Wikipedia:Citation templates

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"WP:CT" redirects here. For WikiProject Connecticut, see WP:CONN. For the capitalisation style of compositions, see MOS:CT. For cleanup templates, see WP:TC.
See also: WP:Template messages/Cleanup/Verifiability and sources for cleanup request templates, such as "citation needed" and many more.

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way, as an alternative to formatting the citations by hand. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not add citation templates, or change an article with a consistent citation format to another, without gaining consensus; see WP:CITECONSENSUS and WP:CITEVAR. The various citation templates below may be freely mixed, since they all produce a similar format.

Use in footnotes[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Help:Footnotes.

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref> at the front of the citation and </ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice above the edit box there is a row of "markup" formatting buttons which include a <ref></ref> button to the right—if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup button, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags (i.e. <ref>citation</ref>).

Note, if this is a new page or if there are not already references previously cited, it is necessary to create a section usually named "Notes" or "References" near the end of the page; see WP:FNNR and MOS:APPENDIX for more information on section names:

== Notes ==
<references />

or

== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

Using the same footnote multiple times[edit]

For more details on this topic, see WP:REFNAME.

Optionally, one may add the name attribute by using <ref name="name">details of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding <ref name="name" />. Note that named references begin with <ref  instead of the usual <ref>.

Using multiple pages from the same source[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Help:References and page numbers.

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, there are two main methods of unifying them instead of copying a completely new citation. One method is shortened footnotes (see Shortened footnotes), which automatically displays an entirely new reference listing in the References section per unique page citation. Another method is to use the template {{rp}}, which appends any type of positional information (such as page numbers, chapter numbers, or audiovisual time code) directly each given citation in the article body, which would result in text such as :2345 appearing after a superscripted footnote number.

Creating links to citations[edit]

Wikilinks to citation templates can be created using the templates {{harv}}, {{harvnb}}, {{harvtxt}}, {{sfn}}, etc. For example this "Mumford 1999" links to a citation template below. This is of particular interest for inline citations using parenthetical referencing or when using shortened footnotes.[1] (See the examples below or wikilinks to full references)

Using commas rather than periods[edit]

{{Citation}} creates a citation in the same format as most of the Citation Style 1 templates, except that the periods are replaced with commas and there is no final period. A complete list of templates that are mimicked by {{citation}} can be found at {{citation/core}}. The parameters |separator= |postscript= (available for most templates) can also be used to alter the punctuation.

Examples[edit]

Below are examples of how to use various templates to cite a book, encyclopedia, journal, website, comic strip, video and editorial comics, etc.

  • For full description of a template and the parameters which can be used with it—click the template name (e.g. {{Citation}} or {{cite xxx}}) in the "template" column of the table below.
  • Required field(s) are indicated in bold
  • Copy and paste the text under "common usage" to use the template.
  • Following each example is the resulting article text.

For a list of tools that can help create some of the templates below, see: Wikipedia:Citation tools.

Citations are commonly embedded in reference templates. For more information, see: Wikipedia:Footnotes.

source template common usage Example 1 Example 2
book {{cite book}}
title
{{cite book
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | edition =
 | date =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{cite book
 | last = Mumford
 | first = David
 | authorlink = David Mumford
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1358 (2nd expanded ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. p. 198. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X. MR 1748380. Zbl 0945.14001. 

{{cite book
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | first2 = Jeff | last2 = Grubb
 | first3 =David | last3 = Noonan
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | location = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 | pages = 198–203
 | date = September 2001
 | isbn = 0-786918-50-0 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. Berlin: Wizards of the Coast. pp. 198–203. ISBN 0-786918-50-0. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | origyear =
 | year =
 | month=
 | edition =
 | chapter =
 | chapterurl =
 | page =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | first = David | last = Mu...
 | author-link = David Mumfo...
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | year = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999), The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes, Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1358 (2nd expanded ed.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 198, doi:10.1007/b62130, ISBN 354063293X, MR 1748380, Zbl 0945.14001 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | last2 = Grubb | first2 = Jeff
 | last3 = Noonan | first3 = David
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 |pages = 198–203
 | date = September 2001
 | year = 2001
 | isbn = 0-786918-50-0 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001), Manual of the Planes, Berlin: Wizards of the Coast, pp. 198–203, ISBN 0-786918-50-0 

journal
paper
thesis
dissertation
{{cite journal}}
Title
{{cite journal
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite journal
 | authorlink = Stephen Brey...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review 20: 75–83. 

{{cite journal
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | year = 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997). "The Quest for Pi". Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) 19 (1): 50–57. doi:10.1007/BF03024340. ISSN 0343-6993. MR 1439159. Zbl 0878.11002. 

{{Citation}}
journal (or periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | date =
 | origyear =
 | year =
 | month =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Breyer
 | first = Stephen
 | author-link = Stephen Bre...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972
 | year = 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972), Copyright: A Rejoinder, UCLA Law Review 20: 75–83 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | year = 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997), The Quest for Pi, Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) 19 (1): 50–57, doi:10.1007/BF03024340, ISSN 0343-6993, MR 1439159, Zbl 0878.11002 

website {{cite web}}
title
url
{{cite web
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | work =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | format =
 | doi =
 | accessdate = 
 | archiveurl = 
 | archivedate = }}
{{cite web
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url = http://science-educat...
 | accessdate = 30 April 2006 
 | archiveurl = http://web.archive...
 | archivedate = 3 March 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". Archived from the original on 3 March 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2006. 

{{cite web
| title =
| url =
| date = 
| accessdate = }}

(Write date as one of the formats shown at MOS:DATE; e.g. |date=22 July 2009 or |date=July 22, 2009.)

{{cite web
 | last = Hansen
 | first = James E.
 | authorlink = James E. Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for...
| date = December 15, 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Retrieved September 28, 2006. 

{{Citation}}
title
url
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | year =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url=http://science-educat...
 | accessdate = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel, Research in the News: Thalidomide, retrieved 30 April 2006 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Hansen | first1 = James E.
 | author1-link = James Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for ...
| date = December 15, 2005
 | year = 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005), GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, retrieved September 28, 2006 

comic {{cite comic}}[2]
{{cite comic
 | writer=
 | penciller=
 | inker=
 | story=
 | title=
 | volume=
 | issue=
 | date=
 | publisher=
 | page=
 | panel= }}
{{cite comic
| writer=[[Stan Lee|Lee, Stan]]
| penciller=[[Jack Kirby|Kirby, Jack]]
| inker=[[Christopher Rule|Rule, Christopher]]
| story=The Fantastic Four!
| title=[[Fantastic Four|The Fantastic Four]]
| volume=1
| issue=1
| date=November, 1961
| publisher=[[Marvel Comics]]
| page=3
| panel=2 }}

Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Rule, Christopher (i). "The Fantastic Four!" The Fantastic Four 1: 3/2 (November, 1961), Marvel Comics

comic strip {{comic strip reference}}[3]
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=
 | strip=
 | paper=
 | location=
 | date=
 | supplement=
 | syndicate=
 | page= }}
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=[[Milton Caniff|Caniff, Milton]]
 | strip=[[Steve Canyon]]
 | paper=Journal Herald
 | location=Dayton, OH
 | date=July 15, 1967
 | supplement=Color Comics Supplement
 | syndicate=Newspaper Syndicate
 | page=1 }}

Caniff, Milton (c). Steve CanyonJournal Herald (Dayton, OH). July 15, 1967, [Color Comics Supplement], Newspaper Syndicate

 1.
conference
report
or paper
{{cite conference}}
title
booktitle
{{cite conference
 | first =
 | last =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | booktitle =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | location =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite conference
 | first = M.
 | last = Turk
 | first2 = A.
 | last2 = Pentland
 | title = Face recognition ...
 | booktitle = Proc IEEE Con...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Pentland, A. (1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces". "Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition". Maui, Hawaii. pp. 586–591. 

{{cite conference
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | title = Direct detection of the ...
 | booktitle = American Astronomical Society 207th ...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | url = http://www.aas.org/ ... 30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006). "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope". "American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting". AAS. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | first =
 | last =
 | author-link =
 | first2 =
 | last2 =
 | author2-link =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | series =
 | year =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | last1 = Turk | first1 = M.
 | last2 = Pet... | first2 = A.
 | contribution = Face recog...
 | series = Proc IEEE Confere...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Petland, A. (1991), "Face recognition using eigenfaces", Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Maui, Hawaii, pp. 586–591  Missing or empty |title= (help)

{{Citation
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | contribution = Direct detection of ...
 | series = American Astronomical...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | contribution-url = http://...30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006), "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope", American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting, AAS  Missing or empty |title= (help)

court case (legal decision) {{cite court}}
{{cite court
 |litigants =
 |vol =
 |reporter =
 |opinion =
 |pinpoint =
 |court =
 |date =
 |url= }}
{{cite court
 |litigants=Roe v. Wade
 |vol=410
 |reporter=U.S.
 |opinion=113
 |date=1973
 |url=http://www.law.corn... }}

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

encyclopedia,
edited collection
{{cite encyclopedia}}
Title
encyclopedia
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title =
 | encyclopedia =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | id =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title = Kirkegaard...
 | encyclopedia = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882). "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins 9. Elsevier. 

{{cite encyclopedia
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | authorlink = Martin Kramer
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Bernard Lewis
 | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Hist...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | location = London
 | date = 1999
 | url = }}

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". In Boyd, Kelley. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720. 

{{Citation}}
contribution=name of article
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | contribution =
 | year =
 | title =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | contribution = Kirkegaard...
 | title = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882), "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund", Grote Winkler Prins 9, Elsevier 

{{Citation
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | author-link = Martin Kramer
 | contribution = Bernard Lewis
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Encyclopedia of Historians ...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | place = London
 | year = 1999
 | contribution-url = http://...is.htm }}

Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

episode
(television or radio)
{{cite episode}}
title
{{cite episode
| title =
| episodelink =
| url =
| series =
| serieslink =
| credits =
| network =
| station =
| city =
| airdate =
| began =
| ended =
| season =
| seriesno =
| number =
| minutes =
| transcript =
| transcripturl= }}
{{cite episode
| title = BBC-TV Presents: ...
| episodelink = BBC Snooker World ...
| series = Wide World of Snooker
| serieslink = Wide World of Snooker ...
| credits = Presenters: [[Dennis ...
| network = [[BBC]]
| station = [[BBC Two]]
| city = [[Sheffield]], ...
| airdate = 2008-04-27
| minutes = 2:34}}

Presenters: Dennis Taylor and Clive Everton (2008-04-27). "BBC-TV Presents: The 2008 World Snooker Championship Live at The Crucible". Wide World of Snooker. 2:34 minutes in. BBC. BBC Two.

{{cite episode
 | title = Duet
 | episodelink = Duet (Stargate Atlant...
 | series = Stargate Atlantis
 | serieslink = Stargate Atlantis
 | airdate = August 5, 2005
 | season = 2
 | number = 4 }}

"Duet". Stargate Atlantis. Season 2. Episode 4. August 5, 2005.

mailing list {{cite mailing list}}
title
url
{{cite mailing list
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | mailinglist =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite mailing list
 |last=Murdock
 |first=Ian
 |authorlink=Ian Murdock
 |title=Debian GNU/Linux 0.9...
 |mailinglist=debian-announce
 |date=26 October 1995
 |url=http://lists.debian.or...
 |accessdate=20 April 2007 }}

Murdock, Ian (26 October 1995). "Debian GNU/Linux 0.93 Release 6 now available". debian-announce mailing list. http://lists.debian.org/debian-announce/debian-announce-1995/msg00007.html. Retrieved 20 April 2007.

map {{cite map}}
publisher
title
edition
{{cite map
 |publisher =
 |title =
 |url =
 |edition =
 |section =
 |accessdate = }}
{{cite map
 |publisher=Kansas Departmen...
 |title=Official State Trans...
 |url=http://www.ksdot.org/b...
 |edition=2005–2006
 |section=F9
 |accessdate=March 30, 2007 }}

Kansas Department of Transportation. Official State Transportation Map (Map) (2005–2006 ed.). Section F9. http://www.ksdot.org/burtransplan/maps/state-pdf/kansas0708.pdf. Retrieved March 30, 2007.

{{cite map
 |publisher=Skelly Oil Company
 |title=Highway Map of Oklahoma
 |cartography=Diversified Map Co
 |edition=1966
 |section=11C }}

Skelly Oil Company. Highway Map of Oklahoma (Map). Cartography by Diversified Map Co (1966 ed.). Section 11C.

news article {{cite news}}
Title
{{cite news
 | last =
 | first =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite news
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url = http://www.independent.co.uk ...
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998). "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair". The Independent (London). 

{{cite news
 | last = Andersen
 | first = David
 | last2 = Witter
 | first2 = Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | work = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Caree...
 | accessdate = 6 June 2006 }}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. Retrieved 6 June 2006. 

{{Citation}}
newspaper (or magazine, journal, periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | pages =
 | year =
 | date =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | accessdate = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url =http://www.independent.co.uk ...
 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation ...
 | archivedate = 2010-03-06
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998), What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair, The Independent (London), archived from the original on 2010-03-06 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Andersen | first1 = David
 | last2 = Witter | first2 = Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | newspaper = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | year = 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Ca...
 | accessdate = 2 June 2006
}}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006), Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success, Marine Corps News, retrieved 2 June 2006 

newsgroup
posting
(DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY)
{{cite newsgroup}}
Title
{{cite newsgroup
 | title =
 | author =
 | date =
 | newsgroup =
 | id =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite newsgroup
 | author = Gary S. Terhune
 | title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del...
 | date = January 11, 2004
 | newsgroup = microsoft.pub...
 | id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2...
 | url = http://groups.googl...
 | accessdate = May 16, 2006 }}

Gary S. Terhune (January 11, 2004). "Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del function on W98, 2nd". microsoft.public.win98.gen_discussion. Web link. Retrieved May 16, 2006.

{{cite newsgroup
 | title = How can helping "Kids in Af...
 | author = Trodel
 | date = June 10, 2006
 | newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.ob...
 | id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g20...
 | url = http://groups.google.com/grou...
 | accessdate = July 3, 2006 }}

Trodel (June 10, 2006). "How can helping "Kids in Africa" be in my self interest". humanities.philosophy.objectivism. Web link. Retrieved July 3, 2006.

patent {{Citation}}
inventor-last
{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number = }}
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}

US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

press release {{cite press release}}
Title
{{cite press release
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite press release
 | title = Nature compares W...
 | publisher = The Wikimedia...
 | date = 15 December 2005
 | url = http://en.wikipedia...
 | accessdate = 3 July 2006 }}

"Nature compares Wikipedia and Britannica" (Press release). The Wikimedia Foundation. 15 December 2005. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 

{{cite press release
 | title = HFPA Announces Timetable fo...
 | publisher = [[Hollywood Foreign P...]]
 | date = May 25, 2006
 | url = http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32
 | accessdate = June 13, 2006 }}

"HFPA Announces Timetable for 64th Annual Golden Globe Awards" (Press release). Hollywood Foreign Press Association. May 25, 2006. Retrieved June 13, 2006. 

video
(movie, television production, documentary, etc.)
{{cite AV media}}
people
title
{{cite AV media
 | people =
 | title =
 | medium =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | url = }}
{{cite AV media
 | people = Al-Issawi, Omar (Director)
 | title = [http://www.imdb...]
 | medium = Television production
 | publisher = Al-Issawi, Om...
 | location = Lebanon
 | date = 2001 }}

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (Television production). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar. 

{{cite AV media
 | people = Dick Cavett
 | title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock...
 | medium = DVD
 | publisher = Shout Factory
 | date = 2005 }}

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory. 

video game {{cite video game}}
title
developer
{{cite video game
 | title =
 | developer =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | platform =
 | version =
 | level =
 | language =
 | isolang =
 | quote = }}
{{cite video game
 |title=[[Halo 3]]
 |developer= [[Bungie]]
 |publisher=[[Microsoft Game Studios]]
 |date=September 25, 2007
 |platform=[[Xbox 360]]
 |version=1.0
 |level=The Storm
 |language=English
 |isolang=
 |quote='''Arbiter''': More Brutes? /...

Bungie (September 25, 2007). "Halo 3" (in English). Xbox 360 (v1.0). Microsoft Game Studios. Level/area: The Storm. "Arbiter: More Brutes? / Master Chief: Worse." 


Harvard reference and shortened footnote examples[edit]

These templates automatically create a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page. All the following templates are supported: {{citation}} · {{cite book}} · {{cite journal}} · {{cite web}} · {{cite conference}} · {{cite encyclopedia}} · {{cite mailing list}} · {{cite news}} · {{cite press release}} · {{cite arXiv}} · {{cite AV media}} (an up-to-date list is at Template:Citation/core). To use the links, the template must define "Surname" (or "Last") and "Year" and must include |

What to type What it makes
  • Article text.{{sfn|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}} (Shortened footnote template)
  • Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1879|p=289}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

  • Article text.[1]
  • Article text.[2]
Notes
  1. ^Turner 1851, pp. 10–11
  2. ^Smith 1879, p. 289
  • {{Harvard citation|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}}
  • {{Harv|Smith|1879|p=289}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|1851}} asserts that ... (author's name part of text)
  • {{Harvnb|Smith|1879}} (no brackets)
  • {{Harv|Lincoln|Washington|Adams|Johnson|2007|pp=88–89}} (multi-author)

Three Harvcol templates are altered to use colons to indicate page numbers.

Harvcol templates

Variations[edit]

Wikipedia does not dictate a particular way to insert citations into an article. As a result, there are multiple ways to structure citations in an article; multiple ways to insert individual citations; and multiple ways to link short-form inline citations with the full-form citations in the bibliography, when using a style that calls for short-form citations.

There are three primary ways to format individual citations:

  1. By hand. When using inline citations (see below), these are simply typed directly; however, when using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, these can be surrounded with {{wikicite}} to ensure that the appropriate shortened references are linked to the full references below.
  2. Using the Citation Style 1 templates, such as {{cite book}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite journal}}, or {{cite news}}.
  3. Using the generic {{Citation}} template.

The main differences between the generic {{Citation}} template and the specific Citation Style 1 templates are:

  1. The Citation Style 1 templates produce citations with individual sections (e.g. title, author, publisher, etc.) separated by periods, with a trailing period, while {{Citation}} separates sections with a comma and has no trailing punctuation. (However, this can be changed using the |separator= and |postscript= parameters.)
  2. Not all Citation Style 1 templates can easily be replaced by the {{Citation}} template. Generally, any Citation Style 1 template of a general nature (e.g. book; web site; journal or newspaper article; article in an edited collection or encyclopedia; etc.) can be replaced, but specialized templates (court cases, comic books, video games, etc.) cannot very easily.
  3. Some of the parameter names differ. For example, citing an article in an edited collection uses the misnamed {{cite encyclopedia}} template, with |title= for the article name and |encyclopedia= for the collection name; the equivalent parameters in {{Citation}} are named contribution and title, respectively.
  4. When using parenthetical referencing, a Harv templates template that identifies a citation by author and year will automatically link to the appropriate citation elsewhere in the article if created using {{Citation}}. If created using Citation Style 1, however, a |ref=harv parameter must be added.

There are also at least three ways to structure citations as a whole in an article:

  1. Inline citations. These simply place the citation inside of a <ref>...</ref> reference, which inserts a small bracketed, superscripted number. When clicked on, it links to a correspondingly-numbered footnote (more properly an endnote) placed elsewhere in the article. The footnotes themselves are inserted using {{reflist}}, which is typically placed by itself in a Notes (or References) section near the end of the article. When there are multiple references to the same citation, typing can be saved by using <ref name="foo">...</ref> the first time, and just <ref name="foo"/> elsewhere. When there are citations that differ only in page number, there are two alternatives: write all the citations out in full, including the page number, or use one citation without page numbers along with the {{rp}} template to add an inline page number after the small bracketed footnote number.
  2. Shortened footnotes. Instead of the full-form citation appearing in the footnote, a shortened form appears, giving only the author and year (or in some styles, a shortened version of the article or book title), and page number if appropriate. The full citation appears later on, in a bibliography section. This usually follows directly after the footnotes, is titled "References" or "Bibliography", and contains all relevant citations, listed in alphabetical order. This style is especially appropriate when there are large numbers of references overall and frequent cases of multiple references to the same work, especially in the presence of differing page numbers.
  3. Parenthetical references. These are conceptually similar to shortened footnotes, but the shortened reference appears inline in the text, in parentheses, rather than in a footnote.

When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, there are multiple ways to link the shortened and full-form references:

  1. Don't link them. This happens by default when the shortened references are typed in by hand.
  2. Insert manual links. These look like e.g. [[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006, p. 25]]. The anchor #refPereira2006 is attached to the full-form citation by surrounding it with {{wikicite}} (if inserted by hand), or adding a |ref= parameter to the citation template.
  3. Insert links using a Harv templates template, e.g. {{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}. This will insert "Pereira 2006, p. 25" into the text and link it to the citation with the corresponding last name and year. As mentioned above, when using a Citation Style 1 template, the parameter |ref=harv must be added, but this is unnecessary for {{Citation}}. When using parenthetical references, the plain {{Harv}} template is used, which automatically inserts parentheses. Other variations format the page number or parentheses differently.
  4. Use the {{sfn}} template for the whole of the footnote. The {{sfn}} template creates its own named <ref>...</ref> tags: {{sfn|Pereira|2006|p=25}} is exactly equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006]], p. 25.</ref> which is itself equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>{{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}</ref>.

See also WP:Footnotes and WP:Citing sources for general information, and WP:CITEX for specific examples of exactly how to write the code for various combinations of the above styles.

Discussing citations on talk pages[edit]

For convenience when citations are brought to talk pages, noticeboards and other discussions, follow the group of citations with {{Reflist-talk}}.

{{Reflist-talk}}

This template places the citations in their own box under the bold header References. The resulting reference box does not appear in the table of contents.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In contrast to parenthetical referencing or shortened footnotes, citations using the footnote system don't require wikilinks of course, as the inline citations in this method simply appear as numbers within the text, linking to a list of full citations (and notes) at the end of the article (like this).
  2. ^ Notes on {{cite comic}}:
    • This template allows for a cartoonist field to be used instead of the individual fields if there is a sole creator, as in Bone, or an artist field if the penciller and inker is the same person.
    • The style of this template is based on Allen Ellis' Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide, 1999.
    • See the talk page for more details and field explanations.
  3. ^ Notes on {{comic strip reference}}