Notable people from Whyalla
- Robert Bajic - soccer player
- Edwina Bartholomew - journalist and television presenter
- Max Brown - politician
- Brett Burton - Former AFL player with the Adelaide Crows
- Alan Didak, AFL player with Collingwood Football Club.
- Karyne Di Marco - hammer thrower
- Alistair Edwards - Australian soccer player
- Gary Gray - Special Minister of State in the Gillard government
- Levi Greenwood - Australian Football League (AFL) player with North Melbourne Football Club
- Graeme Jose - Australian Olympic cyclist
- Alessandro Parisi - Guinness World Record Holder; "Longest Pinball Marathon". Record (28 hrs) set in January, 2007 (inaugural).
- Ian Rawlings - television actor
- Barrie Robran 3 time South Australian National Football League (SANFL) Magarey Medal winner (1968, 1970, 1973) with North Adelaide Football Club. First South Australian to be granted "Legend" status in the Australian Football Hall of Fame.
- Vern Schuppan - former Formula One driver and 1983 24 Hours of Le Mans winner (Schuppan was born in Booleroo Centre, but moved to Whyalla as an infant)
- Robert Shirley - AFL player with Adelaide Crows
- Peter Stanley - historian
- Carl Veart - International soccer player. Played 18 games for the Socceroos.
- Darryl Wakelin - AFL footballer
- Isaac Weetra - AFL player with Melbourne Football Club
- Douglas Wood (engineer)
- Sean Williams - science fiction author
- Stephen Yarwood - Lord Mayor of the City of Adelaide in South Australia from 2009-2014.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Whyalla". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Australia Post - Postcode: Whyalla, SA (25 June 2008)
- Premier Postal History. "Post Office List". Retrieved 11 April 2008.
- "Onesteel becomes Arrium mining and materials". Onesteel.com. Arrium. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
- "Arrium Mining sets Cape vessel record". Arrium. 2014-04-01. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
- "Whyalla climate".
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Community Profile Series : http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/UCL412004?opendocument&navpos=220". 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- See Griffiths, David. "BHP Tramways Centenary History." (1985, Mile End Railway Museum)(ISBN 0959507345). This book provides a detailed history of mining operations in the area, the construction of the railway, and the growth of Whyalla over the years.
- Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, September 1963 pp133-136
- Sepia apama: the giant Australian cuttlefish
- Whyalla Cuttlefish
- SA 2006 election results and outcomes (PDF), (a) P.14 (d) P.13, State Electoral Office, South Australia, 2006. Retrieved on 25 June 2008.
- Whyalla Norrie Polling Booth, Division of Grey, House of Representatives Division First Preferences, 2007 Federal Election. Retrieved on 25 June 2008.
- "Brett Burton's town of footy-mad kids". The Herald and Weekly Times Pty Ltd. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "ALAN DIDAK". AFL PLAYERS ASSOCIATION. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
- "About (Gary Gray)". Australian Labor. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "The longest pinball marathon". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Barrie Robran". ESPN Sports Media Ltd. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Peter Stanley - about me". Peter Stanley. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Veart, Carl". Australian Player Database. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Douglas Wood". Saxton Speakers Bureau. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
Media related to Whyalla, South Australia at Wikimedia Commons