Wikipedia:Ambassadors/Research/Spring 2012 source analysis

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This is an analysis of a sample of articles created or edited by students in the spring 2012 semester, to determine if sources were used correctly in those articles. Source problems may include direct copying, close paraphrasing, or inaccurate use of the source material.

The articles selected are drawn from the burden analysis done for the spring 2012 semester. For each course, the alphabetically first student from the burden analysis is selected, and for that student, the article they contributed the most to is chosen. That article is then analyzed to determine if the sources were used correctly.

All sources in the article should be analyzed, not just those created by students, since the goal is to determine if students are introducing problems at a different rate to the rest of the editing community.

How to complete this assessment[edit]

  1. Create a section for each course. Courses should be the same ones listed in Wikipedia:Ambassadors/Research/Spring 2012 burden analysis.
  2. The section should contain three heading items and a table. The headings are the coursetool link, which can be found in the burden analysis linked above; and an article and version link. The article should be the one primarily edited by the alphabetically first student listed for that class on the burden analysis page. The version should be the version with the last edit by that student. The table should be copied from one of the existing sections.
  3. The table is filled out as follows.
    • The reference column should contain the citation information of a reference from the article.
    • The "Text using this reference" column should contain text in the article apparently supported by that reference. If there are multiple uses of the reference, create separate rows.
    • The "Relevant text in source" column should contain a copy of the text in the source that appears to have been used to support the text in the article. If this can't be determined, or the source is unavailable, say so.
    • Put "OK" if the use of the reference to support the given text is acceptable; if not, note what problems were found -- e.g. "close paraphrasing", "direct copy of source", or "source does not support text". In either case, include a diff of the edit introducing the text, and indicate who the editor was who made the edit. In some cases several diffs may be necessary to support the explanation.

Courses[edit]

Rice University: Poverty, Gender, and Development[edit]

Course: Rice University: Poverty, Gender, and Development
Student: Alissahart (talk · contribs)
Article: Women in Chile
Latest version edited by student: [1]

Reference Text using this reference Relevant text in source Comments
[1] Menkedick, Sarah (23 May 2010). "Machismo in Chile: Serious Barrier to Gender Equality". Change.org. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 

Archive.org version: [2]

However, Chilean women still face many economic and political challenges, including income disparity, high rates of domestic violence, and the lingering gender roles. Too many to quote OK by Kaldari.
A 2010 study by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) reported that 62 percent of Chileans are opposed to full gender equality. Many of those surveyed expressed the belief that women should limit themselves to the traditional roles of mother and wife. Co-cited with [12]. A recent study by the National Human Development Report (UNDP) for Chile has revealed that more than 60% of Chileans are opposed to full gender equality. This percentage was broken up into categories: 18% of those opposed to gender equality were "machistas" who believe men should hold the power in a society; 18% were "traditional" in the sense that they believed in having clearly defined roles for men and women and not challenging these roles; and another 26% were pragmatists who believed that even though traditional roles might be slightly modified, men and women are fundamentally different and traditional "values" (i.e., women at home with the kids and men running the political/economic/cultural show) should be maintained. OK by Kaldari.
Chile has the lowest rate of female participation in the work force in all of Latin America, Chile has the lowest female participation rate in the work force in all of Latin America. Close paraphrase by Kaldari.
For jobs that do not require higher education, women make 20 percent less money on average than men. For jobs requiring a university degree, the gap in pay increases to 40 percent. the wage gap between men and women is at 20% for jobs not requiring higher education and 40% for jobs requiring a university degree or more OK by Kaldari.
[2] "Gender Equality and Social Institutions in Chile". Social Institutions and Gender Index. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 

No longer accessible online. The closest archive.org version is [3].

Chile legalized divorce in 2004 and is also one of the only countries to have elected a female president. Divorce has been authorised in Chile only since 2004. OK by Alissahart.
Chile is one of the only states in the world to have elected a female president Close paraphrase by Alissahart.
[3] Dandavati, Annie G. (1996). The Women's Movement and the Transition to Democracy in Chile. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inct. ISBN 0820425621.  Women were granted the right to vote in 1931 and 1949 during Chile's presidential era. Co-cited with [4].
While under Augusto Pinochet's authoritarian regime, women also participated in las protestas, protests against Allende's plebiscite in which women voted "no."
Until recently, women lost their right to manage their own assets once they were married, but that law has since changed and husbands received all of the wealth, but now a woman can administer her own assets.
Previously the Chilean Civil Code mandated that wives must live with and be faithful and obedient to their husbands, but now it is not law.
Women were granted the right to vote in municipal elections in 1931
Women were not involved in politics until 1934, when they could first use their municipal vote. The municipal, and later national, vote caused women to involve themselves in politics more than before, pressuring the government and political parties.
Women also made their voices heard in the late 1980s when 52 percent of the national electorate was female, and 51.2 percent of women voted "no" in Augusto Pinochet's plebiscite.
Yet many political parties insincerely support women's agenda and the concept of gender equality, instead leaving any action to be taken by SERNAM or nongovernmental organizations.
[4] Ximena Galleguillos; Diana Veneros; Carmen Ortuzar; Arnoldo Carreras (2005). Mujeres que hacen historia. LOM Ediciones. p. 5. ISBN 9562827240.  Women were granted the right to vote in 1931 and 1949 during Chile's presidential era. Co-cited with [3].
Women ... obtained the right to vote in national elections on January 8, 1949, resulting in their ability to vote under the same equal conditions as men and increasing women's participation in politics.
In 1945, Gabriela Mistral was the first Latin American, including men and women, to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Co-cited with [35].
In 1999 Gladys Marín was one of the first women to be a presidential candidate in Chile.
In 1999 Gladys Marín ... The year before, she was the first person in Chile to charge Augusto Pinochet for crimes committed during his dictatorship.
Sara Larraín was the other woman, along with Marín, to be one of the first female presidential candidates in Chile.
Soledad Alvear ... is also the woman responsible for organizing and structuring SERNAM.
Javiera Carrera Verdugo was the first woman to have sewn a national flag of Chile.
Margot Duhalde was the first female war pilot from Chile, having flown for the Royal Air Force in World War II.
[5] Power, Margaret (2002). Right-wing women in Chile: feminine power and the struggle against Allende, 1964-1973. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0271021748.  Also during the [presidential] era, thousands of women protested against socialist president Salvador Allende in the March of the Empty Pots and Pans.
Women were not involved in politics until 1934, when they could first use their municipal vote.
With women's increased political importance, many parties established women's sections for support and tried to pursue women's votes, though it would take years for political parties to truly view women as important to politics.
On December 1, 1971 thousands of women who were against the newly elected Salvador Allende marched through Santiago to protest government policies and Fidel Castro's visiting of Chile.
This march, known as the March of the Empty Pots and Pans, brought together many conservative and some liberal women as a force in Chilean politics,
[6] Haas, Liesl (2010). Feminist Policymaking in Chile. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 9780271037462.  During Chile's time under dictator Pinochet, the state of women's legal rights fell behind most of Latin America, even though Chile had one of the strongest economies in South America.
The law that legalized divorce is the New Civil Marriage Law and was first introduced as a bill in 1995; there had been previous divorce bills before, but this one managed to secure enough conservative and liberal support to pass.
Before the legalization of divorce, the only way to leave a marriage was to obtain a civil annulment, and annulments were only granted by telling the civil registrar that the spouse had lied in some way concerning the marriage license, thereby voiding the marriage contract.
Until a reform of paternity laws in 1998, children born outside marriage had less right to parental financial support and inheritance than children born within marriage.
A bill was passed in 2007 to give mothers direct access to child support payments.
With only a few women legislators, sustaining attention to the topic of women's rights a difficult task, especially in the Senate, where there are fewer female representatives than in the Chamber of Deputies.
Women's political representation is low but is on the rise in many political parties, and there is growing support for a quota law concerning women's representation.
The progressive parties of the Left have greater openness to the participation of women, evident in the Party for Democracy's and Socialist Party's quotas for women's representation as candidates for internal party office.
During her presidency, Bachelet increased the budget of the National Women's Service (Servicio Nacional de la Mujer, SERNAM) and helped the institution gain funding from the United Nations Development Fund for Women.
Her administration had an active role in furthering opportunities and policies for and about women, creating or improving child care, pension reform and breastfeeding laws. During her presidency, Bachelet appointed a cabinet that was 50 percent female.
Currently Bachelet is the head of United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women.
The National Women's Service (SERNAM) has noticed that it is easier to get politicians to support and pass poverty-alleviation programs aimed at poor women than proposals that challenge gender relations.
Much of Chile's legislation concerning women's rights has been pushed by SERNAM: Between 1992 and 2010, sixty-four legislative proposals to expand women's legal equality were introduced by SERNAM.
Historically the progressive parties of the Left have drawn more attention to women's rights.
The National Women's Service is the political institution created in 1991 that crafts executive bills concerning women's rights.
[The National Women's Service]'s Spanish name is Servicio Nacional de la Mujer, or SERNAM; it has established a program to aid female heads of households, a program for prevention of violence against women, and a network of information centers that focus on the issues of women's rights
A common complaint that SERNAM has is that the top appointees are not women linked to the feminist community.
The institution also has restrictions when it comes to policy regarding women due to its state ties, as seen in 2000 when SERNAM favored but would not explicitly support the bill to legalize divorce because it was under the leadership of the Christian Democratic party. In 2002 it was finally allowed to support the bill.
The Intrafamily Violence Law passed in 1994 was the first political measure to address violence in the home, but because the law would not pass without being accepted by both sides, the law is weak when it comes to addressing victim protection and punishment for abusers.
One of the last acts of the military government under Pinochet was to outlaw abortion in all circumstances.
Chile's abortion law criminalizes abortion even when it would save a pregnant woman's life.
Therapeutic abortion was legal between 1931 and 1989
There have been proposed bills from Chilean legislators and [NGO]s on abortion and reproductive rights, but they have never been passed.
Chile is considered to have one of the highest abortion rates in Latin America.
A 1989 survey found that 75.8 percent of its respondents believed that abortion should be legally permitted if the mother's life is in danger or the child would be born deformed.
More recently in 2000, 77.9 percent of survey respondents said abortion should be permitted if the mother's life is in danger, and 55.1 percent of respondents said abortion should be permitted if the pregnancy is the result of rape.
[7] Mary Zeiss Stange; Carol K. Oyster; Jane E. Sloan (23 February 2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-1-4129-7685-5. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  Chile returned to democracy in 1990, leading to changes in women's lives and roles within society. After democracy returned to Chile in 1990, a center-left coalition governed during the 1990s and 2000s, allowing women's roles in society to evolve. OK by Alissahart.
Women's literacy rates almost match those of men, with 95.6 percent of women being able to read, versus 95.8 percent of men. ...and 95.6 percent of women (and 95.8 percent of men) are literate. OK by SarahStierch.
Forty seven and a half percent of Chilean women attend college. Although 47.5 percent of university students are women ... Not a close paraphrase but the source was misunderstood. Added by SarahStierch.
As of 2011, approximately 47 percent of Chilean women work, versus an average of 53 percent across Latin America. Women between the ages of 25 and 34 tend to have jobs, whereas older women do not. Women between the ages of 25 and 34 are more likely to be employed than older women, yet only approximately 41 percent of Chilean women are in the workforce compared with 53 percent of all Latin American women. OK per WP:LIMITED, by Kaldari.
Despite the fact that 47.5 percent of students in college are women, many still choose to be homemakers rather than join the workforce. Although 47.5% of university students are women, many university graduates choose to be homemakers instead of seeking employment. Close paraphrase by Kaldari, although it appears from the diff that it was just a copyedit. The first version of the text was "Despite 47.5% of students in college are women, many still chose to join the workforce, choosing to be homemakers. ", inserted by SarahStierch. That version also is a close paraphrase, but due to the apparent omission of "not" between "chose" and "to" is not an accurate representation of the source.
Chile has no government mandate requiring that women must make up a certain percentage of party candidates. Argentine law mandates that women must be 30 percent of each political party's candidates, whereas Chile has no law and only certain parties set quotas for themselves. OK by Alissahart.
In 2009, activists demanded that presidential candidates develop reforms that would improve work conditions for women. Reforms included maternity leave, flexible work schedules and job training. women activists in Chile pressed presidential candidates in 2009 to pursue reforms that helped women to enter the workforce, including job training, maternity leave options, and flexible working schedules. OK (per WP:LIMITED, for the second part) by SarahStierch.
The legalization of divorce in 2004 won the approval of women throughout the country, especially those concerned about domestic violence, as women were previously unable to escape abusive relationships due to the divorce laws. In 2004, a centuries-old marital law was dismissed to allow Chileans to legally divorce. Although the Catholic Church fought against this reform, many Chilean women championed it because previously they had been unable to end abusive marital relationships. OK by SarahStierch.
Today, younger women are opting out of marriage and having fewer children than their predecessors. Younger women often choose cohabitation over marriage and they have fewer children. Marginal close paraphrase by SarahStierch.
A 2002 study reported that urban women average 2.1 children per woman with women living in rural areas having more children, at 2.9. As of the 1990s, both urban and rural women were averaging fewer children than previously. In 2002, urban women had a fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman. Rural women have more children, at 2.9 children per woman, but they too have fewer children than in the 1990s. Marginal close paraphrase by SarahStierch, though she used "less" rather than "fewer"; an IP subsequently changed it back to "fewer".
For those women who do have children, after former president Michelle Bachelet's childcare mandates, childcare centers that provide free services are four times more numerous. Nursing mothers also have the legal right to breastfeed during the workday. Activists applaud former president Bachelet for advancing women's issues. Chilean women benefit from her administration's pension reform, childcare initiatives and breastfeeding law. Centres providing free childcare are now four times as numerous and housewives can apply for government pensions. Mothers of infants have the right to nurse during the workday. OK by SarahStierch.
Women in Chile have long life expectancy, living an average of 80.8 years, about six years longer than men. Co-cited with [33]. Women in Chile have a long life expectancy and high rates of literacy. Women live on average 80.8 years Close paraphrase by SarahStierch. Source [33] only provides "Today Chilean women live longer than men", so "about six years longer than men" appears to be uncited.
Estimates range between 120,000 and 160,000 for the number of Chilean women who have illegal abortions each year. It is estimated, unofficially, that between 120,000 and 160,000 women have illegal abortions each year OK per WP:LIMITED by SarahStierch.
From 2006 until 2010, Michelle Bachelet served as the first woman president of Chile. Michelle Bachelet's presidency (2006-2010) alone was an achievement for women. OK by SarahStierch, but the source does not support "first".
[8] Jennifer Pribble (June 2006). "Women and Welfare". Latin American Research Review 41 (2).  Since the return to democracy, Chile's government has invested more political and economic resources to expand social welfare programs than before.
Both Chilean men and women qualify for a family allowance if they have dependent children under the age of eighteen (or twenty-four if in school). There are differences in entitlement requirements for the spouse-related family allowance since a man qualifies for a family allowance if he has a dependent wife, but a woman only qualifies for a family allowance if her husband is disabled.
Working mothers of a certain low socioeconomic status and with proof of an employment contract and working hours receive subsidized child care through legislation passed in 1994. This system excludes: women whose household income is too high, unemployed women, women working in the informal sector, and women whose jobs are not by contract.
Chile offers paid maternity leave for women working in the formal sector, paying women 100 percent of their salary during the leave, and also allows women a one-hour feeding break each day until the child has reached the age of two.
Female workers unattached to the formal market and without an employment contract do not receive paid maternity leave.
Women have increasingly moved out of unpaid domestic work and into the paid formal and informal labor markets.
Many female workers are in Chile's informal sector because national competition for jobs has increased the amount of low-skill jobs.
In 1998, 44.8 percent of working-aged women in Chile worked in the informal sector while only 32.9 percent of men worked informally.
Many of Chile's women's groups function outside the state sphere
[9] "Women in Chile: Left behind". The Economist. 10 August 2006. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  The Concertación political party has been in power since the end of Pinochet's dictatorship, and from 2006–2010, Michelle Bachelet of the party served as the first female President of Chile. Co-cited with [10]. No text in [9] supports this; [10] requires subscription.
As of 2006, Chile was lower than eight other Latin American countries in regards to women in political positions. According to a recent report by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an association of parliaments, 15% of representatives in the lower house of Chile's Congress are women, less than half the proportion in Costa Rica and Argentina and below the level in eight other countries in the region, including Venezuela and Bolivia. OK by SarahStierch.
Unlike neighboring Argentina, where 41.6 percent of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies is made up of women, only 15 percent of Chile's lower house is made up of female representatives. According to a recent report by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an association of parliaments, 15% of representatives in the lower house of Chile's Congress are women, less than half the proportion in Costa Rica and Argentina and below the level in eight other countries in the region, including Venezuela and Bolivia. The first half was originally cited to reference [7] by SarahStierch; the text at that time was "Unlike neighboring Argentina, where 41.6% of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies is made up of women, Chile's lower house only has 15% women representatives", and the supporting text in [7] is "Whereas Argentina boasts 41.6 percent women in the lower house of its legislature, women in Chile's lower house constitute a mere 15 percent." That edit is OK. Subsequently the reference was moved to the middle of this paragraph where it cited several sentences including this one, and an additional citation, [9], was added by SarahStierch. [9] does not support this text. Then [10] was added by SarahStierch; it is subscription only. Finally, both [7] and [10] were removed by a large edit by Alissahart. This edit that left the text with no supporting citation.
Aimed at improving women's work opportunities, former president Michelle Bachelet made it illegal to ask for a job applicants gender on applications and for employers to demand pregnancy tests be taken by employees Ms Bachelet began her assault on inequality by appointing women to half the cabinet posts in her centre-left government. A new labour code for the public sector forbids pregnancy tests, removes mention of a candidate's sex from job applications and requires training during normal working hours. The government is encouraging the private sector to adopt the code as well. There is no plagiarism or close paraphrasing here, but this is an inaccurate use of the source by SarahStierch -- the changes were only for the public sector and there is no mention of illegality, only of the content of the application forms.
[10] Shea, Steve (13 December 2011). "Setting quotas in Chile for women in politics". Santiago Times. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  The Concertación political party has been in power since the end of Pinochet's dictatorship, and from 2006–2010, Michelle Bachelet of the party served as the first female President of Chile. Co-cited with [9].
[11] [Dignity Denied: Violations of the Rights of HIV-Positive Women in Chilean Health Facilities "Dignity Denied: Violations of the Rights of HIV-Positive Women in Chilean Health Facilities"]. Center for Reproductive Rights. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  Traditional gender role beliefs are prevalent in Chilean society, specifically the ideas that women should focus on motherhood and be submissive to men.
Sex education is rarely taught in schools and is considered "taboo" by many Chilean families. Friends and family usually are the main source of sex education.
While cases of HIV and AIDS in women have stabilized internationally, Chile has seen a rise in HIV/AIDS infection. Societal beliefs about traditional women's roles as mothers leads to women being less likely to use contraceptives, increasing the opportunity for disease. Chilean women also often feel subordinate to men due to these traditional belief systems, making women less likely to negotiate for the use of condoms. In 2007, 28 percent of people with HIV/AIDS in Chile were women. Numbers of women living with HIV is lower than those with AIDS. A study by Vivo Positivo showed that 85 percent of women living with HIV/AIDS reported that they had little to no education or information about HIV/AIDS until diagnosis.
A 2004 study found that Chilean women with HIV/AIDS were susceptible to coerced sterilization. Fifty-six percent of HIV-positive Chilean women reported being pressured by health-care workers to prevent pregnancy by being sterilized. Of the women who chose to be sterilized, half were forced or persuaded to do so. Women victims of domestic abuse face a higher risk of getting HIV, and in 2004, 56 percent of women who have HIV and 77 percent of women with HIV/AIDS were victims of domestic abuse, sexual abuse, or rape before their diagnosis.
[12] Estrada, Daniela (May 14, 2010). "Gender Equity Progress Blocked by Hard-Core 'Machismo'". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  A 2010 study by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) reported that 62 percent of Chileans are opposed to full gender equality. Many of those surveyed expressed the belief that women should limit themselves to the traditional roles of mother and wife Co-cited with [1].
[13] Gender Equality and Development: World Development Report 2012. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. 2012.  However, the 2012 World Development Report states that male attitudes toward gender equality are that "men do not lose out when women's rights are promoted."
A 2012 World Bank study showed that the expansion of public day cares had no effect on female labor force participation.
[14] Report on Human Rights Practices 2006: Chile. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (March 6, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Currently, women have many of the same rights as men.
The National Women's Service (SERNAM) is charged with protecting women's legal rights in the public sector. Co-cited with [15].
Domestic violence in Chile is a serious issue affecting a large percentage of the population, especially among lower income demographics.
A 2004 SERNAM study reported that 50 percent of married women in Chile had suffered spousal abuse, 34 percent reported having suffered physical violence, and 16 percent reported psychological abuse.
From January to November 2005, 76,000 cases of family violence were reported to the Carabineros; 67,913 were reported by women, 6,404 by men, and approximately 1,000 by children.
Rape, including spousal rape, is a criminal offense. Penalties for rape range from five to 15 years' imprisonment, and the government generally enforces the law.
The law protects the privacy and safety of the person making the charge. In 2006 from January to November, police received reports of 1,926 cases of rape, compared with 2,451 cases in all of 2005; experts believed that most rape cases go unreported. The Ministry of Justice and the PICH have several offices specifically to provide counseling and assistance in rape cases.
A 2005 law against sexual harassment provides protection and financial compensation to victims and penalizes harassment by employers or co-workers.
During 2005 the Labor Directorate received 244 complaints of sexual harassment
A 2005 study by Corporacion Humana and the University of Chile's Institute of Public Affairs revealed that 87 percent of women surveyed felt that women suffered discrimination. According to the survey, 95 percent believed women faced discrimination in the labor market, 67 percent believed they faced discrimination in politics, 61 percent felt that women were discriminated against by the media, and 54 percent within the family.
[15] "Chile: Reconciling the Gender Paradox". World Bank. April 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  The National Women's Service (SERNAM) is charged with protecting women's legal rights in the public sector. Co-cited with [14].
In 2007, the World Bank declared that enrollment levels for boys and girls in primary and secondary education were at a "virtual parity."
Women's education in Chile is generally higher than neighboring countries.
The low amount of women entering the labor force causes Chile to rank low amongst upper-middle class countries regarding women in the work force despite higher educational training.
In Chile, poorer women make up a small share of the workforce. Twenty-six percent of poorer women in Chile work, unlike 57 percent of women in higher socioeconomic levels.
The quadrennial 2004 National Socio-Economic Survey and World Bank report in 2007 say that the overall gender income gap stands at 33 percent (since women make 67 percent of men's salaries).
Michelle Bachelet was the first female president of Chile, leading the country between 2006 and 2010.
[16] Magdalena León; Carmen Diana Deere (1999). Género y derechos de las mujeres a la tierra en Chile (in Spanish). Salgó Ltd. ISBN 9567236135.  Until recently, women lost their right to manage their own assets once they were married, but that law has since changed.
Until recently, women lost their right to manage their own assets once they were married, but that law has since changed. and husbands received all of the wealth, but now a woman can administer her own assets.
A couple can also sign a legal agreement before marriage so that all assets would continue to be owned by the one who brought them to the marriage.
In marriage there are three types of assets: those of the husband, those of the wife, and the common assets that pertain to both. Land and houses in a marriage continue to be the property of the person who brought them to the marriage, but in order to sell them, both the husband and wife must sign.
If there is no will when the husband dies, the wife is given an equal category as the children for inheritance.
Before marriage, a couple can sign a legal document separating all assets so that the woman and man each administer her or his own; in this case, the husband cannot control his wife's assets.
If women work outside the home independent of their husbands, acquire personal assets, and can prove that they came by these assets through their independent work, then these working women can accumulate these assets as their own, unable to be touched by husbands.
In rural Chile, inheritance is the principle way in which land is acquired by both men and women, whether the land has titles or not.
Sometimes women cannot claim their inheritance to land without titles because the cost of legal documents is too high.
[17] "Women, business, and the law: creating economic opportunity for women". The World Bank. 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  A married woman cannot be head of the household or head of the family in the same way as a man; however, married women are not required by law to obey their husbands.
In the case of divorce, both the man and woman are entitled to ownership of the marital home.
In the case of the death of a spouse, the surviving spouse, regardless of gender, has equal inheritance rights to the marital home.
Sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights to moveable and immovable property from their parents.
Unmarried men and women have equal ownership rights to moveable and immoveable property.
Chilean law mandates compulsory primary education for children, boys and girls.
As of 2011, approximately 47 percent of Chilean women work,
Although SERNAM exists to aid women, there is no non-discrimination clause in the Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile.
[18] "Chile introduces right to divorce". BBC News. November 18, 2004.  Chile legalized divorce in 2004, overturning an 1884 legal code.
[19] Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. "How to Get Married or Divorced". Gobierno de Chile. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  Now with divorce legal, the four marital statuses that exist within Chile are: married, separated, divorced, and widow(er). Only the divorced and widow(er) statuses allow a new marriage.
[20] "President Piñera enacts the law to extend postnatal maternity leave to 6 months". Gobierno de Chile. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2012.  Postnatal maternity leave is now six months instead of the previous three.
[21] Betty Jane Punnett (2006). Successful professional women of the Americas: from polar winds to tropical breezes. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-84542-437-4. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  In higher education, as of 2002, women had similar attendance rates as men, with women at 47.5 percent attendance, versus men at 52.5 percent.
A 2004 study shows that 81.4 percent of women work in the service sector.
Women without a university degree make 83 percent of the income men make without a university degree
[22] "Chile". United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.  women's work-force participation has steadily increased over the years
[23] Baldez, Lisa (2002). Why Women Protest. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521811503.  in 1977 Augusto Pinochet decreed the day of the march [Empty Pots and Pans, 1 December 1971] to be National Women's Day
Chile ratified the United Nation's Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1988, internationally declaring support for women's human rights.
[24] Thomas Miller Klubock (2001). Hispanic American Historical Review (Duke University Press) 81.  The women in these popular protests are considered to have played a central role in increasing national concern with the history of women's political activism.
Centers for research began to emerge in the later part of the twentieth century, including the Centro de Estudios de la Mujer (The Women's Study Center) and La Morada.
A number of NGOs, such as La Morada Corporation for Women, provide counseling for rape victims.
[25] Thomas Miller Klubock (2001). Hispanic American Historical Review (Duke University Press) 81.  [SERNAM]'s presence in Chile is important because it was established by law and is a permanent part of Chile's state structure.
As an institution [SERNAM] tends to focus much of its attention on certain segments of women: low-income women heads of households, women seasonal workers, domestic violence prevention, and teen pregnancy prevention.
[26] "About CEM".  The Women's Study Center is a nonprofit organization founded in 1984 and conducts research, trains women, has a consulting program, and tries to increase women's political participation.
[27] "La Morada".  La Morada is another nonprofit organization that works to expand the rights of women through political involvement, education, culture, and efforts to eradicate violence.
[28] Permanent Mission of Chile to the UN. "Objcetives and Functions". Government of Chile. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  One of Chile's missions as part of the UN is commitment to democracy, human rights and gender perspective as foundations of multilateral action.
[29] Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Peragallo, N. (2004). "Low income Chilean women confronting HIV/AIDS and domestic violence". The XV International AIDS Conference (Bangkok, Thailand). Retrieved 24 February 2012.  According to another study from 2004, 90 percent of low-income women in Chile experience some type of domestic violence.
Due to the high prevalence of domestic violence, many Chilean women accept it as normal.
[30] Ahumada, Claudia (June 2009). "Statutory Rape Law in Chile: For or Against Adolescents?". Journal of Politics and Law 2 (2). Retrieved 11 April 2012.  In 2004 the Criminal Code was changed so that the age for statutory rape is 14; previously, the age was 12.
[31] Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (8 April 2011). "2010 Human Rights Report: Chile". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  The law provides severance pay to anyone who resigns due to being a victim of sexual harassment if she/he has worked for the employer for at least one year.
During 2005 the Labor Directorate received 244 complaints of sexual harassment, and in 2009 there were 82 complaints were received.
[32] Becerra, Lidia Casas (2006). "An Exploratory Study of Sexual Harassment Complaints in Chile". International Association of Law Schools: Diego Portales University Law School. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  The majority of the [sexual harassment] complaints [in 2005 and 2009] come from women.
[33] Betty Jane Punnett (2006). Successful professional women of the Americas: from polar winds to tropical breezes. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-84542-437-4. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  Women are less likely to seek divorces and marriage annulments.
Women in Chile have long life expectancy, living an average of 80.8 years, about six years longer than men. Co-cited with [7].
[34] Barroso, Carmen (1 May 2008). "The slow life; The rights of Chile's women". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  Chile has some of the strictest abortion laws in the world.
Therapeutic abortion ... is now is illegal under all circumstances.
Every year, nearly 40,000 teenage girls become pregnant. Emergency contraception was banned in 2008, making the distribution of emergency contraception illegal under all circumstances.
[35] Betty Jane Punnett (2006). Successful professional women of the Americas: from polar winds to tropical breezes. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-84542-437-4. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  In 1945, Gabriela Mistral was the first Latin American, including men and women, to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Co-cited with [4].
[36] Betty Jane Punnett (2006). Successful professional women of the Americas: from polar winds to tropical breezes. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-84542-437-4. Retrieved 24 February 2012.  In the 2006 election, Soledad Alvear, a Christian Democrat, ran for the presidency against Bachelet.

Michigan State, Telecommunication Policy Analysis[edit]

Course: Michigan State, Telecommunication Policy Analysis
Student: Brandonbrooks1 (talk · contribs)
Article: Internet bottleneck
Latest version edited by student: [4]

Reference Text using this reference Relevant text in source Comments
Comcast. "Understand congestion management on our network". Retrieved 4 April 2012.  Internet bottlenecks provide artificial and natural network choke points to inhibit certain sets of users from overloading the entire network by consuming too much bandwidth. Theoretically, this will lead users and content producers through alternative paths to accomplish their goals while limiting the network load at any one time...An example of this type of management can be found at the Comcast page for understanding network management.

Louisiana State University: Intro to Dramatic Lit[edit]

Course: Louisiana State University: Intro to Dramatic Lit
Student: Aaguil6 (talk · contribs)
Article: The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window
Latest version edited by student: [5]

Reference Text using this reference Relevant text in source Comments
Lewis, Jone. "Lorrain Hansberry". About.com. Retrieved 2/29/12.  Lorraine Hansberry, the author of The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window, had several works produced prior to this piece. Hansberry used to write for a paper as an author before deciding to write her first play. Before becoming a playwright, she actively wrote for groups promoting African-American rights. She published a piece produced by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, advocating for the well being of African Americans. Hansberry's personal past, values, and involvement with ideological movements heavily influenced thematic elements in her plays. Her first piece as a playwright, A Raisin in the Sun, drew attention to her as not only an author but as playwright. This piece received several awards and was the first Broadway production written by an African-American woman. After this play, Lorraine continued to write, leading to the production of her next play, The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window.

Northwestern University: Criminal Process[edit]

Course: Northwestern University: Criminal Process
Student: Brindle21 (talk · contribs)
Article: United States v. Brechner
Latest version edited by student: [6]

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United States v. Brechner, 99 F.3d 96, 98 (2nd Cir. 1996) A written agreement was executed, in which Brechner agreed to give “truthful, complete, and accurate information” and the U.S. Attorney agreed to move for a downward sentencing departure under § 5K1.1 of the United States Sentencing Guidelines.
However, the agreement cautioned that "Should it be judged by the [U.S Attorney’s] Office that the defendant has failed to cooperate fully, has intentionally given false, misleading, or incomplete information or testimony… or has otherwise violated any provision of this agreement, the defendant will not be released from his plea of guilty but this Office will be released from its obligation under this agreement … [to file the § 5K1.1 motion]."

University of Western Ontario: Genetics of Everyday Life[edit]

Course: University of Western Ontario: Genetics of Everyday Life
Student: Aep13 (talk · contribs)
Article: Monoamine oxidase A
Latest version edited by student: [7]

Reference Text using this reference Relevant text in source Comments
Scott A, Bortolate M, Chan K, Shih C (May 2008). "Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation". NeuroReport. 19 (7): 739–43; discussion 741–43. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fd6e88. 
Vishnivetskaya G, Skrinskaya J, Seif I, Popova (January 2007). "Effect of MAO-A Deficiency on Different Kinds of Aggression and Social Investigation in Mice". Aggressive Behavior 33 (1): 1–6; discussion 4–6. doi:10.1002/ab.20161. 
A dysfunctional MAO-A gene has been correlated with increased aggression levels in mice
Brunner H, Nelen M, Breakfield X, Ropers H, van Oost B (October 1993). "Abnormal-behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase-a". Science 262 (5133): 578–580. doi:10.1126/science.8211186.  [A dysfunctional MAO-A gene], in some studies, has been correlated with heightened levels of aggression in humans
Scott A, Bortolate M, Chan K, Shih C (May 2008). "Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation". NeuroReport. 19 (7): 739–43; discussion 741–43. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fd6e88.  In mice, a dysfunction MAO-A gene is created through insertional mutagenesis (called ‘Tg8’).
Scott A, Bortolate M, Chan K, Shih C (May 2008). "Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation". NeuroReport. 19 (7): 739–43; discussion 741–43. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fd6e88. 
Vishnivetskaya, Galina B.; Skrinskaya, Julia A., Seif, Isabelle, Popova, Nina K. (1 January 2007). "Effect of MAO A deficiency on different kinds of aggression and social investigation in mice". Aggressive Behavior 33 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1002/ab.20161. 
Tg8 is a transgenic mouse strain that lacks a functional MAO-A enzymatic activity. Mice that lacked a functional MAO-A gene exhibited increased aggression towards intruder mice.
Vishnivetskaya GB, Skrinskaya JA, Seif I, Popova NK (2007). "Effect of MAO A deficiency on different kinds of aggression and social investigation in mice". Aggress Behav 33 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1002/ab.20161. PMID 17441000.  Some types of aggression exhibited by these mice were territorial aggression, predatory aggression, and isolation induced aggression.
Hebebrand J, Klug B (November 1995). /372_sotprfwmotad "Specification of the phenotype required for men with monoamine-oxidase type-a deficiency". Human Genetics 96 (3): 372–374. doi:10.1007/BF00210430.  The MAO-A deficient mice that exhibited increased isolation induced aggression reveals that an MAO-A deficiency may also contribute to a disruption in social interactions. The correlation between a dysfunctional MAO-A gene and heightened levels of aggression in humans remains controversial.
Scott A, Bortolate M, Chan K, Shih C (May 2008). "Novel monoamine oxidase A knock out mice with human-like spontaneous mutation". NeuroReport. 19 (7): 739–43; discussion 741–43. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fd6e88. 
Brunner H, Nelen M, Breakfield X, Ropers H, van Oost B (October 1993). "Abnormal-behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase-a". Science 262 (5133): 578–580. doi:10.1126/science.8211186. 
there is research in both humans and mice to support that a spontaneous point nonsense mutation in the eighth exon of the MAO-A gene is responsible for impulsive aggressiveness due to a complete MAO-A deficiency.

University of Kentucky: Research in Personality[edit]

Course: University of Kentucky: Research in Personality
Student: Agpa222 (talk · contribs)
Article: Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified‎
Latest version edited by student: [8]

Reference Text using this reference Relevant text in source Comments
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition. American Psychiatric Association. 1194. p. 366.  A diagnosis of Bipolar NOS occurs when there is a rapid change (days) between manic and depressive symptoms and can also include reoccurring Hypomania episodes. If an individual is manic with an underlying disorder such as schizophrenia or psychotic disorder NOS. Bipolar NOS will also be diagnosed if a bipolar disorder is present, but it is impossible to tell whether it is the primary disorder due to a general medical condition, such as substance abuse.
Bader, C.D.,& Dunner,D.L. (2007). Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified in relation to the bipolar spectrum. Bipolar Disorders, 9,860-867 Bipolar disorder is exceedingly hard to diagnose. If a person displays some symptoms categorized as a bipolar disorder but not others the clinician has no choice but to diagnose as bipolar NOS. According to Cynthia D. Bader in her journal article arguing the broadening of the bipolar spectrum, clinicians have such a hard time diagnosing this disorder because the DSM still does not list specific criteria for Bipolar NOS and only three examples of what bipolar NOS could be. She argues that in order to provide better help for people with this disorder that we should broaden the spectrum that determines what this disorder is.
"Bipolar Spectrum Disorder may be Under Recognized and Improperly Treated". National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved 4/25/2012.  Even though bipolar disorder is fairly hard to diagnose, it has been estimated that about 2.4% of the population has this disorder.
Bader, C.D; Dunner. D.L. (2007). "Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified in Relation to the Bipolar Spectrum". Bipolar Disorders 9: 860–867.  Bader has speculated that if the spectrum was broadened as she suggested that that percentage would actually be raised to 6% of the population.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition. American Psychiatric Association. 1194. p. 366.  Much like bipolar disorder NOS, bipolar disorder I is diagnosed as having at least one episode of mania. Mania is described as an intense high. At first this seems like it would be appealing but it is often accompanied by risky behavior such as drug use, sexual behavior, or financial issues. Depression usually follows this euphoria as the individual often regrets their actions while experiencing mania.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition. American Psychiatric Association. 1194. p. 366.  Bipolar Disorder II has the same symptoms has bipolar disorder I, though depression is usually more prevalent in bipolar disorder II than in the other two disorders, also hypomaina, a slightly milder form of mania is often associated with bipolar disorder II. Symptoms of bipolar disorder II are usually not severe enough to effect day to day life.
Smith, M.A.,, Melinda. "Treatment for Bipolar disorder: getting help and choosing treatments". helpguide.org. Retrieved 25 April 2012.  Because of the extreme ups and downs associated with bipolar disorder it is essential to seek treatment. There are many different types of treatment for bipolar disorder NOS, though the most common is mood stabilizing medications, such as lithium. Psychotherapy can also be helpful to those individuals living with Bipolar disorder NOS. In this way these individuals can learn way to cope with their disorder as well as talking to a professional about the problems bipolar disorder NOS has cause in their lives. Another key treatment to bipolar disorder NOS is managing your lifestyle. It is very important to keep on a schedule with regular exercise and minimal stress.