WikiLeaks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
WikiLeaks
Graphic of hourglass, coloured in blue and gray; a circular map of the eastern hemisphere of the world drips from the top to bottom chamber of the hourglass.
The logo of WikiLeaks, an hourglass with one globe leaking to the second
Web address WikiLeaks.org[1] a
Slogan We open governments.[2]
Commercial? No[3]
Type of site Document archive and disclosure
Registration None
Available language(s) English, but the documents are written in various languages
Owner Sunshine Press
Created by Julian Assange
Launched 4 October 2006; 7 years ago (2006-10-04)[4]
Alexa rank negative increase 552,383 (April 2014)[5]
Current status Online

WikiLeaks is an international, online, non-profit,[3] journalistic[6][7][8] organisation which publishes secret information, news leaks,[9] and classified media from anonymous sources.[3][10] Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organization Sunshine Press,[11] claimed a database of more than 1.2 million documents within a year of its launch.[12] Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its founder, editor-in-chief, and director.[13] Kristinn Hrafnsson, Joseph Farrell, and Sarah Harrison are the only other publicly known and acknowledged associates of Julian Assange.[14] Hrafnsson is also a member of Sunshine Press Productions along with Assange, Ingi Ragnar Ingason, and Gavin MacFadyen.[15][16]

The group has released a number of significant documents which have become front-page news items. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war and corruption in Kenya.[17] In April 2010, WikiLeaks published gunsight footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed by an AH-64 Apache helicopter, known as the Collateral Murder video. In July of the same year, WikiLeaks released Afghan War Diary, a compilation of more than 76,900 documents about the War in Afghanistan not previously available to the public.[18] In October 2010, the group released a set of almost 400,000 documents called the "Iraq War Logs" in coordination with major commercial media organisations. This allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq that had been reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been previously published.[19][20] In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[21]

In November 2010, WikiLeaks collaborated with major global media organisations to release U.S. State department diplomatic "cables" in redacted format. On 1 September 2011, it became public that an encrypted version of WikiLeaks' huge archive of unredacted U.S. State Department cables had been available via BitTorrent for months and that the decryption key (similar to a password) was available to those who knew where to find it. WikiLeaks blamed the breach on its former publication partner, the UK newspaper The Guardian, and that newspaper's journalist David Leigh, who revealed the key in a book published in February 2011;[22] The Guardian argued that WikiLeaks was to blame since they gave the impression that the decryption key was temporary (something not possible for a file decryption key).[23] The German periodical Der Spiegel reported a more complex story[24] involving errors on both sides. The incident resulted in widely expressed fears that the information released could endanger innocent lives.[25][26]

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

Julian Assange was one of the early members of the WikiLeaks staff and is credited as the website's founder.

The wikileaks.org domain name was registered on 4 October 2006.[4] The website was begun, and published its first document, in December 2006.[27][28] WikiLeaks has been predominantly represented in public since January 2007 by Julian Assange, who is now generally recognised as the "founder of WikiLeaks".[29] According to the magazine Wired, a volunteer said that Assange described himself in a private conversation as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its founder, philosopher, spokesperson, original coder, organizer, financier, and all the rest".[30]

WikiLeaks relies to some degree on volunteers and previously described its founders as a mixture of Asian dissidents, journalists, mathematicians, and start-up company technologists from the United States, Taiwan, Europe, Australia, and South Africa,[31] but has progressively adopted a more traditional publication model and no longer accepts either user comments or edits. As of June 2009, the website had more than 1,200 registered volunteers[31] and listed an advisory board comprising Assange, his deputy Jash Vora and seven other people, some of whom denied any association with the organisation.[32][33]

Despite using the name "WikiLeaks", the website has not used the "wiki" publication method since May 2010.[34] Also, despite some popular confusion[35] due to both having "wiki" in their names, WikiLeaks and Wikipedia are not affiliated with each other ("wiki" is not a brand name);[36][37] Wikia, a for-profit corporation affiliated loosely with the Wikimedia Foundation, did purchase several WikiLeaks-related domain names (including wikileaks.com and wikileaks.net) as a "protective brand measure" in 2007.[38]

Purpose[edit]

According to the WikiLeaks website, its goal is "to bring important news and information to the public... One of our most important activities is to publish original source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth."

Another of the organisation's goals is to ensure that journalists and whistleblowers are not jailed for emailing sensitive or classified documents. The online "drop box" is described by the WikiLeaks website as "an innovative, secure and anonymous way for sources to leak information to [WikiLeaks] journalists".[39]

In an interview as part of the American television programme The Colbert Report, Assange discussed the limit to the freedom of speech, saying, "[it is] not an ultimate freedom, however free speech is what regulates government and regulates law. That is why in the US Constitution the Bill of Rights says that Congress is to make no such law abridging the freedom of the press. It is to take the rights of the press outside the rights of the law because those rights are superior to the law because in fact they create the law. Every constitution, every bit of legislation is derived from the flow of information. Similarly every government is elected as a result of people understanding things".[40]

The project has been compared to Daniel Ellsberg's revelation of the "Pentagon Papers" (US war-related secrets) in 1971.[41] In the United States, the "leaking" of some documents may be legally protected. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the Constitution guarantees anonymity, at least in the context of political discourse.[41] Author and journalist Whitley Strieber has spoken about the benefits of the WikiLeaks project, noting that "Leaking a government document can mean jail, but jail sentences for this can be fairly short. However, there are many places where it means long incarceration or even death, such as China and parts of Africa and the Middle East."[42]

Administration[edit]

According to a January 2010 interview, the WikiLeaks team then consisted of five people working full-time and about 800 people who worked occasionally, none of whom were compensated.[43] WikiLeaks does not have any official headquarters. In November 2010 the Wikileaks-endorsed[44] news and activism site Wikileaks Central was initiated and was administrated by editor Heather Marsh who oversaw 70+ writers and volunteers.[45] She resigned as editor in chief, administrator and domain holder of Wikileaks Central on 8 March 2012.[46]

Hosting[edit]

WikiLeaks describes itself as "an uncensorable system for untraceable mass document leaking".[47] The website is available on multiple servers and different domain names as a result of a number of denial-of-service attacks and its elimination from different Domain Name System (DNS) providers.[48][49]

Until August 2010, WikiLeaks was hosted by PRQ, a Sweden-based company providing "highly secure, no-questions-asked hosting services". PRQ is said to have "almost no information about its clientele and maintains few if any of its own logs".[50] Currently, WikiLeaks is hosted mainly by the Swedish internet service provider Bahnhof in the Pionen facility, a former nuclear bunker in Sweden.[51][52] Other servers are spread around the world with the main server located in Sweden.[53] Julian Assange has said that the servers are located in Sweden (and the other countries) "specifically because those nations offer legal protection to the disclosures made on the site". He talks about the Swedish constitution, which gives the information providers total legal protection.[53] It is forbidden according to Swedish law for any administrative authority to make inquiries about the sources of any type of newspaper.[54] These laws, and the hosting by PRQ, make it difficult for any authorities to eliminate WikiLeaks; they place an onus of proof upon any complainant whose suit would circumscribe WikiLeaks' liberty, e.g. its rights to exercise free speech online. Furthermore, "WikiLeaks maintains its own servers at undisclosed locations, keeps no logs and uses military-grade encryption to protect sources and other confidential information." Such arrangements have been called "bulletproof hosting."[50][55]

In August 2010, the Swedish Pirate Party announced it would be hosting, managing, and maintaining many of WikiLeaks' new servers without charge.[56][57]

After the site became the target of a denial-of-service attack on its old servers, WikiLeaks moved its website to Amazon.com's servers.[58] Later, however, the website was "ousted" from the Amazon servers.[58] In a public statement, Amazon said that WikiLeaks was not following its terms of service. The company further explained, "There were several parts they were violating. For example, our terms of service state that 'you represent and warrant that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content... that use of the content you supply does not violate this policy and will not cause injury to any person or entity.' It's clear that WikiLeaks doesn't own or otherwise control all the rights to this classified content."[59] WikiLeaks was then moved to servers at OVH, a private web-hosting service in France.[60] After criticism from the French government, the company sought two court rulings about the legality of hosting WikiLeaks. While the court in Lille immediately refused to force OVH to deactivate the WikiLeaks website, the court in Paris stated it would need more time to examine the complex technical issue.[61][62]

Do not use PGP to contact us. We have found that people use it in a dangerous manner. Further one of the Wikileaks key on several key servers is FAKE.

WikiLeaks, WikiLeaks:PGP Keys

To preserve anonymity WikiLeaks uses software like Tor[63] and PGP,[64] though in November 2007[65] the published PGP key expired. WikiLeaks warned against fake PGP keys on keyservers[66] and proposed as an alternative using a SSL-encrypted chat.[67]

WikiLeaks was implemented on MediaWiki software between 2006 and October 2010.[68] WikiLeaks strongly encouraged postings via Tor because of the strong privacy needs of its users.[69]

On 4 November 2010, Julian Assange told Swiss public television organization Télévision Suisse Romande (TSR) that he is seriously considering seeking political asylum in neutral Switzerland and establishing a WikiLeaks foundation to move the operation there.[70][71] According to Assange at the time, Switzerland and Iceland were the only countries where WikiLeaks would be safe to operate.[72][73]

Domain name service[edit]

WikiLeaks had been using EveryDNS's domain name system (DNS). Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks against Wikileaks hurt DNS quality of service for other EveryDNS customers; as a result, the company dropped WikiLeaks. Supporters of WikiLeaks waged verbal and DDoS attacks on EveryDNS. Because of a typographical error in blogs mistaking EveryDNS for competitor EasyDNS, that sizable internet backlash hit EasyDNS. Despite that, EasyDNS (upon request of a customer who was setting up new Wikileaks hosting) began providing WikiLeaks with DNS service on "two 'battle hardened' servers" to protect quality of service for its other customers.[74]

Verification of submissions[edit]

WikiLeaks states that it has never released a misattributed document and that documents are assessed before release. In response to concerns about the possibility of misleading or fraudulent leaks, WikiLeaks has stated that misleading leaks "are already well-placed in the mainstream media. WikiLeaks is of no additional assistance."[75] The FAQ states that: "The simplest and most effective countermeasure is a worldwide community of informed users and editors who can scrutinise and discuss leaked documents."[76]

According to statements by Assange in 2010, submitted documents are vetted by a group of five reviewers, with expertise in different topics such as language or programming, who also investigate the background of the leaker if his or her identity is known.[77] In that group, Assange has the final decision about the assessment of a document.[77]

Legal status[edit]

Legal background[edit]

The legal status of WikiLeaks is complex. Assange considers WikiLeaks a protection intermediary. Rather than leaking directly to the press, and fearing exposure and retribution, whistleblowers can leak to WikiLeaks, which then leaks to the press for them.[78] Its servers are located throughout Europe and are accessible from any uncensored web connection. The group located its headquarters in Sweden because it has one of the world's strongest laws to protect confidential source-journalist relationships.[79][80] WikiLeaks has stated it does not solicit any information.[79] However, Assange used his speech during the Hack In The Box conference in Malaysia to ask the crowd of hackers and security researchers to help find documents on its "Most Wanted Leaks of 2009" list.[81]

Potential criminal prosecution[edit]

The U.S. Justice Department began a criminal investigation of WikiLeaks and Julian Assange soon after the leak of diplomatic cables began.[82][83] Attorney General Eric Holder affirmed the investigation was "not saber-rattling", but was "an active, ongoing criminal investigation."[83] The Washington Post reported that the department was considering charges under the Espionage Act of 1917, an action which former prosecutors characterised as "difficult" because of First Amendment protections for the press.[82][84] Several Supreme Court cases have established previously that the American constitution protects the re-publication of illegally gained information provided the publishers did not themselves violate any laws in acquiring it.[85] Federal prosecutors have also considered prosecuting Assange for trafficking in stolen government property, but since the diplomatic cables are intellectual rather than physical property, that method is also difficult.[86] Any prosecution of Assange would require extraditing him to the United States, a procedure made more complicated and potentially delayed by any preceding extradition to Sweden.[87] One of Assange's lawyers, however, says they are fighting extradition to Sweden because it might result in his extradition to the United States.[88] Assange's attorney, Mark Stephens, has "heard from Swedish authorities there has been a secretly empanelled grand jury in Alexandria [Virginia]" meeting to consider criminal charges for the WikiLeaks case.[89]

In Australia, the government and the Australian Federal Police have not stated what Australian laws may have been violated by WikiLeaks, but then Prime Minister Julia Gillard has stated that the foundation of WikiLeaks and the stealing of classified documents from the US administration is illegal in foreign countries.[90] Gillard later clarified her statement as referring to "the original theft of the material by a junior US serviceman rather than any action by Mr Assange."[91] Spencer Zifcak, President of Liberty Victoria, an Australian civil liberties group, notes that without a charge or a trial completed, it is inappropriate to state that WikiLeaks is guilty of illegal activities.[92]

On threats by various governments toward Julian Assange, legal expert Ben Saul argues that Assange is the target of a global smear campaign to demonise him as a criminal or as a terrorist, without any legal basis.[93] The U.S. Center for Constitutional Rights has issued a statement emphasizing its alarm at the "multiple examples of legal overreach and irregularities" in his arrest.[94]

Insurance files [edit]

On 29 July 2010 WikiLeaks added a 1.4 GB "Insurance file" to the Afghan War Diary page. The file is AES encrypted and has a SHA1 checksum of "cce54d3a8af370213d23fcbfe8cddc8619a0734c".[95][96] There has been speculation that it was intended to serve as insurance in case the WikiLeaks website or its spokesman Julian Assange are incapacitated, upon which the passphrase could be published.[97][98] After the first few days' release of the US diplomatic cables starting 28 November 2010, the US television broadcasting company CBS predicted that "If anything happens to Assange or the website, a key will go out to unlock the files. There would then be no way to stop the information from spreading like wildfire because so many people already have copies."[99] CBS correspondent Declan McCullagh stated, "What most folks are speculating is that the insurance file contains unreleased information that would be especially embarrassing to the US government if it were released."[99]

On 22 February 2012, there was another insurance file release, this time 65 GB in size.[100][101]

The insurance files are not to be confused with another encrypted file containing diplomatic cables, the password of which has been compromised. The insurance files' passwords have not been compromised and their contents are still unknown.

On 17 August 2013, WikiLeaks released another three insurance files, this time 3.6 GB, 49 GB and 349 GB in size.[102] Like previous insurance files, the contents of these three insurance files are still unknown.

Financing[edit]

WikiLeaks is a not-for-profit organisation, funded largely by volunteers, and it is dependent on public donations. Its main financing methods include conventional bank transfers and online payment systems. Annual expenses have been estimated at about €200,000, mainly for servers and dealing with bureaucracy, but might reportedly become €600,000 if work currently done by volunteers were to become paid.[43]

WikiLeaks' lawyers often work pro bono, and in some cases legal aid has been donated by media organisations such as the Associated Press, the Los Angeles Times, and the National Newspaper Publishers Association.[43] WikiLeaks' only revenue consists of donations, but it has considered other options including auctioning early access to documents.[43] During September 2011, Wikileaks began auctioning items on eBay to raise funds, and Assange told an audience at Sydney's Festival of Dangerous Ideas that the organisation might not be able to survive.

Funding model[edit]

The Wau Holland Foundation helps to process donations to WikiLeaks. In July 2010, the Foundation stated that WikiLeaks was not receiving any money for personnel costs, only for hardware, travelling and bandwidth.[103] An article in TechEye stated:

As a charity accountable under German law, donations for WikiLeaks can be made to the foundation. Funds are held in escrow and are given to WikiLeaks after the whistleblower website files an application containing a statement with proof of payment. The foundation does not pay any sort of salary nor give any renumeration [sic] to WikiLeaks' personnel, corroborating the statement of the site's former German representative Daniel Schmitt [real name Daniel Domscheit-Berg][104] on national television that all personnel works voluntarily, even its speakers.[103]

However, in December 2010 the Wau Holland Foundation stated that 4 permanent employees, including Julian Assange, had begun to receive salaries.[105]

On 24 December 2009, WikiLeaks announced that it was experiencing a shortage of funds[106] and suspended all access to its website except for a form to submit new material.[107] Material that was previously published was no longer available, although some could still be accessed on unofficial mirror websites.[108] WikiLeaks stated on its website that it would resume full operation once the operational costs were paid.[107] WikiLeaks saw this as a kind of work stoppage "to ensure that everyone who is involved stops normal work and actually spends time raising revenue".[43] While the organisation initially planned for funds to be secured by 6 January 2010,[109] it was not until 3 February 2010 that WikiLeaks announced that its minimum fundraising goal had been achieved.[110]

On 22 January 2010, the internet payment intermediary PayPal suspended WikiLeaks' donation account and froze its assets. WikiLeaks said that this had happened before, and was done for "no obvious reason".[111] The account was restored on 25 January 2010.[112] On 18 May 2010, WikiLeaks announced that its website and archive were operational again.[113]

In June 2010, WikiLeaks was a finalist for a grant of more than half a million dollars from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation,[28] but did not make the final approval.[114] WikiLeaks commented via Twitter, "WikiLeaks was highest rated project in the Knight challenge, strongly recommended to the board but gets no funding. Go figure."[115] WikiLeaks said that the Knight foundation announced the award to "'12 Grantees who will impact future of news' – but not WikiLeaks" and questioned whether Knight foundation was "really looking for impact".[114] A spokesman of the Knight Foundation disputed parts of WikiLeaks' statement, saying "WikiLeaks was not recommended by Knight staff to the board."[115] However, he declined to say whether WikiLeaks was the project rated highest by the Knight advisory panel, which consists of non-staffers, among them journalist Jennifer 8. Lee, who has done PR work for WikiLeaks with the press and on social networking websites.[115]

During 2010, WikiLeaks received €635,772.73 in PayPal donations, less €30,000 in PayPal fees, and €695,925.46 in bank transfers. €500,988.89 of the sum was received in the month of December, primarily as bank transfers as PayPal suspended payments 4 December. €298,057.38 of the remainder was received in April.[116]

The Wau Holland Foundation, one of the WikiLeaks' main funding channels, stated that they received more than €900,000 in public donations between October 2009 and December 2010, of which €370,000 has been passed on to WikiLeaks. Hendrik Fulda, vice president of the Wau Holland Foundation, mentioned that the Foundation had been receiving twice as many donations through PayPal as through normal banks, before PayPal's decision to suspend WikiLeaks' account. He also noted that every new WikiLeaks publication brought "a wave of support", and that donations were strongest in the weeks after WikiLeaks started publishing leaked diplomatic cables.[117][118]

On 15 June 2011, WikiLeaks began accepting donations in Bitcoin.[119][120]

The Icelandic judiciary decided that Valitor (a company related to Visa and Mastercard) was violating the law when it prevented donation to the site by credit card. A justice ruled that the donations will be allowed to return to the site after 14 days or they would be fined in the amount of U$ 6,000 a day.[121]

Leaks[edit]

2006–08[edit]

WikiLeaks posted its first document in December 2006, a decision to assassinate government officials signed by Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys."[28] In August 2007, the UK newspaper The Guardian published a story about corruption by the family of the former Kenyan leader Daniel arap Moi based on information provided via WikiLeaks.[122] In November 2007, a March 2003 copy of Standard Operating Procedures for Camp Delta detailing the protocol of the U.S. Army at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp was released.[123] The document revealed that some prisoners were off-limits to the International Committee of the Red Cross, something that the U.S. military had in the past denied repeatedly.[124] In February 2008, WikiLeaks released allegations of illegal activities at the Cayman Islands branch of the Swiss Bank Julius Baer, which resulted in the bank suing WikiLeaks and obtaining an injunction which temporarily suspended the operation of wikileaks.org.[125] The California judge had the service provider of WikiLeaks block the site's domain (wikileaks.org) on 18 February 2008, although the bank only wanted the documents to be removed but WikiLeaks had failed to name a contact. The website was instantly mirrored by supporters, and later that month the judge overturned his previous decision citing First Amendment concerns and questions about legal jurisdiction.[126][127] In March 2008, WikiLeaks published what they referred to as "the collected secret 'bibles' of Scientology," and three days later received letters threatening to sue them for breach of copyright.[128] In September 2008, during the 2008 United States presidential election campaigns, the contents of a Yahoo account belonging to Sarah Palin (the running mate of Republican presidential nominee John McCain) were posted on WikiLeaks after being hacked into by members of a group known as Anonymous.[129] In November 2008, the membership list of the far-right British National Party was posted to WikiLeaks, after appearing briefly on a weblog.[130] A year later, on October 2009, another list of BNP members was leaked.[131]

2009[edit]

In January 2009, WikiLeaks released 86 telephone intercept recordings of Peruvian politicians and businessmen involved in the 2008 Peru oil scandal.[132] During February, WikiLeaks released 6,780 Congressional Research Service reports[133] followed in March by a list of contributors to the Norm Coleman senatorial campaign[134][135] and a set of documents belonging to Barclays Bank that had been ordered removed from the website of The Guardian.[136] In July, it released a report relating to a serious nuclear accident that had occurred at the Iranian Natanz nuclear facility in 2009.[137] Later media reports have suggested that the accident was related to the Stuxnet computer worm.[138][139] In September, internal documents from Kaupthing Bank were leaked, from shortly before the collapse of Iceland's banking sector, which caused the 2008–2012 Icelandic financial crisis. The document shows that suspiciously large sums of money were loaned to various owners of the bank, and large debts written off.[140] In October, Joint Services Protocol 440, a British document advising the security services on how to avoid documents being leaked, was published by WikiLeaks.[141] Later that month, it announced that a super-injunction was being used by the commodities company Trafigura to stop The Guardian (London) from reporting on a leaked internal document regarding a toxic dumping incident in Côte d'Ivoire.[142][143] In November, it hosted copies of e-mail correspondence between climate scientists, although they were not leaked originally to WikiLeaks.[144][145] It also released 570,000 intercepts of pager messages sent on the day of the 11 September attacks.[146] During 2008 and 2009, WikiLeaks published the alleged lists of forbidden or illegal web addresses for Australia, Denmark and Thailand. These were originally created to prevent access to child pornography and terrorism, but the leaks revealed that other sites featuring unrelated subjects were also listed.[147][148][149]

2010[edit]

In mid-February 2010, WikiLeaks received a leaked diplomatic cable from the US Embassy in Reykjavik relating to the Icesave scandal, which they published on 18 February.[150] The cable, known as Reykjavik 13 was the first of the classified documents WikiLeaks published among those allegedly provided to them by US Army Private Chelsea Manning (then known as Bradley). In March 2010, WikiLeaks released a secret 32-page U.S. Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Report written in March 2008 discussing the leaking of material by WikiLeaks and how it could be deterred.[151][152][153] In April, a classified video of the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike was released, showing two Reuters employees being fired at, after the pilots mistakenly thought the men were carrying weapons, which were in fact cameras.[154] In the week after the release, "wikileaks" was the search term with the most significant growth worldwide during the last seven days as measured by Google Insights.[155] In June 2010, Manning was arrested after alleged chat logs were given to US authorities by former hacker Adrian Lamo, in whom she had confided. Manning reportedly told Lamo she had leaked the "Collateral Murder" video, in addition to a video of the Granai airstrike and about 260,000 diplomatic cables, to WikiLeaks.[156] In July, WikiLeaks released 92,000 documents related to the war in Afghanistan between 2004 and the end of 2009 to the publications The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel. The documents detail individual incidents including "friendly fire" and civilian casualties.[157] At the end of July, a 1.4 GB "insurance file" was added to the Afghan War Diary page, whose decryption details would be released if WikiLeaks or Assange were harmed.[97] About 15,000 of the 92,000 documents have not yet been released by WikiLeaks, as the group is currently reviewing the documents to remove some of the sources of the information. WikiLeaks asked the Pentagon and human-rights groups to help remove names from the documents to reduce the potential harm caused by their release, but did not receive assistance.[158] After the Love Parade stampede in Duisburg, Germany, on 24 July 2010, a local resident published internal documents of the city administration regarding the planning of Love Parade. The city government reacted by securing a court order on 16 August forcing the removal of the documents from the website on which it was hosted.[159] On 20 August 2010, WikiLeaks released a publication entitled Loveparade 2010 Duisburg planning documents, 2007–2010, which comprised 43 internal documents regarding the Love Parade 2010.[160][161] After the leak of information concerning the Afghan War, in October 2010, around 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq War were released. The BBC quoted the US Dept. of Defense referring to the Iraq War Logs as "the largest leak of classified documents in its history." Media coverage of the leaked documents emphasized claims that the U.S. government had ignored reports of torture by the Iraqi authorities during the period after the 2003 war.[162]

Diplomatic cables release[edit]

On 28 November 2010, WikiLeaks and five major newspapers from Spain (El País), France (Le Monde), Germany (Der Spiegel), the United Kingdom (The Guardian), and the United States (The New York Times) started simultaneously to publish the first 220 of 251,287 leaked confidential – but not top-secret (dated from 28 December 1966 to 28 February 2010).[163][164] WikiLeaks plans to release the entirety of the cables in phases over several months.[164]

The contents of the diplomatic cables include numerous unguarded comments and revelations regarding: critiques and praises about the host countries of various US embassies; political manoeuvring regarding climate change; discussion and resolutions towards ending ongoing tension in the Middle East; efforts and resistance towards nuclear disarmament; actions in the War on Terror; assessments of other threats around the world; dealings between various countries; US intelligence and counterintelligence efforts; and other diplomatic actions. Reactions to the United States diplomatic cables leak varied. On 14 December 2010 the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.[165] Twitter decided to notify its users.[166] The overthrow of the presidency in Tunisia of 2011 has been attributed partly to reaction against the corruption revealed by leaked cables.[167][168][169]

2011–12[edit]

In late April 2011, files related to the Guantanamo prison were released.[170] In December 2011, WikiLeaks started to release the Spy Files.[171] On 27 February 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing more than five million emails from the Texas-headquartered "global intelligence" company Stratfor.[172]

On 5 July 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing the Syria Files, more than two million emails from Syrian political figures, ministries and associated companies, dating from August 2006 to March 2012.[173]

On Thursday, 25 October 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing The Detainee Policies, more than 100 classified or otherwise restricted files from the United States Department of Defense covering the rules and procedures for detainees in U.S. military custody.[174]

2013[edit]

In April, WikiLeaks published more than 1.7 million U.S. diplomatic and intelligence documents from the 1970s. These documents included the Kissinger cables.[175]

In September Dagens Næringsliv said that Wikileaks, on the previous evening, had published on its website "the whereabouts of 20 chiefs of European surveillance technology companies, during the last year".[176] This was part of Wikileaks Spy Files 3 project, which was a release of close to[176] 250 documents from more than 90 surveillance companies.

On November 13, a complete draft of the Trans-Pacific Partnership's Intellectual Property Rights chapter was published by WikiLeaks.[177][178]

Announcements of upcoming leaks[edit]

In May 2010, WikiLeaks said it had video footage of a massacre of civilians in Afghanistan by the US military which they were preparing to release.[179][180]

In an interview with Chris Anderson on 19 July 2010, Assange showed a document WikiLeaks had on an Albanian oil-well blowout, and said they also had material from inside British Petroleum,[181] and that they were "getting enormous quantity of whistle-blower disclosures of a very high calibre" but added that they had not been able to verify and release the material because they did not have enough volunteer journalists.[182]

In October 2010, Assange told a major Moscow newspaper that "The Kremlin had better brace itself for a coming wave of WikiLeaks disclosures about Russia".[183][184] Assange later clarified: "we have material on many businesses and governments, including in Russia. It's not right to say there's going to be a particular focus on Russia".[185]

In a 2009 interview by the magazine Computerworld, Assange claimed to be in possession of "5GB from Bank of America". In 2010, he told Forbes magazine that WikiLeaks was planning another "megaleak" early in 2011, from the private sector, involving "a big U.S. bank" and revealing an "ecosystem of corruption". Bank of America's stock price decreased by 3%, apparently as a result of this announcement.[186][187] Assange commented on the possible effect of the release that "it could take down a bank or two."[188][189] In August 2011, Reuters announced that Daniel Domscheit-Berg had destroyed approximately 5GB of data cache from Bank of America, that Assange had under his control.[190]

In December 2010, Assange's lawyer, Mark Stephens, told The Andrew Marr Show on BBC Television that WikiLeaks had information it considered to be a "thermo-nuclear device" which it would release if the organisation needs to defend itself against the authorities.[191]

In January 2011, Rudolf Elmer, a former Swiss banker, passed data containing account details of 2,000 prominent people to Assange, who stated that the information will be vetted before being made publicly available at a later date.[192]

Other activities[edit]

In 2013, the organisation assisted Edward Snowden (who is responsible for the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures) in leaving Hong Kong. Sarah Harrison, a Wikileaks activist, accompanied Snowden on the flight. Scott Shane of The New York Times stated that the Wikileaks involvement "shows that despite its shoestring staff, limited fund-raising from a boycott by major financial firms, and defections prompted by Mr. Assange's personal troubles and abrasive style, it remains a force to be reckoned with on the global stage."[193]

Backlash and pressure[edit]

A truck bearing a slogan and WikiLeaks logo as a prop at the Occupy Wall Street protest in New York on 25 September 2011

Operational challenges[edit]

Assange has acknowledged that the practice of posting largely unfiltered classified information online could one day cause the website to have "blood on our hands."[28][194] He expressed the opinion that the potential to save lives, however, outweighs the danger to innocents.[195] Furthermore, WikiLeaks has highlighted independent investigations which have failed to find any evidence of civilians harmed as a result of WikiLeaks' activities.[196][197] A surveillance-resistant social network, Friends of WikiLeaks (FoWL), was initiated by sympathizers with the organization in May 2012 to perform advocacy.[198][199][200]

Response from media[edit]

Chinese journalist Shi Tao was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, in 2005 after publicising an email from Chinese officials about the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre.[201] An article in The New Yorker said:

One of the WikiLeaks activists owned a server that was being used as a node for the Tor network. Millions of secret transmissions passed through it. The activist noticed that hackers from China were using the network to gather foreign governments' information, and began to record this traffic. Only a small fraction has ever been posted on WikiLeaks, but the initial tranche served as the site's foundation, and Assange was able to say, "[w]e have received over one million documents from thirteen countries."[28][202]

—Raffi Khatchadourian, The New Yorker

Assange responded to the suggestion that eavesdropping on Chinese hackers played a crucial part in the early days of WikiLeaks by saying "the imputation is incorrect. The facts concern a 2006 investigation into Chinese espionage one of our contacts was involved in. Somewhere between none and handful of those documents were ever released on WikiLeaks. Non-government targets of the Chinese espionage, such as Tibetan associations were informed (by us)".[203]

Response from governments[edit]

Australia[edit]

On 16 March 2009, the Australian Communications and Media Authority added WikiLeaks to their proposed list of sites that will be blocked for all Australians if the mandatory internet filtering scheme is implemented as planned.[204][205] The blacklisting had been removed by 29 November 2010.[206]

People's Republic of China[edit]

The WikiLeaks website claims that the government of the People's Republic of China has attempted to block all traffic to websites with "wikileaks" in the URL since 2007, but that this can be bypassed by encrypted connections or by using one of WikiLeaks' many covert URLs.[207]

Germany[edit]

The home of Theodor Reppe, registrant of the German WikiLeaks domain name, wikileaks.de, was raided on 24 March 2009 after WikiLeaks released the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) censorship blacklist.[208] The site was not affected.[209][210]

Iceland[edit]

After the release of the 2007 Baghdad airstrikes video and as they prepared to release film of the Granai airstrike, Julian Assange has said that his group of volunteers came under intense surveillance. In an interview and Twitter posts he said that a restaurant in Reykjavík where his group of volunteers met came under surveillance in March; that there was "covert following and hidden photography" by police and foreign intelligence services; that an apparent British intelligence agent made thinly veiled threats in a Luxembourg car park; and that one of the volunteers was detained by police for 21 hours. Another volunteer posted that computers were seized, saying "If anything happens to us, you know why... and you know who is responsible."[211] According to the Columbia Journalism Review, "the Icelandic press took a look at Assange's charges of being surveilled in Iceland [...] and, at best, have found nothing to substantiate them."[212]

In August 2009, Kaupthing Bank secured a court order preventing Iceland's national broadcaster, RÚV, from broadcasting a risk analysis report showing the bank's substantial exposure to debt default risk. This information had been leaked to WikiLeaks and remained available on the WikiLeaks website; faced with an injunction minutes before broadcast, the channel aired a screen-shot of the WikiLeaks site instead of the scheduled piece on the bank. Citizens of Iceland were reported to be outraged that RÚV was prevented from broadcasting news of relevance.[213] Therefore, WikiLeaks has been credited with inspiring the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative, a bill meant to reclaim Iceland's 2007 Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontières) ranking as first in the world for free speech. It aims to enact a range of protections for sources, journalists, and publishers.[214][215] Birgitta Jónsdóttir, a former WikiLeaks volunteer and member of the Icelandic parliament, is the chief sponsor of the proposal.

Thailand[edit]

The Centre for the Resolution of the Emergency Situation (CRES) is currently censoring the WikiLeaks website in Thailand[216] and more than 40,000 other websites[217] because of the emergency decree declared in Thailand at the beginning of April 2010 as a result of political instabilities.[218]

United States[edit]

On 17 July 2010, Jacob Appelbaum spoke on behalf of WikiLeaks at the Hackers on Planet Earth conference in New York City, replacing Assange because of the presence of federal agents at the conference.[219][220] He announced that the WikiLeaks submission system was again operating, after it had been suspended temporarily.[219][221][222] Assange was a surprise speaker at a TED conference on 19 July 2010 in Oxford, England, and confirmed that the site had begun accepting submissions again.[181]

Upon returning to the US from the Netherlands, on 29 July, Appelbaum was detained for three hours at the airport by US agents, according to anonymous sources.[223] The sources told CNET that Appelbaum's bag was searched, receipts from his bag were photocopied, and his laptop computer was inspected, although in what manner was unknown.[223] Appelbaum reportedly refused to answer questions without a lawyer present, and was not allowed to make a telephone call. His three mobile telephones were reportedly taken and not returned.[223] On 31 July, he spoke at a Defcon conference and mentioned his telephone being "seized". After speaking, he was approached by two FBI agents and questioned.[223]

Access to WikiLeaks is currently blocked in the United States Library of Congress.[224] On 3 December 2010 the White House Office of Management and Budget sent a memorandum forbidding all unauthorised federal government employees and contractors from accessing classified documents publicly available on WikiLeaks and other websites.[225] The U.S. Army, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Justice Department are considering criminally prosecuting WikiLeaks and Assange "on grounds they encouraged the theft of government property",[226] although former prosecutors say doing so would be difficult.[84] According to a report on the website Daily Beast, the Obama administration asked the UK, Germany, and Australia among others to also consider bringing criminal charges against Assange for the Afghan war leaks and to help limit Assange's travels across international borders.[227] Columbia University students have been warned by their Office of Career Services that the U.S. State Department had contacted the office in an email saying that the diplomatic cables which were released by WikiLeaks were "still considered classified" and that "online discourse about the documents 'would call into question your ability to deal with confidential information.'"[228]

All U.S. federal government staff have been blocked from viewing WikiLeaks.[229]

As for individual responses, government officials had mixed feelings. Although Hillary Clinton refused to comment on specific reports, she claimed that the leaks "put people's lives in danger" and "threatens national security."[27] Former United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates commented, "Is this embarrassing? Yes. Is it awkward? Yes. Consequences for U.S. foreign policy? I think fairly modest."[27]

Response from corporations[edit]

Facebook[edit]

WikiLeaks claimed in April 2010 that Facebook deleted its fan page, which had 30,000 fans.[230][231][232] However, as of 7 December 2010 the group's Facebook fan page was available and had grown by 100,000 fans daily since 1 December,[233] to more than 1.6 million fans. It was also the largest growth of the week.[234] Regarding the presence of WikiLeaks on Facebook, Andrew Noyes, the company's D.C.-based Manager of Public Policy Communications, has stated "the Wikileaks Facebook Page does not violate our content standards nor have we encountered any material posted on the page that violates our policies."[235]

U.S. diplomatic cables leak responses[edit]

According to The Times (London), WikiLeaks and its members have complained about continuing harassment and surveillance by law enforcement and intelligence organisations, including extended detention, seizure of computers, veiled threats, "covert following and hidden photography."[179] Two lawyers for Julian Assange in the United Kingdom told The Guardian that they believed they were being watched by the security services after the U.S. cables leak, which started on 28 November 2010.[236]

Furthermore, several companies ended association with WikiLeaks. After providing 24-hour notification, American-owned EveryDNS deleted WikiLeaks from its entries on 2 December 2010, citing DDoS attacks that "threatened the stability of its infrastructure".[48][237] The website's 'info' DNS lookup remained operational at alternative addresses for direct access respectively to the WikiLeaks and Cablegate websites.[238] On the same day, Amazon.com severed its association with WikiLeaks, to which it was providing infrastructure services, after an intervention by an aide of U.S. Senator Joe Lieberman.[239][240][241] Amazon denied acting under political pressure, citing a violation of its terms of service.[242] Citing indirect pressure from the U.S. Government, Tableau Software also deleted WikiLeaks' data from its website for people to use for data visualisation.[243][244]

During the days following, hundreds of (and eventually more than a thousand)[245] mirror websites of the WikiLeaks website were established, and the Anonymous group of Internet activists asked sympathizers to attack the websites of companies which opposed WikiLeaks,[246] under the banner of Operation Payback, previously directed at anti-piracy organisations.[247] AFP reported that attempts to deactivate the wikileaks.org address had resulted in the website surviving via the so-called Streisand effect, whereby attempts to censor information online causes it to be replicated in many places.[248]

On 3 December, PayPal, the payment processor owned by eBay, permanently ended the account of the Wau Holland Foundation that had been redirecting donations to WikiLeaks. PayPal alleged that the account violated its "Acceptable Use Policy", specifically that the account was used for "activities that encourage, promote, facilitate or instruct others to engage in illegal activity."[249][250] The Vice President of PayPal stated later that they stopped accepting payments after the "State Department told us these were illegal activities. It was straightforward." Later the same day, he said that his previous statement was incorrect, and that it was in fact based on a letter from the State Department to WikiLeaks.[251] On 8 December 2010, the Wau Holland Foundation released a press statement, saying it has filed a legal action against PayPal for blocking its account used for WikiLeaks payments and for libel due to PayPal's allegations of "illegal activity".[252]

On 6 December, the Swiss bank PostFinance announced that it had frozen the assets of Assange that it holds, totalling €31,000. In a statement on its website, it stated that this was because Assange "provided false information regarding his place of residence" when opening the account.[253] WikiLeaks released a statement saying this was because Assange, "as a homeless refugee attempting to gain residency in Switzerland, had used his lawyer's address in Geneva for the bank's correspondence".[254]

On the same day, MasterCard announced that it was "taking action to ensure that WikiLeaks can no longer accept MasterCard-branded products", adding "MasterCard rules prohibit customers from directly or indirectly engaging in or facilitating any action that is illegal."[255] The next day, Visa Inc. announced it was suspending payments to WikiLeaks, pending "further investigations".[256] In a move of support for WikiLeaks, the organization XIPWIRE established a way to donate to WikiLeaks, and waived their fees.[257] Datacell, the Iceland-based IT company controlled by Swiss investors that enabled WikiLeaks to accept credit card donations, announced that it would take legal action against Visa Europe and Mastercard, in order to resume allowing payments to the website.[258]

On 7 December 2010, The Guardian stated that people could donate to WikiLeaks via Commerzbank in Kassel, Germany, or Landsbanki in Iceland, or by post to a post office box at the University of Melbourne or at the wikileaks.ch domain.[259]

The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay stated that Visa, Mastercard, and Amazon may be "violating WikiLeaks' right to freedom of expression" by withdrawing their services.[260]

On 21 December, media reported that Apple Inc. had removed an application from its App Store, which provided access to the embassy cable leaks.[261]

As part of its 'Initial Assessments Pursuant to... WikiLeaks', the US Presidential Executive Office has issued a memorandum to the heads of Executive Departments and Agencies asking whether they have an 'insider threat program'.[262][263]

On 14 July 2011, WikiLeaks and DataCell ehf. of Iceland filed a complaint against the international card companies, VISA Europe and MasterCard Europe, for infringement of the antitrust rules of the EU, in response to their withdrawal of financial services to the organisation. In a joint press release, the organisations stated: "The closure by VISA Europe and MasterCard of Datcell's access to the payment card networks in order to stop donations to WikiLeaks violates the competition rules of the European Community."[264] DataCell filed a complaint[265] with the European Commission on 14 July 2011.

Response from the financial industry[edit]

Since the publications of CableGate, WikiLeaks has experienced an unprecedented global financial blockade by major finance companies including Mastercard, Visa and PayPal although there has been no legal accusation of any wrongdoing.

In October 2010, it was reported that the organization Moneybookers, which collected donations for WikiLeaks, had ended its relationship with the website. Moneybookers stated that its decision had been made "to comply with money laundering or other investigations conducted by government authorities, agencies or commissions."[266]

On 18 December 2010, Bank of America announced it would "not process transactions of any type that we have reason to believe are intended for Wikileaks," citing "Wikileaks might be engaged in activities... inconsistent with our internal policies for processing payments". WikiLeaks responded in a tweet by encouraging their sympathizers who were BoA customers to close their accounts. Bank of America has long been believed to be the target of WikiLeaks' next major release.[267]

Late in 2010, Bank of America communicated with the law company Hunton & Williams to stop WikiLeaks. Hunton & Williams assembled a group of security specialists, HBGary Federal, Palantir Technologies, and Berico Technologies.

During 5 and 6 February 2011, the group Anonymous hacked HBGary's website, copied tens of thousands of documents from HBGary, posted tens of thousands of company emails online, and usurped Barr's Twitter account in revenge. Some of the documents taken by Anonymous show HBGary Federal was working on behalf of Bank of America to respond to WikiLeaks' planned release of the bank's internal documents. Emails detailed a supposed business proposal by HBGary to assist Bank of America's law company, Hunton & Williams, and revealed that the companies were willing to violate the law to damage WikiLeaks and Anonymous.

CEO Aaron Barr thought he'd uncovered the hackers' identities and like rats, they'd scurry for cover. If he could nail them, he could cover up the crimes H&W, HBGary, and BoA planned, bring down WikiLeaks, decapitate Anonymous, and place his opponents in prison while collecting a cool fee. He thought he was 88% right; he was 88% wrong.[268]

—Leigh Lundin, Criminal Brief

In October 2011, Julian Assange said the financial blockade had destroyed 95% of WikiLeaks' revenues and announced that it was suspending publishing operations in order to concentrate on fighting the blockade and raising new funds.[269]

On 18 July 2012, Wikileaks, shunned by the financial industry and almost insolvent, announced that it had found a new method to accept donations. Accordingly, the Fund for the Defense of Net Neutrality (FDNN) had agreed to channel contributions via Carte Bleue, and WikiLeaks claimed that contractual obligation would prevent Visa and MasterCard blocking participation with such transactions.[270]

On 24 January 2014, Wikileaks announced via Twitter that the majority of its donations came from (the cryptocurrencies) Litecoin and Bitcoin.[271]

Internal conflicts[edit]

Restructuring[edit]

Some sympathizers were unhappy[citation needed] when WikiLeaks ended a community-based wiki format in favor of a more centralised organisation. The "about" page originally read:[272]

To the user, WikiLeaks will look very much like Wikipedia. Anybody can post to it, anybody can edit it. No technical knowledge is required. Leakers can post documents anonymously and untraceably. Users can publicly discuss documents and analyze their credibility and veracity. Users can discuss interpretations and context and collaboratively formulate collective publications. Users can read and write explanatory articles on leaks along with background material and context. The political relevance of documents and their verisimilitude will be revealed by a cast of thousands.

However, WikiLeaks established an editorial policy that accepted only documents that were "of political, diplomatic, historical or ethical interest" (and excluded "material that is already publicly available").[273] This coincided with early criticism that having no editorial policy would drive out good material with spam and promote "automated or indiscriminate publication of confidential records."[274] It is no longer possible for anybody to post to it or edit it, in any country, as the original FAQ promised. Instead, submissions are regulated by an internal review process and some are published, while documents not conforming to the editorial criteria are rejected by anonymous WikiLeaks reviewers. By 2008, the revised FAQ stated that "Anybody can post comments to it. [...] Users can publicly discuss documents and analyse their credibility and veracity."[275] After the 2010 reorganization, posting new comments on leaks was no longer possible.[34]

Defections[edit]

Within WikiLeaks, there has been public disagreement between founder and spokesperson Julian Assange and Daniel Domscheit-Berg, the website's former German representative who was suspended by Assange. Domscheit-Berg announced on 28 September 2010 that he was leaving the organisation due to internal conflicts over management of the website.[104][276][277]

Julian Assange (left) with Daniel Domscheit-Berg. Domscheit-Berg was ejected from WikiLeaks and started a rival "whistleblower" organisation named OpenLeaks.

On 25 September 2010, after being suspended by Assange for "disloyalty, insubordination and destabilization", Daniel Domscheit-Berg, the German spokesman for WikiLeaks, told Der Spiegel that he was resigning, saying "WikiLeaks has a structural problem. I no longer want to take responsibility for it, and that's why I am leaving the project".[278][279][280] Assange accused Domscheit-Berg of leaking information to Newsweek, claiming the WikiLeaks team was unhappy with Assange's management and handling of the Afghan war document releases.[280] Domscheit-Berg left with a small group to start OpenLeaks, a new leak organisation and website with a different management and distribution philosophy.[278][281]

While leaving, Daniel Domscheit-Berg copied and then deleted roughly 3,500 unpublished documents from the WikiLeaks servers,[282] including information on the US government's 'no-fly list' and inside information from 20 right-wing organizations, and according to a WikiLeaks statement, 5 gigabytes of data relating to Bank of America, the internal communications of 20 neo-Nazi organisations and US intercept information for "over a hundred internet companies."[283] In Domscheit-Berg's book he wrote: "To this day, we are waiting for Julian to restore security, so that we can return the material to him, which was on the submission platform".[284] In August 2011, Domscheit-Berg claims he permanently deleted the files "in order to ensure that the sources are not compromised".[285]

Herbert Snorrason, a 25-year-old Icelandic university student, resigned after he challenged Assange on his decision to suspend Domscheit-Berg and was bluntly rebuked.[280] Iceland MP Birgitta Jónsdóttir also left WikiLeaks, citing lack of transparency, lack of structure, and poor communication flow in the organisation.[286] According to the periodical The Independent (London), at least a dozen key supporters of WikiLeaks left the website during 2010.[287]

Reception[edit]

Graffiti in Bilbao "We want to know."

WikiLeaks has received praise as well as criticism. The organisation has won a number of awards, including The Economist's New Media Award in 2008 at the Index on Censorship Awards[288] and Amnesty International's UK Media Award in 2009.[289][290] In 2010, the New York Daily News listed WikiLeaks first among websites "that could totally change the news",[291] and Julian Assange received the Sam Adams Award[292] and was named the Readers' Choice for TIME's Person of the Year in 2010.[293] The UK Information Commissioner has stated that "WikiLeaks is part of the phenomenon of the online, empowered citizen".[294] During its first days, an Internet petition calling for the cessation of extra-judicial intimidation of WikiLeaks attracted more than six hundred thousand signatures.[295] Sympathizers of WikiLeaks in the media and academia have commended it for exposing state and corporate secrets, increasing transparency, assisting freedom of the press, and enhancing democratic discourse while challenging powerful institutions.[296][297][298][299][300][301][302]

At the same time, several U.S. government officials have criticized WikiLeaks for exposing classified information and claimed that the leaks harm national security and compromise international diplomacy.[303][304][305][306][307] Several human rights organisations requested with respect to earlier document releases that WikiLeaks adequately redact the names of civilians working with international forces, in order to prevent repercussions.[308] Some journalists have likewise criticised a perceived lack of editorial discretion when releasing thousands of documents at once and without sufficient analysis.[309] In response to some of the negative reaction, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has expressed concern over the "cyber war" against WikiLeaks,[310] and in a joint statement with the Organization of American States the UN Special Rapporteur has called on states and other actors to keep international legal principles in mind.[311] According to journalist Catherine A. Fitzpatrick, WikiLeaks is motivated by "a theory of anarchy," not a theory of journalism or social activism.[312]

Spin-offs[edit]

Release of US diplomatic cables was followed by the creation of a number of other organisations based on the WikiLeaks format.[313]

  • OpenLeaks was created by a former WikiLeaks spokesperson. Daniel Domscheit-Berg said the intention was to be more transparent than WikiLeaks. OpenLeaks was supposed to start public operations in early 2011 but despite much media coverage, as of April 2013 it is not operating.
  • In December 2011, WikiLeaks launched Friends of WikiLeaks, a social network for supporters and founders of the website.[314]
  • Brussels Leaks emphasized the European Union as a collaborative effort of media professionals and activists that sought to "pull the shady inner workings of the EU system out into the public domain. This is about getting important information out there, not about Brusselsleaks [or any other 'leaks' for that matter]."
  • TradeLeaks was created to "do to trade and commerce what WikiLeaks has done to politics." It was initiated by Australian Ruslan Kogan. Its goal is to ensure "individuals and businesses should attain values from others through mutually beneficial and fully consensual trade, rather than force, fraud or deception." However, the website itself seems to have become discounted by its users, as evidenced by the highest rated article being "Tradeleaks tampering with leak vote count mechanism".
  • Balkan Leaks was initiated by Bulgarian Atanas Chobanov in order to make Balkan politics more transparent and to fight corruption as "There are plenty of people out there that want to change the Balkans for good and are ready to take on the challenge. We're offering them a hand."
  • Indoleaks is an Indonesian website that seeks to publish classified documents primarily from the Indonesian government.
  • On 9 September 2013 [315] a number of major Dutch media outlets supported the launch of Publeaks, which provides a secure website for people to leak documents to the media.[316]
  • RuLeaks is aimed at being a Russian equivalent to WikiLeaks. It was initiated originally to provide translated versions of the WikiLeaks cables but the Moscow Times reports it has started to publish its own content as well.[317]
  • PPLeaks and PSOELeaks are related to the Spanish Partido Popular and PSOE leaks and scandals.
  • Leakymails is a project designed to obtain and publish relevant documents exposing corruption of the political class and the powerful in Argentina.[318][319][320]
  • Honest Appalachia,[321] initiated in January 2012, is a website based in the United States intended to appeal to potential "whistleblowers" in West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina, and serve as a replicable model for similar projects elsewhere.[322][323]

Depictions in media[edit]

The Fifth Estate[edit]

A thriller about WikiLeaks was released in the United States on October 18, 2013.

We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks[edit]

The documentary We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks by director Alex Gibney premiered at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival.[324]

War, lies and videotape[edit]

A documentary by french directors Paul Moreira and Luc Hermann from press agency Premieres Lignes. The film was first released in France, in 2011 and then broadcast worldwide.[325]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^a As of 15 March 2011, the wikileaks.org domain redirected to mirror.wikileaks.info, a domain which is not included in the official list of mirrors. As of 10 June 2011, until wikileaks.org became accessible once again, wikileaks.ch[326][327] served as the official website.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Wikileaks Mirrors". WikiLeaks. 24 August 2012. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "WikiLeaks' official twitter account". 
  3. ^ a b c "About". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Whois Search Results: wikileaks.org". GoDaddy. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Wikileaks.ch Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2014-04-01. 
  6. ^ By David Dishneau The Associated Press. "Harvard prof may be defense's last witness at WikiLeaks trial | Army Times". armytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  7. ^ curmudgeonvt (2013-07-10). "Pentagon Agreed: WikiLeaks a Journalistic Outlet - News from Antiwar.com". News.antiwar.com. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  8. ^ "Global journalists’ union supports Wikileaks". Alliance.org.au. 2013-07-16. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  9. ^ Karhula, Päivikki (5 October 2012). "What is the effect of WikiLeaks for Freedom of Information?". International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  10. ^ Editors, The (16 August 2012). "WikiLeaks – The New York Times". Topics.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  11. ^ Chatriwala, Omar (5 April 2010). "WikiLeaks vs the Pentagon". Al Jazeera blog. Retrieved 27 January 2011. 
  12. ^ "Wikileaks has 1.2 million documents?". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  13. ^ McGreal, Chris (5 April 2010). "Wikileaks reveals video showing US air crew shooting down Iraqi civilians". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  14. ^ Mostrous, Alexi (4 August 2011). "He came for a week and stayed a year". The Times (London). Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. (subscription required)
  15. ^ "Wikileaks sets up shop in Iceland – Heated pavements far nicer than Gitmo TechEye". Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. . News.techeye.net (15 November 2010). Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  16. ^ "Wikileaks starts company in Icelandic apartment IceNews – Daily News". Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. . Icenews.is (13 November 2010). Retrieved 22 November 2011. WikiLeaks is not and never has been affiliated with the well-known website Wikipedia or Wikipedia's parent organization, the Wikimedia Foundation.
  17. ^ Channing, Joseph (9 September 2007). "Wikileaks Releases Secret Report on Military Equipment". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  18. ^ "WikiLeaks to publish new documents". MSNBC. Associated Press. 7 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  19. ^ Rogers, Simon (23 October 2010). "Wikileaks Iraq: data journalism maps every death". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  20. ^ Rogers, Simon (25 October 2010). "Wikileaks Iraq: what's wrong with the data?". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  21. ^ Leigh, David; Ball, James; Burke, Jason (25 April 2011). "Guantánamo files lift lid on world's most controversial prison". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "Guardian journalist negligently disclosed Cablegate passwords". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. . Wikileaks.org. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  23. ^ "WikiLeaks prepares to release unredacted US cables Media guardian.co.uk". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. . Guardian. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  24. ^ "Leak at WikiLeaks: A Dispatch Disaster in Six Acts – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. . Spiegel.de. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  25. ^ "Exposed: Uncensored WikiLeaks cables posted to Web". Archived from the original on 2012-09-07.  Raphael G. Satter, Associated Press, 1 September 2011, At Physorg.com
  26. ^ "WikiLeaks Blames Newspaper for Uncensored Cable Leak". Archived from the original on 2012-09-15.  Voice of America, 1 September 2011
  27. ^ a b c Calabresi, Massimo (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks' War on Secrecy: Truth's Consequences". Time (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 19 December 2010. "Reportedly spurred by the leak of the Pentagon papers, Assange unveiled WikiLeaks in December 2006." 
  28. ^ a b c d e Khatchadourian, Raffi (7 June 2010). "No Secrets: Julian Assange's Mission for total transparency". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2013-03-17. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  29. ^ Guilliatt, Richard (30 May 2009). "Rudd Government blacklist hacker monitors police". The Australian (Sydney). Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  30. ^ Burns, John F.; Somaiya, Ravi (23 October 2010). "WikiLeaks Founder on the Run, Trailed by Notoriety". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  31. ^ a b "About WikiLeaks". WikiLeaks. 2012-02-28. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2012-12-05. 
  32. ^ Rintoul, Stuart (9 December 2010). "WikiLeaks advisory board 'pretty clearly window-dressing'". The Australian (Sydney). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  33. ^ "Inside WikiLeaks’ Leak Factory". Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. . Mother Jones (6 April 2010). Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  34. ^ a b Gilson, Dave (19 May 2010). "WikiLeaks Gets A Facelift". Mother Jones (San Francisco). Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  35. ^ Wackywace, HaeB, and Tony1 (6 September 2010). "Difficult relationship between WikiLeaks and Wikipedia". The Signpost (Wikipedia). Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  36. ^ "Wikipedia:WikiLeaks is not part of Wikipedia". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  37. ^ Rawlinson, Kevin; Peck, Tom (30 August 2010). "Wiki giants on a collision course over shared name". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  38. ^ "Press:Wikia Does Not Own Wikileaks Domain Names". Wikia. Wikia. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  39. ^ "EPIC v. DOJ, FBI: Wikileaks". Electronic Privacy Information Center. 
  40. ^ "Exclusive – Julian Assange Extended Interview". Colbert Nation. 12 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. 
  41. ^ a b Bradner, Scott (17 January 2007). "Wikileaks: a site for exposure". Network World (Framingham, MA). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  42. ^ "How to be a Whistle Blower". Unknowncountry.com. 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  43. ^ a b c d e Mey, Stefan (4 January 2010). "Leak-o-nomy: The Economy of Wikileaks (Interview with Julian Assange)". Medien-Ökonomie-Blog. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  44. ^ "Supporters". Wikileaks. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. 
  45. ^ Dorling, Philip. "Building on WikiLeaks". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. Retrieved 29 October 2011. 
  46. ^ Marsh, Heather. "To Whom It May Concern". WL Central. Retrieved 8 March 2012. [dead link]
  47. ^ Moss, Stephen (14 July 2010). "Julian Assange: the whistleblower". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  48. ^ a b Satter, Raphael G.; Peter Svensson (3 December 2010). "WikiLeaks fights to stay online amid attacks". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg Businessweek). Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  49. ^ Randall, David; Cooper, Charlie (5 December 2010). "WikiLeaks hit by new online onslaught". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  50. ^ a b Goodwin, Dan (21 February 2008). "Wikileaks judge gets Pirate Bay treatment". The Register (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  51. ^ "Pentagon-papirer sikret i atom-bunker". VG Nett (in Norwegian) (Oslo). 27 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  52. ^ Greenberg, Andy (30 August 2010). "Wikileaks Servers Move To Underground Nuclear Bunker". Forbes (blog). Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  53. ^ a b Fredén, Jonas (14 August 2010). "Jagad och hatad – men han vägrar vika sig" [Chased and hated – but he refuses to give way]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish) (Stockholm). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  54. ^ Helin, Jan (14 August 2010). "Därför blir Julian Assange kolumnist i Aftonbladet". Aftonbladet (blog) (in Swedish) (Stockholm). Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 15 August 2010. 
  55. ^ "What is WikiLeaks?". This Just In (CNN blog). 25 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  56. ^ TT (17 August 2010). "Piratpartiet sköter Wikileak-servrar" [Pirate Party manages Wikileaks Servers]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish) (Stockholm). Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  57. ^ "Swedish Pirate Party to host WikiLeaks servers". CNN. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  58. ^ a b Gross, Doug (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks cut off from Amazon servers". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  59. ^ Hennigan, W.J. (2 December 2010). "Amazon says it dumped WikiLeaks because it put innocent people in jeopardy". Technology blog, Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  60. ^ Poncet, Guerric (3 December 2010). "Expulsé d'Amazon, WikiLeaks trouve refuge en France". Le Point (in French) (Paris). Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. 
  61. ^ "French company allowed to keep hosting WikiLeaks". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg L.P.). 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  62. ^ "French web host need not shut down WikiLeaks site: judge". France 24. AFP. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Submissions". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 14 March 2012. "You can also use secure TOR network (secure, anonymous, distributed network for maximum security)" 
  64. ^ Archived November 22, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  65. ^ "PGP key 0x11015F80 has expired on 2nd November 2007". 
  66. ^ "Why have WikiLeakS.org abandoned the use of PGP Encryption ?". WikiLeak. Retrieved 2008-09-10. 
  67. ^ "Wikileaks no longer using PGP ? How can the wikileaks editorial team be contacted privately without PGP ?". Wikileaks.org. 22 September 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2013. 
  68. ^ "Wikileaks / WL Central". WL Central. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 14 March 2012. "Between 2006 and October 2010, Wikileaks site was based on an implementation of the Mediawiki software (hence the name, Wikileaks). In October the site was taken down, and when Wikileaks returned, the new site (above) replaced the Mediawiki site." 
  69. ^ McLachlan, John; Hopper, Nicholas (2009). "On the risks of serving whenever you surf". freehaven.net. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  70. ^ "Julian Assange compte demander l'asile en Suisse". TSR (in French) (Geneva). 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  71. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (4 November 2010). "WikiLeaks founder says may seek Swiss asylum". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. 
  72. ^ "WikiLeaks-Gründer erwägt Umzug in die Schweiz". ORF (in German) (Vienna). 5 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. 
  73. ^ "WikiLeaks Founder to Release Thousands of Documents on Lebanon". Al-Manar TV (Al-Manar). 5 November 2010. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  74. ^ Ladurantaye, Steve (8 December 2010). "Canadian firm caught up in Wiki wars". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  75. ^ Trapido, Michael (1 December 2010). "Wikileaks: Is Julian Assange a hero, villain or simply dangerously naïve?". NewsTime (Johannesburg). Retrieved 18 December 2010. [dead link]
  76. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  77. ^ a b Kushner, David (6 April 2010). "Inside WikiLeaks' Leak Factory". Mother Jones (San Francisco). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  78. ^ Light, Gilead (26 August 2010). "The WikiLeaks story and criminal liability under the espionage laws". The Great Debate (blog) (Reuters). Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  79. ^ a b Woolner, Ann (28 July 2010). "WikiLeaks Secret Records Dump Stays in Legal Clear". Bloomberg (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  80. ^ Hennigan, W. J. (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks' new home is in a former bomb shelter". Los Angeles Times technology blog. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  81. ^ Nystedt, Dan (28 October 2009). "Wikileaks leader talks of courage and wrestling pigs". PC World Australia (Sydney). Archived from the original on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  82. ^ a b Savage, Charlie (1 December 2010). "U.S. Weighs Prosecution of WikiLeaks Founder, but Legal Scholars Warn of Steep Hurdles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  83. ^ a b Yost, Pete (29 November 2010). "Holder says WikiLeaks under criminal investigation". Fox News. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  84. ^ a b Nakashima, Ellen; Markon, Jerry (30 November 2010). "WikiLeaks founder could be charged under Espionage Act". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  85. ^ Jones, Ashby (26 July 2010). "Pentagon Papers II? On WikiLeaks and the First Amendment". The Wall Street Journal (blog). Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  86. ^ Savage, Charlie (7 December 2010). "U.S. Prosecutors Study WikiLeaks Prosecution". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  87. ^ Faiola, Anthony; Markon, Jerry (7 December 2010). "WikiLeaks founder's arrest in Britain complicates efforts to extradite him". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  88. ^ Jones, Sam (5 December 2010). "Julian Assange's lawyers say they are being watched". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  89. ^ "Assange attorney: Secret grand jury meeting in Virginia on WikiLeaks". CNN International. 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  90. ^ Gillard, Julia (7 December 2010). Gillard refines verdict on Assange. Interview with Lyndal Curtis. The World Today. ABC Radio (Australia). Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  91. ^ Karvelas, Patricia (14 December 2010). "Party revolt growing over Prime Minister Julia Gillard's WikiLeaks stance". The Australian (Sydney). Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  92. ^ Robinson, Jennifer; Zifcak, Spencer; Saul, Ben (7 December 2010). Law experts say WikiLeaks in the clear. Interview with Simon Lauder. The World Today. ABC Radio (Australia). Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 12 December 2010. "There is no charge and there has been no trial and even given all of those things the Prime Minister had the confidence to say that Mr Assange was guilty of illegality. Now that seems to me to be completely inappropriate." 
  93. ^ Lauder 2010: statement by Dr Ben Saul, director of the Centre for International Law at the University of Sydney.
  94. ^ "Statement on Arrest of WikiLeaks Founder Julian Assange". New York: Center for Constitutional Rights. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  95. ^ "Afghan War Diary, 2004–2010". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  96. ^ WikiLeaks (19 October 2010). "Now is a good time to mirror this WikiLeaks 'insurance' backup". Twitter. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  97. ^ a b Zetter, Kim (30 July 2010). "WikiLeaks Posts Mysterious 'Insurance' File". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  98. ^ Ward, Victoria (3 December 2010). "WikiLeaks website disconnected as US company withdraws support". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  99. ^ a b Palmer, Elizabeth (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks Backup Plan Could Drop Diplomatic Bomb". CBS News. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  100. ^ WikiLeaks (22 February 2012). "Please bittorrent WikiLeaks Insurance release 2012-02-22 (65GB)". Twitter. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  101. ^ "wikileaks-insurance-20120222.tar.bz2.aes.torrent". wlstorage.net. 22 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  102. ^ https://www.facebook.com/wikileaks/posts/561645433870573 Official WikiLeaks Facebook Page. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  103. ^ a b Daly, John W. (13 July 2010). "Wau Holland Foundation sheds light on WikiLeaks donations – Hardware, ISP, travelling costs". TechEye.net. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  104. ^ a b Bates, Theunis (28 September 2010). "WikiLeaks' Woes Grow as Spokesman Quits Site". AOL News. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  105. ^ "Wikileaks donations still flowing, but not to Assange legal fund". The Local (Berlin). Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  106. ^ "Twitter / WikiLeaks: To deal with a shortage of...". Twitter. 24 December 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-03-11. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  107. ^ a b Butselaar, Emily (29 January 2010). "Dig deep for WikiLeaks". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  108. ^ "WikiLeaks – Mirrors". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  109. ^ WikiLeaks. "at 7:42 am 5 Jan 2010". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  110. ^ "Twitter / Wikileaks: Achieved min. funraising g...". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  111. ^ "WikiLeaks: Paypal has again locked our...". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2013-03-11. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  112. ^ "WikiLeaks: Paypal has freed up our...". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2013-03-11. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  113. ^ "Wikileaks: Next milestone completed:...". Twitter. 18 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-03-11. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  114. ^ a b Cohen, Noam (17 June 2010). "Knight Foundation Hands Out Grants to 12 Groups, but Not WikiLeaks". Media Decoder Blog (The New York Times). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  115. ^ a b c Cook, John (17 June 2010). "WikiLeaks questions why it was rejected for Knight grant". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 19 December 2010. [dead link]
  116. ^ ""Project 04: Enduring freedom of information" Preliminary transparency report 2010". Wau-Holland-Stiftung (WHS) via Cryptome. 26 April 2011. 
  117. ^ "'Donations Were Never as Strong as Now'". Spiegel International (Hamburg). 13 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  118. ^ Horton, Scott (6 August 2010). "Financing WikiLeaks". Harper's Magazine (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  119. ^ "Donate". Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. . Wikileaks.org (8 July 2011). Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  120. ^ "WikiLeaks Asks For Anonymous Bitcoin Donations – Andy Greenberg – The Firewall – Forbes". Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. . Blogs.forbes.com (14 June 2011). Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  121. ^ Zetter, Kim (1904-11-16). "WikiLeaks Wins Icelandic Court Battle Against Visa for Blocking Donations | Threat Level". Wired.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2012-11-19. 
  122. ^ Rice, Xan (31 August 2007). "The looting of Kenya". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  123. ^ Singel, Ryan (14 November 2007). "Sensitive Guantánamo Bay Manual Leaked Through Wiki Site". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. 
  124. ^ "Guantanamo operating manual posted on Internet". Reuters. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 November 2007. 
  125. ^ "Wikileaks.org under injunction" (Press release). WikiLeaks. 18 February 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  126. ^ Orion, Egan (2 March 2008). "Judge reverses Wikileaks injunction". The Inquirer (London). Archived from the original on 2013-02-22. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  127. ^ Gollner, Philipp (29 February 2008). "Judge reverses ruling in Julius Baer leak case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  128. ^ "Scientology threatens Wikileaks with injunction". The Register (London). 8 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  129. ^ Zetter, Kim (17 September 2008). "Group Posts E-Mail Hacked From Palin Account – Update". Threat Level (Wired blog). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. 
  130. ^ "'BNP membership' officer sacked". BBC News. 21 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  131. ^ Booth, Robert (20 October 2009). "BNP membership list leaked". Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  132. ^ "Aparecen 86 nuevos petroaudios de Rómulo León". Terra Peru (in Spanish) (Lima). 28 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  133. ^ Krebs, Brian (11 February 2009). "Thousands of Congressional Reports Now Available Online". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 December 2010. [dead link]
  134. ^ Mills, Elinor (12 March 2009). "Coleman Senate campaign in donor data leak mess". CNET News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  135. ^ "The Big Bad Database of Senator Norm Coleman". Mirror.wikileaks.info. 11 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  136. ^ Luft, Oliver (6 July 2009). "Read all about it". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  137. ^ "Serious nuclear accident may lay behind Iranian nuke chief's mystery resignation". WikiLeaks. 16 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 16 October 2010. 
  138. ^ Hounshell, Blake (27 September 2010). "6 mysteries about Stuxnet". Passport (blog). Washington DC: Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  139. ^ Woodward, Paul (22 February 1999). "Iran confirms Stuxnet found at Bushehr nuclear power plant". Warincontext.org. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  140. ^ "Miklar hreyfingar rétt fyrir hrun" [Large movements just before crash]. Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV) (in Icelandic). Reykjavik. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009. [dead link]
  141. ^ Chivers, Tom (5 October 2009). "MoD 'how to stop leaks' document is leaked". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 6 October 2009. 
  142. ^ Margaronis, Maria (October 2009). "A gag too far". Index On Censorship. Archived from the original on 2009-10-18. Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  143. ^ "Minton report secret injunction gagging The Guardian on Trafigura". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009. 
  144. ^ "WikiLeaks.org aims to expose lies, topple governments". New York Post. 29 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. 
  145. ^ Stewart, Will; Delgado, Martin (6 December 2009). "Were Russian security services behind the leak of 'Climategate' emails?". Daily Mail (London). Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. 
  146. ^ McCullagh, Declan (25 November 2009). "Egads! Confidential 9/11 Pager Messages Disclosed;November 2009". CBS News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 31 December 2010. 
  147. ^ Oates, John (18 March 2009). "Aussie firewall blocks Wikileaks". The Register (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  148. ^ Moses, Asher (19 March 2009). "Leaked Australian blacklist reveals banned sites". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  149. ^ "Internet Censorship in Thailand". wikileaks.org. Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  150. ^ "Classified cable from US Embassy Reykjavik on Icesave, 13 Jan 2010". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. . WikiLeaks. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  151. ^ Mccullagh, Declan (15 March 2010). "U.S. Army worried about Wikileaks in secret report". CNET News. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  152. ^ "U.S. Intelligence planned to destroy WikiLeaks". WikiLeaks. 15 March 2010. Archived from the original on March 2010. 
  153. ^ Stephanie Strom, "Pentagon Sees a Threat From Online Muckrakers". Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. , New York Times, 17 March 2010.
  154. ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth; Stelter, Brian (6 April 2009). "Video Shows U.S. Killing of Reuters Employees". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. Retrieved 7 April 2010. 
  155. ^ "Current Google Insights trends: Wikileaks posts classified military video, Masters". The Independent (London). Relaxnews. 12 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. 
  156. ^ Poulsen, Kevin; Zetter, Kim (6 June 2010). "U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in Wikileaks Video Probe". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  157. ^ "Afghanistan war logs: the unvarnished picture". The Guardian (London). 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  158. ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Whalen, Jeanne (12 August 2010). "Pentagon Slams WikiLeaks' Plan to Post More War Logs". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  159. ^ Lischka, Konrad (18 August 2010). "Einstweilige Verfügung – Duisburg verbietet Blogger-Veröffentlichung zur Love Parade". Der Spiegel (in German) (Hamburg). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  160. ^ "Loveparade 2010 Duisburg planning documents, 2007–2010". Mirror.wikileaks.info. 20 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-02-18. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  161. ^ "WikiLeaks releases documents on Love Parade tragedy". news.com.au Technology (Sydney). NewsCore. 21 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06. 
  162. ^ "Huge Wikileaks release shows US 'ignored Iraq torture'". BBC News. 23 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 
  163. ^ Shane, Scott; Lehren, Andrew W. (28 November 2010). "Leaked Cables Offer Raw Look at U.S. Diplomacy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  164. ^ a b Suarez, Kris Danielle (30 November 2010). "1,796 Memos from US Embassy in Manila in WikiLeaks 'Cablegate'". ABS-CBN News (Manila). Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  165. ^ "Twitter Subpoena". Salon. Retrieved 10 January 2011. 
  166. ^ Rushe, Dominic (8 January 2011). "Icelandic MP fights US demand for her Twitter account details". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 10 January 2011. 
  167. ^ "Sam" (13 January 2011). "Tunisia's youth finally has revolution on its mind". 'Comment is Free' blog (The Guardian) (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  168. ^ "'First Wikileaks Revolution': Tunisia descends into anarchy as president flees after cables reveal country's corruption". Daily Mail (London). 15 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  169. ^ Dickinson, Elizabeth (13 January 2011). "The First WikiLeaks Revolution?". Foreign Policy (Washington DC). Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  170. ^ "The Guantanamo Files". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  171. ^ "The Spy Files". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  172. ^ "The Global Intelligence Files". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  173. ^ "Syria Files". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012. 
  174. ^ "Press Release: The Detainee Policies". Wikileaks.org. 2012-10-25. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2012-11-19. 
  175. ^ "WikiLeaks to release US diplomatic and intelligence documents from 1970s". news.com.au. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  176. ^ a b DN.no. "Wikileaks overvåket 20 overvåkningssjefer". Dn.no. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  177. ^ Musil, Steven (12 November 2013). "WikiLeaks publishes secret draft chapter of Trans-Pacific Partnership". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 15 November 2013. 
  178. ^ "Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)". Wikileaks. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  179. ^ a b Campbell, Matthew (11 April 2010). "Whistleblowers on US 'massacre' fear CIA stalkers". The Sunday Times (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  180. ^ Warrick, Joby (19 May 2010). "WikiLeaks works to expose government secrets, but Web site's sources are a mystery". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  181. ^ a b Anderson, Chris (July 2010). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks (Videotape). TED. Event occurs at 11:28. Retrieved 2 August 2010. "November last year... well blowouts in Albania... Have you had information from inside BP? Yeah, we have a lot..." 
  182. ^ Galant, Richard (16 July 2010). "WikiLeaks founder: Site getting tons of 'high caliber' disclosures". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  183. ^ Owen, Glen; Stewart, Will (14 November 2010). "Bank raid could have been warning against planned WikiLeaks Russian corruption expose says Alexander Lebedev". Mail on Sunday (London). Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  184. ^ Weir, Fred (26 October 2010). "WikiLeaks ready to drop a bombshell on Russia. But will Russians get to read about it?". The Christian Science Monitor (Boston). Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  185. ^ Greenberg, Andy (29 November 2010). "An Interview With WikiLeaks' Julian Assange". Forbes (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  186. ^ Rothacker, Rick (1 December 2010). "Bank of America rumored to be in WikiLeaks' crosshairs". The China Post (Taipei). McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  187. ^ Memmott, Mark (1 December 2010). "Bank Of America Stock Steadies After WikiLeaks-Related Drop". The Two-way (NPR news blog) (Washington DC: National Public Radio). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  188. ^ De La Merced, Michael J. (30 November 2010). "WikiLeaks' Next Target: Bank of America?". DealBook (New York Times blog). Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  189. ^ Carney, John (2 December 2010). "Bank of America's Risky WikiLeaks Strategy". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  190. ^ "Some of WikiLeaks' Bank of America data destroyed". Reuters. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  191. ^ "Wikileaks' Julian Assange to fight Swedish allegations". BBC News. 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  192. ^ "Wikileaks given data on Swiss bank accounts". BBC News. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  193. ^ Shane, Scott. "Offering Snowden Aid, WikiLeaks Gets Back in the Game." The New York Times. June 23, 2013. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  194. ^ "The Justice Department weighs a criminal case against WikiLeaks". The Washington Post. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  195. ^ WikiRebels the Documentary (Television production). Stockholm: Sveriges Television. December 2010.  (35:45 to 36:03)
  196. ^ "Read closely: NATO tells CNN not a single case of Afghans needing protection or moving due to leak http://bit.ly/dk5NZi". Twitter. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  197. ^ "Outcomes of WikiLeaks investigation" (Press release). Australian Department of Defence. 26 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  198. ^ Graziano, Dan (22 May 2012). "WikiLeaks launches encrypted social network". bgr.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  199. ^ "Friends of Wikileads". Archived from the original on 2012-09-16.  website.
  200. ^ "'Friends of WikiLeaks' fight for Assange’s rights in European Court". RT.com. 19 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  201. ^ Marks, Paul (12 January 2007). "How to leak a secret and not get caught". New Scientist (London). Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  202. ^ "Wiktionary definition of tranche". En.wiktionary.org. 13 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  203. ^ Leyden, John (2 June 2010). "Wikileaks denies Tor hacker eavesdropping gave site its start". The Register. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  204. ^ Moses, Asher (16 March 2009). "Banned hyperlinks could cost you $11,000 a day". The Age (Melbourne). Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  205. ^ "Australia secretly censors Wikileaks press release and Danish Internet censorship list, 16 Mar 2009". Mirror.wikileaks.info. 16 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  206. ^ Taylor, Josh (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks removed from ACMA blacklist". ZDNet Australia. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 1 December 2010. 
  207. ^ "Is Wikileaks blocked by the Chinese government?". WikiLeaks. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  208. ^ Kuri, Jürgen (25 March 2009). "Hausdurchsuchung bei Inhaber der Domain wikileaks.de" [Search of owner of the domain wikileaks.de]. Heise Online (in German) (Hannover). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 21 September 2009. 
  209. ^ Pauli, Darren (25 March 2009). "Wikileaks raided by German police". Network World. Framingham, MA. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  210. ^ "Police raid home of Wikileaks.de domain owner over censorship lists". WikiLeaks. 24 March 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. 
  211. ^ Campbell, Matthew (11 April 2010). "Whistleblowers on US 'massacre' fear CIA stalkers". The Sunday Times (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. 
  212. ^ Hendler, Clint (1 April 2010). "Thin ice: The man behind WikiLeaks has some allegations". Columbia Journalism Review (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-07-24. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  213. ^ Sigurgrimsdottir, Herdis (4 August 2009). "Iceland court lifts gag order after public outrage". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  214. ^ "Iceland's journalism freedom dream prompted by Wikileaks". BBC News. 13 February 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. 
  215. ^ "Icelandic Modern Media Initiative". Reykjavik: International Modern Media Institute. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 19 May 2011. [dead link]
  216. ^ "Thailand blocks access to WikiLeaks website". Thai Visa Forum (Bangkok). Agence France-Presse. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  217. ^ Barta, Patrick (17 August 2010). "Thai Groups Denounce Website Censorship". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  218. ^ Fuller, Thomas (6 July 2010). "Citing Instability, Thailand Extends Emergency Decree". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  219. ^ a b Singel, Ryan (19 July 2010). "Wikileaks Reopens for Leakers". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  220. ^ McCullagh, Declan (16 July 2010). "Feds look for WikiLeaks founder at NYC hacker event | Security". CNET News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  221. ^ "Jacob Appelbaum WikiLeaks Next HOPE Keynote Transcript". "Hackers on Planet Earth" conference. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  222. ^ WikiLeaks (16–18 July 2010). Saturday Keynote at The Next HOPE (MP3) (Audio). Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  223. ^ a b c d Mills, Elinor (28 July 2010). "Researcher detained at U.S. border, questioned about WikiLeaks". CNET. Archived from the original on 2013-03-20. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  224. ^ Raymond, Matt (3 December 2010). "Why the Library of Congress Is Blocking Wikileaks". Library of Congress blog. Archived from the original on 2013-03-22. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  225. ^ de Sola, David (4 December 2010). "U.S. agencies warn unauthorized employees not to look at WikiLeaks". CNN. Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  226. ^ Entous, Adam; Perez, Evan (21 August 2010). "Prosecutors Eye WikiLeaks Charges". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  227. ^ Shenon, Philip (10 August 2010). "U.S. Urges Allies to Crack Down on WikiLeaks". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. 
  228. ^ "Columbia U diplomacy students warned about cables". Newsday (Newsday). 4 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2012. [dead link][dead link]
  229. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (3 December 2010). "US blocks access to WikiLeaks for federal workers". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  230. ^ "WikiLeaks claims Facebook deleted its page, 30000 fans". News.com.au Technology blog. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  231. ^ "Wikileaks Claims Facebook Deleted Their Fan Page Because They "Promote Illegal Acts"". Gawker. 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  232. ^ "Wikileaks Fan Page Pulled Down for Being "Inauthentic," Says Facebook". TechPresident. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 22 April 2010. 
  233. ^ Glanfield, Tim (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks supporters embrace Twitter & Facebook accounts". Beehive City. Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. 
  234. ^ "search for 'Wikileaks'". Famecount.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  235. ^ Kirkpatrick, Marshall (6 December 2010). "Facebook: We're Not Kicking Wikileaks Off Our Site". ReadWriteWeb. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  236. ^ Jones, Sam (5 December 2010). "Julian Assange's lawyers say they are being watched". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  237. ^ Palsule, Mahendra (3 December 2010). "EveryDNS.net Terminates Wikileaks.org DNS Services, Wikileaks.ch Back Up in Switzerland". Skeptic Geek. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  238. ^ Pauli, Darren (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks loses domain name after DoS attacks". ZDNet UK (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  239. ^ Vance, Ashlee (3 December 2010). "WikiLeaks Struggles to Stay Online After Attacks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  240. ^ Welch, Dylan (4 December 2010). "Attacks shut down WikiLeaks". The Age (Melbourne). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  241. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (2 December 2010). "WikiLeaks website pulled by Amazon after U.S. political pressure". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  242. ^ "Amazon Web Services Message". Amazon Web Services. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  243. ^ Klint, Finley (2 December 2010). "Another Falls: Tableau Software Drops WikiLeaks Data Visualizations". ReadWriteCloud. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  244. ^ Fink, Elissa (2 December 2010). "Why We Removed the WikiLeaks Visualizations". Seattle: Tableau Software blog. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  245. ^ "Pro-Wikileaks activists abandon Amazon cyber attack". BBC News. 9 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  246. ^ Somaiya, Ravi (5 December 2010). "Hundreds of WikiLeaks Mirror Sites Appear". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  247. ^ Bradley, Tony (7 December 2010). "Operation Payback: WikiLeaks Avenged by Hacktivists". PC World (San Francisco). Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  248. ^ "How the Barbra Streisand Effect keeps WikiLeaks online". The New Zealand Herald (Auckland). Agence France-Presse. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-06. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  249. ^ "PayPal Turns Off Tap for WikiLeaks Donations". CBS News. Associated Press. 4 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  250. ^ Galante, Joseph (4 December 2010). "PayPal Restricts WikiLeaks Account as Website Comes Under Global Scrutity". Bloomberg (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-07-20. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  251. ^ Tsotsis, Alexia (8 December 2010). "PayPal VP On Blocking WikiLeaks: "State Department Told Us It Was Illegal"". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  252. ^ "Presseerklärung der Wau Holland Stiftung zur Sperrung ihres Account bei PayPal" (Press release) (in German). Hamburg: Wau Holland Stiftung. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-02-17. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  253. ^ "WikiLeaks: Swiss bank freezes Julian Assange's account". BBC News. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  254. ^ Weaver, Matthew; Adams, Richard (6 December 2010). "WikiLeaks US embassy cables: As it happened". guardian.co.uk News Blog (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  255. ^ McCullagh, Declan (6 December 2010). "MasterCard pulls plug on WikiLeaks payments". CNET News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-18. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  256. ^ "Visa says it has suspended all payments to WikiLeaks 'pending further investigation'". Newsday (Newsday). 7 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2012. "Visa says it has suspended all payments to WikiLeaks 'pending further investigation.'" [dead link][dead link]
  257. ^ Webster, Stephen C. (7 December 2010). "MasterCard, Visa shut down electronic donations to WikiLeaks". The Raw Story. Archived from the original on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  258. ^ "Wikileaks' IT firm says it will sue Visa and Mastercard". BBC News. 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  259. ^ Arthur, Charles (7 December 2010). "WikiLeaks under attack: the definitive timeline". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  260. ^ "UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay voices concern at reports of pressure being exerted on private companies to halt financial or internet services for WikiLeaks". United Nations. 9 December 2010. [dead link][dead link]
  261. ^ Mitchell, Stewart (21 December 2010). "Apple pulls WikiLeaks app". PC Pro (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-09. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  262. ^ "Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies (M-11-08)". Executive Office of the [U.S.] President. 3 January 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
  263. ^ "US urges action to prevent insider leaks". BBC News. 5 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 5 January 2011. 
  264. ^ "Press release, 14 July 2011". Wikileaks.org. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-12-05. 
  265. ^ "Complaint to the EU commission" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-05. 
  266. ^ Leigh, David; Evans, Rob (14 October 2010). "WikiLeaks says funding has been blocked after government blacklisting". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-06. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  267. ^ "Bank of America stops handling Wikileaks payments". BBC News. 18 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  268. ^ Lundin, Leigh (20 February 2011). "WikiLicks". Crime. Orlando: Criminal Brief. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  269. ^ "WikiLeaks suspends publishing to fight financial blockade". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. , Esther Addley and Jason Deans, The Guardian, 24 October 2011
  270. ^ Greenberg, Andy (18 July 2012). "WikiLeaks Reopens Channel For Credit Card Donations, Dares Visa And MasterCard To Block Them Again". Forbes. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  271. ^ Pete Rizzo (@pete_rizzo_) (2014-01-24). "Bitcoin and Litecoin Top Sources of WikiLeaks Donations". Coindesk.com. Retrieved 2014-03-02. 
  272. ^ "What is WikiLeaks? How does WikiLeaks operate?". WikiLeaks. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008. 
  273. ^ "WikiLeaks' submissions page". WikiLeaks. Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  274. ^ Aftergood, Steven (3 January 2007). "Wikileaks and untracable document disclosure". Secrecy News (Federation of American Scientists). Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 21 August 2008. 
  275. ^ "What is Wikileaks? How does Wikileaks operate?". WikiLeaks. 2008. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008. 
  276. ^ Satter, Raphael G. (30 September 2010). "WikiLeaks chief lashes out at media during debate". PhysOrg.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  277. ^ Blodget, Henry (28 September 2010). "WikiLeaks Spokesman Quits, Blasts Founder Julian Assange As Paranoid Control Freak, Admits To Using Fake Name". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  278. ^ a b "WikiLeaks Spokesman Quits". Spiegel International (Hamburg). 27 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-25. 
  279. ^ Brown, Craig (12 February 2011). "War of the WikiFreaks: Inside WikiLeaks by Daniel Domscheit-Berg (book review)". Daily Mail (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  280. ^ a b c Poulsen, Kevin; Zetter, Kim (27 September 2010). "Unpublished Iraq War Logs Trigger Internal WikiLeaks Revolt". Wired (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  281. ^ Nordstrom, Louise (10 December 2010). "Former WikiLeaks worker: Rival site under way". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  282. ^ "WikiLeaks defector blasts Assange in book – CNN.com". Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. . Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  283. ^ "Ex-Wikileaks man 'deleted files'". BBC News. 22 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  284. ^ "WikiLeaks Defector Slams Assange In Tell-All Book Threat Level". Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. . Wired.com (10 February 2011). Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  285. ^ "Assange Battle Escalates: Ex-Wikileaks Spokesman Destroyed Unpublished Files – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. . Spiegel.de. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  286. ^ McMahon, Tamsin (17 January 2011). "Q&A: Former WikiLeaks spokeswoman Birgitta Jonsdottir". National Post (Toronto). Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  287. ^ Taylor, Jerome (25 October 2010). "Secret war at the heart of Wikileaks". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  288. ^ "Winners of Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression Awards Announced". Index on Censorship. 22 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  289. ^ "The Cry of Blood. Report on Extra-Judicial Killings and Disappearances". Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  290. ^ "Amnesty announces Media Awards 2009 winners" (Press release). Amnesty International UK. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  291. ^ Reso, Paulina (20 May 2010). "5 pioneering Web sites that could totally change the news". Daily News (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  292. ^ Sam Adams Associates for Integrity in Intelligence. "WikiLeaks and Assange Honored". Consortium News. Archived from the original on 2012-07-31. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  293. ^ Friedman, Megan (13 December 2010). "Julian Assange: Readers' Choice for TIME's Person of the Year 2010". Time (New York). Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  294. ^ Curtis, Polly (30 December 2010). "Ministers must 'wise up not clam up' after WikiLeaks disclosures". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  295. ^ "Media says government's reaction to WikiLeaks 'troubling'". The Sydney Morning Herald. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 28 December 2010. 
  296. ^ Kampfner, John (29 November 2010). "Wikileaks shows up our media for their docility at the feet of authority". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  297. ^ Shafer, Jack (30 November 2010). "Why I Love WikiLeaks". Slate. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  298. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (30 November 2010). "WikiLeaks reveals more than just government secrets". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  299. ^ Gilmore, Dan (6 December 2010). "Defend WikiLeaks or lose free speech". Salon.com. Retrieved 19 December 2010. [dead link]
  300. ^ "First, They Came for WikiLeaks. Then...". The Nation (New York). 27 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  301. ^ Ruane, Medb (11 December 2010). "Where's the democracy in hunting Wikileaks off the Net?". Irish Independent (Dublin). Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  302. ^ Nayar, Pramod K. (25 December 2010). "WikiLeaks, the New Information Cultures and Digital Parrhesia". Economic & Political Weekly (Mumbai). Retrieved 8 January 2011 Wikileaks Lessons for Media Theory and Politics.  Archive 9/1/2013
  303. ^ "Congress Mulls How to Stop WikiLeaks in Its Tracks". Fox News. Associated Press. 7 April 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  304. ^ Richter, Paul (19 November 2010). "U.S. tries to contain damage from WikiLeaks disclosures". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 14 March 20124. 
  305. ^ Epstein, Jennifer (1 December 2010). "Bill Clinton: WikiLeaks will cost lives". Politico. Archived from the original on 2012-09-11. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  306. ^ "Clinton blasts 'deeply distressing' leak of US sites". AFP. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  307. ^ "Outrage and Apologies: Washington Fights to Rebuild Battered Reputation". Spiegel International (Hamburg). 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-10. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  308. ^ "WikiLeaks asked to censor secret files". Herald Sun (Melbourne). Associated Press. 11 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  309. ^ "Open letter to Wikileaks founder Julian Assange: "A bad precedent for the Internet's future"". Reporters Sans Frontières. 12 August 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-06-29. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  310. ^ "UN human rights chief voices concern at reported 'cyber war' against WikiLeaks" (Press release). United Nations. 9 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 28 December 2010. 
  311. ^ "Joint Statement on WikiLeaks". Organization of American States. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 28 December 2010. 
  312. ^ "Video Debate: Is WikiLeaks Good For The World?". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 21 October 2011. 
  313. ^ Piven, Ben (17 December 2010). "Copycat WikiLeaks sites make waves – Features". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 18 December 2010. 
  314. ^ "Wikileaks launches Social Network". Netzwelt.de. 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  315. ^ "Vanaf vandaag: anoniem lekken naar media via doorgeefluik Publeaks". volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  316. ^ "Handling ethical problems in counterterrorism An inventory of methods to support ethical decisionmaking". RAND Corporation. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  317. ^ Razumovskaya, Olga (21 January 2011). "Russia's Own WikiLeaks Takes Off". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 2012-09-13. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  318. ^ "Argentina: Judge orders all ISPs to block corruption reporting website". 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  319. ^ "Argentina: Judge orders all ISPs to block the sites LeakyMails.com and Leakymails.blogspot.com". 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  320. ^ "Argentine ISPs Use Bazooka to Kill Fly". 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  321. ^ "Honest Appalachia". Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. 
  322. ^ Ove, Torsten (15 January 2012). "Honest Appalachia website aims to be localized WikiLeaks operation". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  323. ^ "About us". Blog.honestappalachia.org. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  324. ^ "We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks". Sundance Film Festival. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. 
  325. ^ documentary
  326. ^ "WikiLeaks.org is dead; long live WikiLeaks.ch". The National Business Review (Auckland, NZ). 4 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  327. ^ "Twitter / WikiLeaks: Cablegate". Twitter. 10 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]