At completion, 1915
|Branch of||Harvard College Library|
|Items collected||Primarily humanities and social sciences|
|Access and use|
|Access requirements||Harvard faculty, students & staff|
The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library, housing some 3.5 million books in its "vast and cavernous" stacks, is the centerpiece of the Harvard College Libraries (the libraries of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences) and, more broadly, of the entire Harvard Library system. It honors 1907 Harvard College graduate and book collector Harry Elkins Widener, and was constructed by his mother after his death in the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912.
Widener Library's holdings, which include works in more than one hundred languages, comprise "one of the world's most comprehensive research collections in the humanities and social sciences," including a number of departmental libraries and special collections, such as in the history of science, Islamic studies, and paleography.
At the building's heart are the Widener Memorial Rooms, displaying papers and mementos recalling the life and death of Harry Widener, as well as the Harry Elkins Widener Collection, "the precious group of rare and wonderfully interesting books brought together by Mr. Widener", to which was later added one of the few perfect Gutenberg Bibles—a gift of the Widener family in 1944 and the object, in 1969, of a theft attempt conjectured by Harvard's police chief to have been inspired by the heist film Topkapi.
The library's 57 miles (92 km) of shelves, along four miles (6 km) of aisles arrayed on ten levels, comprise a "labyrinth" which one student "could not enter without feeling that she ought to carry a compass, a sandwich, and a whistle." In the 1990s an epidemic of books cut from their bindings was traced to a former library employee preoccupied with texts on early Christianity in Greek, Latin, and Icelandic.
Campus legends holding that Harry Widener's fate led to institution of an undergraduate swimming requirement, and that an additional donation from his mother subsidizes ice cream at Harvard meals, are without foundation.
- 1 Background
- 2 Building
- 3 Collections and stacks
- 4 Harry Elkins Widener Collection
- 5 Swim-requirement and ice-cream legends
- 6 "The Slasher"
- 7 Renovation
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 1912 Harry Elkins Widener—scion of two of the wealthiest families in America, a 1907 graduate of Harvard College, and an "avid and knowledgeable bibliophile"[B]—died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. His father George Dunton Widener was lost as well, but his mother Eleanor Elkins Widener survived.
Harry Widener's will instructed that his mother, when "in her judgment Harvard University shall make arrangements for properly caring for my collection of books ... shall give them to said University to be known as the Harry Elkins Widener Collection."[C] To enable the fulfillment of her son's wish, Eleanor Widener briefly considered donating an addition to Gore Hall (Harvard's grossly overburdened existing library)[D] but soon determined to give "the whole": a completely new and far larger library building—"a memorial to my dear son"—which would (as the formal Deed of Gift recited) "not only house the special collection of her son, but also the general library of Harvard."
A number of stipulations accompanied this gift,:43 including that the building's architects be the firm of Horace Trumbauer & Associates, which had built several mansions for both the Elkins and the Widener families.:27:243 "Mrs. Widener does not give the University the money to build a new library, but has offered to build a library satisfactory in external appearance to herself," Harvard president Abbott Lawrence Lowell confided privately. "The exterior was her own choice, and she has decided architectural opinions.":361 Much later, Harvard historian William Bentinck-Smith wrote that
|To [Harvard officials] Mrs. Widener was a lovely and generous lady whose wealth, power, and remoteness made her a somewhat terrifying figure who must not be roused to annoyance or outrage. Once [construction] began, all financial transactions were the donor's private business, and no one at Harvard ever knew the exact cost. Mrs. Widener was counting on $2 million, [but] it is probable the cost exceeded $3.5 million.:14|
Though Harvard awarded Trumbauer an honorary degree on the day of the new library's dedication,:362:147 it was Trumbauer associate Julian F. Abele who had overall responsibility for the building's design.[E]
At Harvard's "geographical and intellectual heart", directly across Tercentenary Theatre from Memorial Church, the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library is a hollow rectangle of stone and brick, 250 ft by 200 ft by 80 ft high (76 x 61 x 24 m), "colonnaded on its front by immense pillars with elaborate [Corinthian capitals],:362 all of which stand at the head of a flight of stairs that would not disgrace the capitol in Washington." Above the main door are the hallmarks of great printers of the fifteenth century: Caxton of England; Rembolt of France; Aldus of Italy; Fust and Schöffer of Germany.
The east, south, and west wings house the stacks, while the north contains administrative offices and the Loker Reading Room—which, spanning the entire breadth of the building and some 42 feet (13 m) in both depth and height, was termed by Harvard architectural historian Bainbridge Bunting "the most ostentatious interior space at Harvard.":154 In the building's center, between what were originally two light courts (since enclosed as additional reading rooms) are the Widener Memorial Rooms (see below).
|Dr. John Warren, university marshal, led the way up the steps of the library, and the seniors then formed a double line, leaving a broad path for the entrance of the dignitaries. Mrs. Widener, who, with her guests, had gone into the library by the west door, was at the main door as the procession approached, and as President Lowell reached her side, she handed him the keys to the building.|
The first book formally brought into the new library was the 1634 edition of John Downame's The Christian Warfare Against the Devil, World, and Flesh,:18 believed at the time (though no longer believed) to be the only volume, of those bequeathed to the school by John Harvard in 1636, to have survived the 1754 burning of Harvard Hall.
In the Memorial Rooms the portrait of Harry Widener (commissioned by Eleanor Widener from French painter Gabriel Ferrier) was unveiled, then remarks delivered by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (speaking on behalf of Eleanor Widener) and Lowell. ("There was not a word too much or too little", said the Harvard Alumni Bulletin.):713 The Transcript continued:
|After the ceremony of presentation, the doors were thrown open, and both graduates and undergraduates had an opportunity to see the beauties and utilities of this important university acquisition.|
Amenities and deficiencies
Amenities touted at the building's opening included "telephones, pneumatic tubes, book lifts, book conveyors and passenger elevators", as well as "a dining-room and kitchenette for the ladies of the staff".[H] Advertisements for the manufacturer of the building's shelving highlighted its "dark brown enamel finish, harmonizing with oak trim."
Nonetheless certain deficiencies were noted almost immediately.:107:89 "The need of better toilet facilities has been pressed upon us during the past year by several rather distressing experiences," Widener Superintendent Frank Carney wrote cryptically in 1918.[I] And librarian Archibald Cary Coolidge wrote to J. P. Morgan, Jr.,
|There is something rather humiliating in having to proclaim to the world that we have 300 stalls [i.e. stacks study carrels] which furnish unequalled opportunity to the scholar and investigator who wishes to come here, but that in order to use these opportunities he must bring his own chair, table and electric lamp.|
(A week later Coolidge wrote again: "Your very generous gift [has helped] pull me out of a most desperate situation."):102 Faculty competition for the seventy:327 coveted private studies, giving direct access to the stacks, has been a longstanding headache for library administrators.:72-75
Later-built tunnels, from the stacks level furthest underground, connect to nearby Pusey Library and Lamont Library. An enclosed bridge connecting to Houghton Library via a Widener window (built after Eleanor Widener's heirs agreed to waive:75 her gift's proscription of any "changes, additions, or alterations to the exterior"):79 was removed in 2004.
Collections and stacks
The ninety-unit Harvard Library system,:361 of which Widener is the anchor, is the only academic library among the world's five "megalibraries"—Widener, the New York Public Library, the Library of Congress, France's Bibliothèque Nationale, and the British Library—making it "unambiguously the greatest university library in the world," in the words of a Harvard official.
According to the Harvard College Library's own description:
|The humanities and social sciences collections of the Widener Library are represented by distinguished holdings in the history, literature, public affairs, and cultures of five continents. Of particular note are the collections of Africana, Americana, European local history, Judaica, Latin American studies, Middle Eastern studies, Slavic studies, and rich collections of materials for the study of Asia, the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, France, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, and Greek and Latin antiquity. These collections include significant holdings in linguistics, ancient and modern languages, folklore, economics, history of science and technology, philosophy, psychology, and sociology.[J]|
Again alone among the "megalibraries", only Widener allows patrons the "long-treasured privilege" of entering the stacks to browse as they please, instead of requesting books through library staff.[K] Its 3.5 million volumes occupy 57 miles (92 km) of shelves along four miles (6 km) of aisles on ten separate levels divided into three wings each:4—a "labyrinth" which one student "could not enter without feeling that she ought to carry a compass, a sandwich, and a whistle."[L] Though until a recent renovation the stacks had little signage—"There was the expectation that if you were good enough to qualify to get into the stacks you certainly didn't need any help" (as an official put it) so that "learning to [find books in] Widener was like a rite of passage, a test of manhood"—at times color-coded lines and shoeprints have been applied to the floors to guide the bewildered.
As of 1997 the number of volumes reshelved each year was about 600,000. Another 1.5 million Widener items reside offsite (along with 3 million items from other Harvard libraries) at the Harvard Depository in Southborough, Massachusetts, from which they are retrieved overnight on request.:170-1
Departmental and special libraries
The building also houses a number of special libraries in dedicated spaces outside the stacks, including the Fred N. Robinson Celtic Seminar Library, the Hamilton A.R. Gibb Islamic Seminar Library, the Milman Parry Collection of Oral Literature, the James A. Notopoulos Collection of Modern Greek Ballads and Songs, the Herbert Weir Smyth Classical Library, the English Department's Francis James Child Memorial Library, and collections in the history of science, linguistics, Near Eastern languages and civilizations, paleography, and Sanskrit.
Harry Elkins Widener Collection
Widener Memorial Rooms
The central Memorial Rooms—an outer Rotunda housing memorabilia of the life and death of Harry Widener, and an inner Library displaying the 3300 rare books collected by him—were described by the Boston Sunday Herald soon after the building's dedication:
|The [outer room] is of Alabama marble except the domed ceiling, with fluted columns and Ionic capitals [while the inner] is finished in carved English oak, the carving having been done in England; the high bookcases are fitted with glass shelves and bronze sashes, the windows are hung with heavy curtains, and in glass-covered cases under them are arranged some examples of the autographed presentation volumes which came to Mr. Widener. Handsome chairs and desk make the furnishings here, and upon the desks are vases filled with flowers. Flowers will always be a part of the furnishings of this room, as the donor ... has arranged that they shall be supplied at regular intervals.|
(For many years Eleanor Widener hosted Commencement Day luncheons in the Memorial Rooms.:20 The family underwrites their upkeep, including weekly renewal of the flowers—originally roses but now carnations.)[N] The Herald continued:
|The big marble fireplace and the portrait of Harry Widener occupy a large portion of the south wall. Standing front of the fireplace one may look through the vista made by the doorways, the staircases within and the stairs without and get a glimpse of the green campus.|
The same line of sight means that, conversely, "even from the very entrance [of the building] one will catch a glimpse in the distance of the portrait of young Harry Widener on the further wall [of the Memorial Rooms], if the intervening doors happen to be open.":325
In 1920 the university commissioned John Singer Sargent to paint, within the fourteen-foot-high arched panels flanking the entrance to the Memorial Rotunda, two murals giving tribute to the university's World War I dead.[O] Above the Rotunda entrance is inscribed:
to the memory of • eleanor elkins rice • whose noble and edearing spirit • inspired the coneption and completion • of this memorial library • 1938.
(At the library's dedication Eleanor Widener had made the acquaintance of Harvard professor and surgeon Alexander Hamilton Rice, a noted South American explorer who had received an honorary degree earlier in the day, and they married less than four months later. She died in 1937.)
The works displayed in the Memorial Rooms comprise Harry Widener's collection at the time of his death, "major monuments of English letters, many remarkable for their bindings and illustrations or unusual provenance"::9 Shakespeare first folios;:362 a copy of Poems written by Wil. Shake-speare, gent. (1640) in its original sheepskin binding; an inscribed copy of Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson; Johnson's own Bible; first editions, presentation copies, and similarly valuable volumes of Dickens, Robert Louis Stevenson, Thackeray, Charlotte Brontë, Blake and George, Isaac, and Robert Cruikshank; the petty cash book kept by Dickens as a young law clerk.
Book collector and dealer George Sidney Hellman, writing soon after Harry Widener's death, commented on
|the excellence of his technical knowledge ... His enthusiasm as a collector and his winning personality ... afforded many opportunities of obtaining treasures whose acquisition cannot be explained alone on the basis of the wealth which he commanded. Had he not perished in the Titanic catastrophe, beyond question ... his library would surely have eventually become one of the greatest collections of books in modern times. [He] was not satisfied alone in having a rare book or a rare book inscribed by the author; it was with him a prerequisite that the volume should be in immaculate condition.|
"He died suddenly, just as he was beginning to be one of the world's great collectors," said the Harvard Alumni Bulletin. "They formed a young man's library, and are to be preserved as he left it"—except that the Widener family has the exclusive privilege of adding to it.[Q] By far the most valuable work in the collection is Harvard's "greatest typographical treasure":17—one of the only thirty-eight perfect copies extant of the Gutenberg Bible. Purchased while Harry was abroad by his grandfather Peter A. B. Widener (who intended to surprise Harry with it after the Titanic docked in New York) it was donated to the Collection by the Widener family in 1944.[R] (Like all Harvard's valuable books, works in the Widener Collection may be consulted by researchers demonstrating a bona fide research need.)[S]
Gutenberg Bible theft
On the night of August 19, 1969 an attempt was made to steal the Gutenberg Bible, valued at $1 million. The would-be thief hid in a lavatory until after closing, then made his way to the roof, from which he descended via a knotted rope to a Memorial Room window, which he broke into. But after smashing the Gutenberg's display case and placing its two volumes in a knapsack, he found it impossible to reclimb the rope carrying the 70-pound (32 kg) booty.:D
Eventually he fell some 50 feet (15 m):45 to the pavement of one of the light courts, where (despite landing on the knapsack):D he lay semiconscious until his moans were heard by a janitor.:45 He was found about 1 a.m., "considerably the worse for his adventure",:D with injuries including a fractured skull. "It looks like a professional job all right, in the fact that he came down the rope," commented Harvard Police Chief Robert Tonis. "But it doesn't look very professional that he fell off." Tonis speculated that the attempt may have been modeled on a similar caper depicted in the 1964 film Topkapi.
Only the books' bindings (which are not original) were damaged. Since the incident only one or the other Bible volume is on display at any given time:E and a replica has been substituted at times of heightened security concern.
Swim-requirement and ice-cream legends
A Harvard legend holds that, to ensure no other Harvard man would share her son's fate, Eleanor Widener insisted that future graduates be required to demonstrate an ability to swim.[T] "Among the many myths relating to Harry Elkins Widener, this is the most prevalent", says the Harvard University Library's "Ask a Librarian" service:
|A review of records in the Harvard Archives indicates that there have been swimming requirements at various times in Harvard history, but none were related in any way to Mr. Widener or the gift of the library to Harvard by his mother ... [As Bentinck-Smith]:21–22 wrote, "There is absolutely no evidence in the President's papers, or the faculty's, to indicate that [Harry Widener's mother] was, as a result of the Titanic disaster, in any way responsible for [any] compulsory swimming test."|
Another story, holding that Eleanor Widener donated a further sum to ensure the perpetual availability of ice cream (purportedly Harry Widener's favorite dessert) in Harvard dining halls, is also without foundation.
Around 1990, empty bindings stripped of their pages began to appear in the Widener stacks. Eventually some 600 mutilated books were discovered, the vandal preferring works on early Christianity in Greek, Latin, or unusual languages such as Icelandic.
Notes left at Widener, and later at Northeastern University libraries, threatened library workers with graphically described mutilations, instructed that $500,000 be left in a Northeastern library, and demanded that Northeastern "terminate all Jew personnel". Other notes directed that $1 million be left in the Widener stacks: "pUt THe mONEy FucKer BEhiNd THE eLevATOR on D WEST in THE basemENT WhERE tHe 1,000,000.00 dollaRS IN rare GreEK bOOks wAS slASHEd ApARt MIGNE GREEK PATROLOGIA." The FBI staked out these "ransom drops" without result.
In 1994 police connected an incident at Northeastern, in which a library worker there (a former Widener employee) was caught stealing chemistry books, with the fact that chemistry texts had been among the works mutilated at Widener. Officials found "a kind of renegade reference room" in the worker's basement, including library books, piles of ripped-out pages, a microfilm camera, and hundreds of unusable microfilms he had haphazardly made of books he had destroyed. At trial "The Slasher" said his acts were revenge for the eighteen months he had been detained, in a state psychiatric hospital, after expiration of a six-month jail term he had received for a minor offense.
A $97 million renovation completed in 2004—the first since the building opened—added fire suppression and environmental control systems, upgraded wiring and communications, enclosed the light courts to create reading rooms, and remodeled various public spaces. "Claustrophobia-inducing" elevators were replaced, the bottom shelves on the lowest stacks level were removed in recognition of chronic seepage problems, Widener's "olfactory nostalgia ... actually the smell of decaying books" was addressed, and unrestricted light and air—seen as desirable when Widener was built but now considered "public enemies one and two for the long-term safety of old books"—were brought under control.
The work was complicated by the terms of Eleanor Widener's gift, which forbade that "structures of any kind [be] erected in the courts around which the said building is constructed, but that the same shall be kept open for light and air".:79:42 The need to relocate each of the building's 3.5 million volumes twice—first to temporary locations, then back, as work proceeded aisle by aisle—was turned to advantage, so that by the end of the renovation related materials in the library's two parallel classification systems—the older "Widener" system,[U] and the Library of Congress system adopted in the 1970s:256:159—were physically adjacent for the first time. The chart showing the floor and wing location, within the stacks, of each subject classification was revised sixty-five times during construction.
-  Across the vestibule a matching tablet reads: this library • erected • in loving memory of • harry elkins widener • by his mother • eleanor elkins widener • dedicated • june 24 1915. In the inner entrance hall an inscription alludes to Ecclesiasticus 33:17: harry elkins widener • a.b. 1907 • loved the books • which he had collected • and the college • to which he bequeathed them • "he laboured • not for himself only • but for all those • who seek learning." • this memorial • has been placed here by his classmates.:672
- :361 Harry Widener had belonged to both the Bibliophile Society of Boston and the Grolier Club, "the most important club of [bibliophiles] in the world. The late J. P. Morgan had sent word ... that he would like Harry made a member. The question of a seconder was waived; it was understood that Mr. Morgan's endorsement of his protégé's qualifications was sufficient."
-  According to a friend's reminiscences, not long before Harry Widener died he had said, "I want to be remembered in connection with a great library, [but] I do not see how it is going to be brought about." After his death Eleanor Widener wrote to Abbot Lawrence Lowell ("an acknowledged expert on world politics and political theory", and Eaton Professor of the Science of Government until he became Harvard's president soon after Harry Widener graduated), "My dear son Harry was a great admirer of yours & often spoke of the pleasure he had while in your classes. He loved Harvard & on our last voyage home, Mr. Frank Millet was a fellow passenger, & he & Harry would sit up very late talking of their love & ambition for the University."
- Alarms had been issuing for many years about the obsolescence of Gore Hall, constructed 1838–41 (when Harvard owned 44,000 volumes) and declared full in 1863.:5 Despite a substantial addition in 1876 (pioneering "one of the most notable inventions of the 19th century", the bookstack) and another in 1907, by the turn of the century Gore was "disgracefully inadequate",:276 with dormitory basements pressed into service as overflow storage for the school's 600,000 books.
- It is unsuitable for its object. The old stack was modeled after an English chapel ... no amount of tinkering can make it really good ... hopelessly overcrowded ... leaks when there is a heavy rain ... intolerably hot in summer ... books are put in double rows and are not infrequently left lying on top of one another, or actually on the floor ...:51–2
So cramped was Gore that each seated reader blocked access to "several hundred, in some alcoves 1,000 or 1,500 volumes, to get at which it is necessary for the occupant to rise, move the chair, frequently the table, and remain standing till the steps are adjusted, the book is found, and sometimes even consulted; and to replace everything before resuming work." Electric lighting installed after an 1895 fireproofing constituted Gore's first artificial illumination of any kind. Prior to this "the Corporation that built Gore Hall were well aware of its inflammable quality, and from the beginning [had] made the regulation that no lights should ever be used in the building"; an 1885 visitor described students "slowly, and, as it seemed, reluctantly, leaving the building" as darkness fell on a winter afternoon.
Harvard Librarian Justin Winsor concluded his 1892 Annual Report by writing, "I have in earlier reports exhausted the language of warning and anxiety, in representing the totally inadequate accommodations for books and readers which Gore Hall affords. Each twelve months brings us nearer to a chaotic condition.":15 This linguistic exhaustion was apparently literal, for in his 1894 report Winsor did little more than quote himself: "What I have repeatedly said about the insufficiency of Gore Hall for the uses of the Library, I can only repeat with renewed emphasis: 'I have exhausted the language of warning and anxiety ...'":177
In some respects it was Winsor himself who had created this emergency, for he had long sought "to make the library the focus of the intellectual life of the college [in light of the emerging] system of instruction which constantly impels its students to independent investigation". It was for Winsor "a fundamental principle that books should be used to the largest extent possible and with the least trouble", so that during his tenure as librarian Gore Hall became a very different place from what it had been during his own days as a student at Harvard, when it had been open
- six hours a day for the first four secular days of the week, and four hours on Friday ... Seniors and Juniors apply for books on Monday and Thursday, Sophomores on Tuesday, Freshmen on Wednesday.
In 1903 the Harvard Graduates Magazine complained that while "only the Congressional Library and the Boston Public Library surpass [Harvard's collection], what avails this wealth of material, if it be not properly housed? As well not possess, as to be powerless to use what you possess." Gore was dark, the staff worked under "sweat-shop" conditions, and "open-work iron floors render quiet impossible ... the mud on the boots of the student above drops onto the head of the student below ... Cataloguing falls behind, for there is not sufficient room to seat the cataloguers."
The situation was exacerbated by Harvard's "generous policy of serving scholars everywhere ... The number of writers and investigators who come to Cambridge to consult its treasures constantly grows ..." And though in an earlier era "the library was used by comparatively few, with the development of the elective system and of higher courses in research, access to books [had become] as indispensable for students in the literary branches as laboratories are to scientific students." As a result,
- other colleges—younger, smaller, less richly endowed—profiting by the methods organized at Harvard, have now outstripped us in capacity for usefulness ... Columbia, Princeton, Cornell, and the University of Wisconsin have now each a million dollar building. We can certainly rejoice for them, but what can we say of ourselves? ... There are throughout the country rich men, looking for fit objects for benefaction. It ought not to be difficult to persuade one of these that in providing a library for Harvard he would be doing a work of national benefit.
In 1910 a committee of architects drew up a plan for replacement of Gore in stages:
- As an alternative to a completely new building, one stack addition after another might be added to Gore ... on three sides of a quadrangle with a court in the center. Eventually Gore Hall would be removed and the main façade of the new building would form the final side of a quadrangle.
Andrew Carnegie was approached (via J. P. Morgan) to fund the project, though without success. In May 1911 the Boston American (published by disgraced Harvard dropout William Randolph Hearst) carried a mock advertisement: "Wanted—a millionaire. Will some kind millionaire please give Harvard University a library building? Tainted money not barred. Mr. Rockefeller, take notice. Mr. Carnegie, please write."
"The committee's Beaux Arts design, with its massiveness and symmetry, offered monumentality with nothing more particular to monumentalize than the aspirations of the modern university", Biel has written—until Harry Widener died and "through delicate negotiation, [Harvard's librarian Archibald Cary Coolidge and its president Abbot Lawrence Lowell] convinced Eleanor Widener that the most eloquent tribute to Harry would be an entire library rather than a rare book wing."
-  Horace Trumbauer "had no rivals when it came to tempting clients to spend immodest sums", wrote Wayne Andrews,:16 and Biel said that he had "made his name and fortune by knowing that 'only a magnificent setting could hope to satisfy an American with a magnificent income,' and he had already imparted such magnificence to the Widener and Elkins mansions and an assortment of other palaces ... [He] knew who his client was, so he gave elaborate attention to memorializing Harry in style" in the Memorial Rooms.:89 Nonetheless Trumbauer was extremely shy, and sensitive about his lack of formal education. "He had literally to be dragged to Cambridge and dressed in his academic gown by Mrs. Widener for the graduation ceremonies in June 1915, when Harvard awarded him his only honorary degree, a master of arts.":333
Sources disagree as to whether the building's style is "Beaux-Arts", "Georgian",:57:457 "Hellenistic",:281 or "the austere, formalistic Imperial [or 'Imperial and Classical'] style displayed in the Law School's Langdell Hall and the Medical School Quadrangle".:361
Eleanor Widener was extremely sensitive to confusion over the circumstances of her gift, which began with early reports that her father-in-law P. A. B. Widener was the donor of the projected library. She wrote to Lowell, "I want emphasized ... that the library is a memorial to my dear son, to be known as the 'Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library,' given by me & not his grandfather as has been so often stated." Years later her second husband insisted that Lowell do his best "to see that in all official reports, etc. the Library is referred to as the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library?—Widener! Not one cent of Widener money, one second of Widener thought, nor one ounce of Widener energy were expended on either the conception or construction of the Library.":15
- :13 A six-foot-square bronze tablet, featuring a bas relief of Gore Hall, is at Widener's northwest corner. Its inscription reads in part: on this spot stood • gore hall • architect richard bond • supervisor daniel treadwell • built in the year 1838 • in honor of christopher gore • class of 1776 • fellow of the college, overseer, benefactor • governor of the commonwealth • senator of the united states • the first use of modern book-stacks was in this library ...
- Because a cold prevented Eleanor Widener from attending the groundbreaking, Harry Widener's brother George did the ceremonial digging, the frozen ground softened in advance by a two-day bonfire.:80 Four months later Eleanor Widener, using a silver trowel, buried in the cornerstone an inscribed silver tablet; the morning's Boston and New York newspapers; photographs of herself, Harry Widener, and Harry's father George Dunton Widener; newspapers reporting the February groundbreaking; and United States coins ranging in value from one cent to twenty dollars.
- :676 In the basement (later converted to additional shelving as stacks Levels C and D) were
- the dynamos which run the five elevators and two book-lifts, the compressed air machinery for the pneumatic tubes, the dynamo and fan for the vacuum-cleaning system, a pump connected with the steam-heating apparatus, enormous fans which pump warm air into the Reading-Room and the stack, a filter through which passes all water which enters the building, and the connections for electric light and power. The building is to be heated by steam, conveyed through a tunnel from the plant of the Elevated Railroad Company, which also furnishes heat to the other buildings of the College Yard and to the freshman dormitories.:328
Stacks innovations included wide bottom shelves and interchangeable regular and oversize shelves, "in order that the students and attendants using the stack would not be confused by the [subject] classes being broken up on account of variation of size. Books on the same subject properly belong together, and it is awkward and needless to separate them simply because one book may be larger than another."
In addition, the marble floors were polished using a machine "so simple that any laborer of ordinary intelligence can operate it to advantage [yet it] can do the work of ten men rubbing by hand."
- "At present everyone using the stack is obliged to go to the basement to reach the public toilet. This in the case of a man using one of the top floors of the stack is a particularly long trip ... An emergency toilet ... would be a desirable thing.":59
-  However, "Harvard does not collect all subjects and all types of material ... The holdings in subject areas not represented in the curriculum (such as agriculture) are understandably limited ...":352
- :E It was not always so. Originally "school-boys" earning 40 dollars per month fetched books requested via slips submitted to the Delivery Room. "Should a slip be received for a book in a part of the stack where a boy has just been sent—particularly in the West stack, which is the farthest away from the central station—the [request] is telephoned across on the internal telephone.":56
-  In H. P. Lovecraft's fictional universe Cthulhu Mythos, "a 17th century edition" of the Necronomicon is hidden somewhere in the Widener stacks. Thomas Wolfe, who earned a Harvard master's degree in 1922 wrote of "[wandering] through the stacks of that great library like some damned soul, never at rest—ever leaping ahead from the pages I read to thoughts of those I want to read"; his alter ego Eugene Gant (in his 1929 novel Look Homeward, Angel) read with a watch in his hand, "laying waste of the shelves." Historian Barbara Tuchman considered "the single most formative experience of my career" the writing of her undergraduate thesis, for which she was "allowed to have as my own one of those little cubicles with a table under a window" in the Widener stacks, which were "my Achimedes' bathtub, my burning bush, my dish of mold ... The experience was marvelous, a word I use in the exact sense meaning full of marvels."
-  The rug is a Heriz Persian, the lamp on the desk an (unsigned) Tiffany. In the library's early years, when the inner Memorial Room served as the office of the Widener Collection's curator, fires sometimes burned in the fireplace.
-  A Widener curator's compilation of "fanciful oral history" recited by student tour guides includes "Flowers mysteriously appear every morning outside the Widener Room" and "Harry used to have carnations dyed crimson to remind him of Harvard, and so his mother kept up the tradition."
-  "Six years later[clarification needed] the University published plans [to build what is now known as] Memorial Church to face Widener across the Yard and permanently display the Honor Roll, listing the names of the nearly four hundred Harvard men who perished in the war. This programmatic ensemble, located at the physical center of the University, forms the most elaborate World War I memorial in the Boston area."
- Though strictly accurate the bookplate is misleading: Harvard's charges against Joel C. Williams were dropped after he was indicted on book-theft charges in another jurisdiction, which imposed the hard-labor sentence.
Williams had been arrested after attempting to sell two books bearing Harvard College Library stamps to a Harvard Square book dealer, after which (the Harvard Crimson reported) "C. R. Apted, Superintendent of Caretakers, together with officials of the Library, made a trip to Williams' home", where they found thousands of stolen books in barrels and wastebaskets. The "absolutely crazy" Williams would "go to students studying in Widener and ask them what course they were taking. He would then borrow all the books for that course in the library. Then no one could get any to study," library official John E. Shea later recalled.
Shea (who began in 1905 checking coats in Gore Hall—"my mother ... did professor C. T. Copeland's laundry for years"—and retired in 1954 as Widener's Stacks Superintendent) was renowned not only for leaving "no stone unthrown", as he himself put it, in locating mis-shelved or otherwise errant books, but also for his "genius for such malapropisms [which] in fact, were generally the mot juste." These included references to "venereal blinds" and "osculating fans" in the Catalog Room, equipment that had "outlived its uselessness", and a gift of a bottle of wine "as a momentum", as well as mention that Widener's head janitor "has a maniac for sweeping the basement."
-  The December 31, 1912 agreement between Eleanor Widener and the President and Fellows of Harvard College provides that "this collection, together with such books as may be added to it by members of the family of the Donor, shall at all times be kept separate and apart from the general library of Harvard ... Harvard is not ... ever to add anything to the said Harry Elkins Widener collection ... [S]aid books shall not be taken or removed from the two rooms specially set apart ... excepting only when necessary for the repair or restoration of any volume ..."
-  Harry Widener knew his grandfather had bought the Gutenberg Bible, but not that it was intended for him. "I wish it was for me but it is not", he wrote to a friend. After Harry's death, and (soon after) that of his grandfather, the Bible passed to Harry's uncle;[clarification needed] at the uncle's death Harry's brother and sister added the Bible to the Harry Elkins Widener Collection because it "had been bought for Harry and should be among his books." Yale also has a Gutenberg, though not in "quite as fine condition" as Harvard's, according to Harvard officials.
-  Though still housed in Widener Library's Memorial Rooms, the Harry Elkins Widener Collection is administered through Houghton Library, Harvard's rare book and manuscript library.:45
-  "The only [one of Eleanor Widener's stipulations] not upheld was the swimming requirement, dropped in the late 1970s because it was deemed discriminatory against physically disabled students", the Harvard Crimson reported erroneously in 1995.
- "Widener's system persists in the stacks to this day, preserving traces of the division of knowledge in its turn-of-the-century formulation. The 'Aus' class contains books on the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the 'Ott' class serves the purpose for the Ottoman Empire. Dante, Molière, and Montaigne each gets a class of his own." (Battles):15
- Primus IV (September–October 1998). "Sheavian Slips". Harvard Magazine.
- Hanke, Timothy (June 4, 1998). "Counting Libraries at Harvard: Not as Easy as You Think". Harvard University Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College). Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2009). "Widener Library Collections. Overview". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Harvard College Library (2009). "Harry Elkins Widener Collection. Overview". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Library planning, bookstacks and shelving, with contributions from the architects' and librarians' points of view. Snead & Company Iron Works. 1915. pp. 11, 68, 152–8.
- "Harvard Commencement. Widener Is Dedicated – Senator Lodge Makes the Speech of Presentation – President Lowell Accepts Gift for Harvard – In Presence of Many Distinguished Guests – Mrs. Widener, Donor, Delivers the Keys – Bishop Lawrence in Benediction and Prayer – Exercises are in Library Memorial Room – University Marshal Warren Is in Charge". Boston Evening Transcript. June 24, 1915. p. 2.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (Mar 25, 2013). "What are the inscriptions to Harry by his mother in the entrance to the memorial library at Harvard?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 14, 2014. Check date values in:
- Lane, William Coolidge (May 1915). "The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library. The Widener Memorial". The Library Journal 40 (5): 672–7.
- Mrs. A. H. Rice Dies in a Paris Store – New York and Newport Society Woman, Wife of Explorer, Noted for Philanthropy – A Survivor of Titanic – Lost First Husband and Son in Disaster – Gave Library to Harvard University, New York Times, July 14, 1937 Check date values in:
Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; Shenton, Robert (May 2014). Harvard A to Z. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02089-4.[better source needed]
- John Woolf Jordan (1911). Colonial Families of Philadelphia. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 1500.
- Grolier Club (1921). Transactions of the Grolier Club. Grolier Club. p. 179.
- A. Edward Newton (September 1918). "A Remembrance of Harry Elkins Widener". The Atlantic Monthly 122. pp. 351–6.
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- Lowell, A(bbot) Lawrence. New International Encyclopedia (Dodd, Mead). 1915. p. 425.
- The American Educational Review XXX (6). American Educational Company. March 1909. p. 259. Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2009). "The Memorial Library. Mrs. Widener to President Lowell". History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- William Bentinck-Smith (1980). "... a Memorial to My Dear Son": Some Reflections on 65 Years of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library. Harvard College Library.
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- "From a Graduate's Window". Harvard Graduates Magazine (Harvard Graduates' Magazine Association) 12 (45): 23–25. September 1903.
- Ireland, Corydon (April 5, 2012). "Widener Library rises from Titanic tragedy". Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College.
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- "The Advancing Year". The Harvard Graduates' Magazine (Harvard Graduates' Magazine Association): 511. June 1895.
- William Coolidge Lane, ed. (1902). Brief Chronology of the Library. Bibliographical Contributions (54) (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Library of Harvard University). p. 35.
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- "Our Library. WHAT THE OUTSIDE PRESS HAS TO SAY ABOUT IT". Harvard Crimson. January 12, 1885.
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- "The Passing of Gore Hall". Harvard Alumni Bulletin (Harvard Bulletin, Incorporated) XV (16): 263. January 15, 1913.
- "William Randolph Hearst". Encyclopaedia Brittanica. July 29, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2014. Check date values in:
- Steven Biel (2012). Down with the Old Canoe: A Cultural History of the Titanic Disaster. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-34080-8.
- Harvard College Library (2009). "The Memorial Library. The Gift to Harvard". History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
Battles, Matthew (2004). Widener: Biography of a Library. Harvard College Library, 2004. ISBN 978-0-674-01668-2.
- "Julian Abele". Sprinkler Valve Through Door: A peek inside Harvard's Widener Library. February 18, 2014.
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- Lacock, John Kennedy (1923). Boston and vicinity including Cambridge, Arlington, Lexington, Concord, Quincy, Plymouth, Salem and Marblehead. Historic landmarks and points of interest and how to see them. Boston: Chapple Publishing Company.
- British Universities Encyclopaedia: pt. 1–2. World's libraries and librarians. London: British Universities Encyclopaedia Limited and the Athenaeum Press. 1939.
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- "Widener Library Tablet Commemorates Gore Hall". Cambridge Tribune XL (29). September 15, 1917.
- "Tablet Erected to Gore Hall – Placed by Library Committee on Front of Widener.". Harvard Crimson. September 26, 1917. Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2009). "The Memorial Library. The Cornerstone". History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Dienstag, John (May 3, 2004). "Widener Reading Room Reopens". Harvard Crimson.
- "The Newly Completed Widener Memorial Library, Harvard University is equipped with Snead Standard Stack and Snead Standard Steel Shelving". The Library Journal: 9. December 1915.
- Charles Forrest (Fall 2005). "2005 AIA/ALA Library Building Awards – Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library Renovation". Library Administration & Management 19 (4): 197–205, 200.
- Shand-Tucci, Douglas (2001). The Campus Guide: Harvard University. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 165–169. ISBN 9781568982809.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (April 1, 2011). "Over the front door of Widener there is a carving.". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 16, 2014. Check date values in:
- Mason Hammond (Fall 1988). "A Carved Tablet Showing Early Printers' Marks on the Widener Library". Harvard Library Bulletin. XXXVI (4): 373–380.
- Bainbridge Bunting (1985). Margaret Henderson Floyd, ed. Harvard: An Architectural History. Belkap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 152–157. ISBN 978-0-674-37291-7.
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- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (February 25, 2013). "What can you tell me about the portrait in the Widener Memorial Room?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 15, 2014. Check date values in:
- "The Commencement Celebration". Harvard Alumni Bulletin (Harvard Alumni Association) XVII (38): 712–719. June 30, 1915. Check date values in:
- "New Addition Affords Widener Shelving Room – Recent Gift of Mrs. Hamilton Rice Increases Stack Space – Two Levels Added Below Present Stack". Harvard Crimson. September 22, 1928. Check date values in:
- "Improved Machinery. An Electric Floor Surfacing Machine". The Engineering Magazine: iv. June 1916.
- Lane, William Coolidge (May 1915). "The Widener Memorial Library of Harvard College". The Library Journal 40 (5): 325.
- Theodore, Elisabeth S. (November 14, 2001). "Widener Beefs Up Security". Harvard Crimson.
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- HCL Communications (November 6, 2003). "Houghton bridge is coming down". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College).
- Seward, Zachary M. (November 18, 2003). "Widener Library Bridge Coming Down". Harvard Crimson.
- "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College). February 26, 1998.
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- Hightower, Marvin (March 28, 1996). "Destroyer of Books Gets Stiff Sentence". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College).
- Reed, Christopher (March 1997). "Biblioklepts". Harvard Magazine. Part A Part B Part C Part D Part E
- Harvard College Library (2009). "HCL News. Widener Stacks Division Completes the Movement of Millions of Volumes – Not an Easy Trick". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
Potier, Beth (September 30, 2004). "Widener Library renovations: On time, on budget". Harvard Gazette. Check date values in:
- Battles, Matthew (2004). Library: An Unquiet History. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-32564-5.
- Tuchman, Barbara W. Practicing History: Selected essays. Random House Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-307-79855-8.
- David Cort (June 12, 2012). "Does Harvard have a copy of the Necronomicon?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 13, 2014. Check date values in:
- "History of the Necronomicon". Sprinkler Valve Through Door: A peek inside Harvard's Widener Library. April 1, 2014.
- "April Fools". Sprinkler Valve Through Door: A peek inside Harvard's Widener Library. April 2, 2014.
- Bilstad, T. Allan (2009). The Lovecraft Necronomicon primer: a guide to the Cthulhu mythos. Llewellyn Worldwide. ISBN 978-0-7387-1379-3.
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- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (April 1, 2014). "Who was the Harvard student who famously was stunned to realize that he couldn't read all the books in Widener Library?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 5, 2014. Check date values in:
- "Thomas Wolfe at Harvard: Damned Soul in Widener". Harvard Crimson. October 18, 1958.
- David Herbert Donald (2002). Look Homeward: A Life of Thomas Wolfe. Harvard University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 978-0-674-00869-4.
- Rolbein, Seth (April 13, 1997). "Deep in the stacks: Besides 3.5 million books, Harvard's Widener Library harbors scholars, thieves, eccentrics and a tale or two". The Boston Globe Magazine. p. 14.
- "Fifteen Minutes: Blue Line". Harvard Crimson. September 30, 1999.
- Gewertz, Ken (October 17, 2002). "Widener's main entrance to close for renovation". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College).
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- Hugh Amory; Nancy Finlay (1992). A Houghton library chronicle, 1942–1992. Harvard College Library.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (October 3, 2011). "Did the furniture in the Widener Memorial Room belong to Harry Elkins Widener?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 15, 2014. Check date values in:
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (October 3, 2011). "What is the rug that's in the Widener Memorial Room?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 15, 2014. Check date values in:
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (October 3, 2011). "Is the lamp in the Widener Memorial Room a real Tiffany?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 15, 2014. Check date values in:
- Whitehill, Walter Muir (1969). "George Parker Winship". Analecta biographica; a handful of New England portraits. Stephen Greene Press. pp. 1–14.
- Harvard College Library (June 10, 2014). "Houghton Library. Collections. Harry Elkins Widener Collection. History.". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15. Check date values in:
- Boston Sunday Herald. October 10, 1915. p. 1. quoted in Harvard College Library (2009). "The Memorial Library. The Library Opens". History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Halberstam, David (April 7, 1953). "The Widener Memorial Room". Harvard Crimson.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (October 3, 2011). "Is it true that fresh flowers are delievered daily to the Widener Memorial Room?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved April 30, 2014. Check date values in:
- Schaffer, Sarah J. (February 18, 1995). "Bibliophobia". Harvard Crimson.
- Primus V (July–August 2003). "The College Pump – Lies about Harry". Harvard Magazine.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (June 14, 2013). "Where are the John Singer Sargent paintings in Widener?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 14, 2014. Check date values in:
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (October 8, 2011). "What is the inscription over the door to the Widener Library in memory of Mrs. Hamilton Rice?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 14, 2014. Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2009). "The Memorial Library. The Rotunda". History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Explorer Rice Weds Mrs. G. D. Widener – Law Requiring Five Days' Delay After Securing License Waived by a Court Order – Plans for Secrecy Fail – Bishop Lawrence Officiates at Ceremony in Emmanuel Church Vestry Witnessed by Twelve Persons, New York Times, October 7, 1915 Check date values in:
- "Memorial Bust of Titanic Victim Placed in Widener – Francis Davis Millet '69 Honored by His Classmates—Was Prominent Mural Decorator". Harvard Crimson. June 4, 1920. Check date values in:
- "The bookplates of Harvard men". Modern Books and Manuscripts – Houghton Library, Harvard University.
- Katherine P. States (October 15, 1977). "Don't Steal These Books, 1932 Inscriptions Warn". Harvard Crimson.
- Colleen Bryant (Jul 19, 2012). "I found a disturbing bookplate in a Widener book.". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian.
- Travis McDade (2013). Thieves of Book Row: New York's Most Notorious Rare Book Ring and the Man Who Stopped It. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-992266-6.
- "INDICT BOOK THIEF ON TWENTY COUNTS – Former Preparatory School Teacher, Arrested Two Weeks Ago, Had Home Stocked With Library Books". Harvard Crimson. November 4, 1931. Check date values in:
- Cronin, Philip M. (December 12, 1951). "Faculty Profile. Sleuths in the Stacks". Harvard Crimson.
- James E. Homans, ed. (1918). Harry Elkins Widener. The Cyclopædia of American Biography.
- George S. Hellman (June 2, 1912). "Harvard To Get Harry Widener's Famous Library – Titanic Victim, Though Hardly Out Of College – Acquired A Fine Collection Of Books That He Willed To His Alma Mater – His Grandfather Adds A Memorial Wing To House It". The New York Times. Check date values in:
- George Parker Winship (June 16, 1915). "The Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Library. The Widener Collection of Books". Harvard Alumni Bulletin (Harvard Alumni Association) XVII (36): 668–70. Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2012). "Houghton Library. Collections. Harry Elkins Widener Collection. The Gutenberg Bible". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-23.
- Harvard College Library (2012). "Houghton Library. Collections. Harry Elkins Widener Collection. The Gutenberg Bible". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (Feb 7, 2012). "Does Harvard have a Gutenberg Bible?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved June 15, 2014. Check date values in:
- Widener, Harry Elkins (March 10, 1912). "Just a few lines to tell you that I am about to take a quick trip to England" (Letter to Luther Samuel Livingston).
- "Widener Gutenberg Bible Near Best – Outstanding Specimen In Harvard Scarce Volume Collection". Harvard Crimson. November 10, 1949. Check date values in:
- Harvard College Library (2007). "Widener Library. Collections. Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection". hcl.harvard.edu. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Retrieved 2014-05-16.
Burglar Slips as He Tries to Remove Gutenberg Bible From Widener Library, Harvard Crimson, September 18, 1969
- "Cat Burglar Steals Bible Before Fall From Grace". St. Petersburg Times. August 21, 1969. p. 2-A.
- "Officials Add New Security For Widener Fire Threat, Bible Theft Spur Action". Harvard Crimson. September 23, 1969.
- Mann, Elizabeth (December 9, 1993). "The First Abridged Dictionary of Harvard Myths". The Harvard Independent. pp. 10–11.
- Mooney, Carolyn J. (October 12, 1994). "Swim or Sink". Chronicle of Higher Education: A35–A36. Check date values in:
- Ireland, Corydon (April 5, 2012). "The Widener Memorial Room". Harvard Gazette (The President and Fellows of Harvard College).
- Kelley-Milburn, Deborah (February 22, 2012). "Is it true that Harvard students must pass a swimming test because of Harry Elkins Widener's death aboard the Titanic?". Harvard Library. Ask a Librarian. Retrieved April 30, 2014. Check date values in:
- Reed, Christopher (March–April 1997). "The Slasher". Harvard Magazine.
- Zoll, Rachel (April 14, 1996). "Libraries throw the book at their abundant looters". South Coast Today.
- Danuta A. Nitecki; Curtis L. Kendrick, eds. (2001). Library Off-site Shelving: Guide for High-density Facilities. Libraries Unlimited. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-56308-885-8.
- Goins, Jason M. (March 23, 1999). "Needed Renovations Planned For Widener". Harvard Crimson. Check date values in:
- Wayne A. Wiegand; Donald G. Davis, eds. (1994). Encyclopedia of Library History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8240-5787-9.
- Library Leadership and Management Association. "Previous Winners of the AIA/ALA Library Buildings Award Program". American Library Association.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Widener Library.|
- History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection – Houghton Library, Harvard University