Strauss did not specifically compose any music for this operetta, although many of his earlier compositions were incorporated for the work. He took no active part in the musical arrangement at its conception nor any production work leading up to its première. He was content to delegate these tasks to Adolf Müller Jr. as he himself was busy with his ballet, Aschenbrödel in 1898. However, Müller did not confine himself to the music of Johann Jr., and several dance tunes by his brother Josef were also incorporated in the score.
The new operetta premiéred at the Carltheater on 26 October 1899, almost five months after Strauss' demise. Franz Jauner staged the costly project. Jauner anticipated great success at its premiére but was dejected when the work only survived 30 consecutive performances before making way for Sidney Jones' critically acclaimed operetta The Geisha. On 23 February 1900, Jauner shot himself at his desk at the Carltheater after his financial gamble with Wiener Blut failed, effectively bankrupting him.
After five years, however, the famed Theater an der Wien mounted a production of the operetta. With a slightly different libretto and musical arrangement, it caught the public eye and has since retained its popularity on stages around the world. In 2007 English Touring Opera performed a new concert production of Wiener Blut at venues throughout the United Kingdom.