Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods

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Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref name=Kummer2003><cite id=Kummer2003ch8>Kummer, Corby (2003). ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC The Joy of Coffee]'', [http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I Caffeine and Decaf], Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks, 151–170. ISBN:0618302409 Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</cite></ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006). "[http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes]". ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' 166(11):1190–1195. DOI:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190 PMID:16772246
Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006). "[http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women]". ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' 166(12):1311–1316. PMID:16801515 Retrieved on February 23, 2008.
</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>Bakalar , Nicholas (2006-08-15). [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits]. New York Times. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.</ref>

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref>Op. cit. [[#Kummer2003ch8|Kummer 2003]] p.152</ref> Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001). "[http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform]". ''Hypertension'' 38(2):227–231. PMID:11509481 Retrieved on February 23, 2008.
</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>Johnson, S. (2001). "[http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency]". ''Medical Hypotheses'' 56(2):163–170. Harcourt Publishers Ltd. DOI:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133 PMID:11425281 Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm A coffee can make you forgetful]. BBC News. Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>Smith, A. (2002). "[http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196 Effects of caffeine on human behavior]". ''Food and Chemical Toxicology'' 40(9):1243-1255. DOI:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0 PMID:12204388 Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003). [http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources Use and Common Sources of Caffeine]. 
''Information about Caffeine Dependence''. Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007). [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm Caffeine in the diet]. ''MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia''. The U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved on February 23, 2008.</ref>

== References ==
{{reflist}}

Full references using citation templates[edit]

Citation templates aligned[edit]

This is a representation of how an edit would look with citation templates aligned vertically.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref name=Kummer2003>{{
cite book
|last       = Kummer
|first      = Corby
|year       = 2003
|title      = The Joy of Coffee
|url        = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC
|chapter    = Caffeine and Decaf
|chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I
|publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks
|pages      = 151–170
|isbn       = 0618302409
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>{{
cite journal 
|last       = Klatsky 
|first      = Arthur L. 
|coauthors  = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. 
|date       = 2006 
|title      = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine 
|volume     = 166 
|issue      = 11 
|pages      = 1190–1195 
|doi        = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190
|pmid       = 16772246
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>{{
cite journal
|author     = Pereira, Mark A.
|coauthors  = Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. 
|year       = 2006
|title      = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine
|volume     = 166
|issue      = 12
|pages      = 1311–1316
|pmid       = 16801515 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>{{
cite web 
|last       = Bakalar 
|first      = Nicholas 
|date       = 2006-08-15 
|title      = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits 
|publisher  = New York Times 
|url        = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
|accessdate = 2007-07-28
}}</ref>
Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref>Op. Cit. {{Harvnb|Kummer|2003|p=152}}</ref> Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>{{
cite journal 
|last       = Mahmud 
|first      = A. 
|coauthors  = Feely, J. 
|year       = 2001 
|title      = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform
|url        = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 
|journal    = Hypertension 
|volume     = 38 
|issue      = 2 
|pages      = 227–231 
|pmid       = 11509481
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>{{
cite journal
|author     = Johnson, S.
|date       = 2001
|title      = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
|url        = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf
|format     = PDF
|journal    = Medical Hypotheses
|volume     = 56
|issue      = 2
|pages      = 163–170
|publisher  = Harcourt Publishers Ltd
|doi        = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133
|pmid       = 11425281 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>{{
cite web
|author     = BBC News
|coauthors  = Lesk, Valerie 
|date       = 2004-07-20 
|title      = A coffee can make you forgetful 
|url        = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm 
|publisher  = BBC News
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>{{
cite journal
|author     = Smith, A.
|year       = 2002
|title      = Effects of caffeine on human behavior
|url        = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196
|journal    = Food and Chemical Toxicology
|volume     = 40
|issue      = 9
|pages      = 1243-1255
|doi        = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0
|pmid       = 12204388
|accessdate = 2008-02-23 
}}</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>{{
cite web
|author     = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
|year       = 2003
|title      = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine
|url        = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources
|work       = Information about Caffeine Dependence
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>{{
cite web
|author     = Haines, Cynthia Dennison 
|year       = 2007
|title      = Caffeine in the diet
|url        = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm
|work       = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
|publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}</ref>

== References ==
{{reflist}}

Citation templates unaligned[edit]

This is how the same templates would look running horizontally without any vertical alignment.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref name=Kummer2003>{{cite book | last = Kummer | first = Corby | year = 2003 | title = The Joy of Coffee | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC | chapter = Caffeine and Decaf | chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I | publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks | isbn = 0618302409 | pages = 151–170 | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>{{cite journal | last = Klatsky | first = Arthur L. | coauthors = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. | date = 2006 | title = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes | url = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 | journal = Archives of Internal Medicine | volume = 166 | issue = 11 | pages = 1190–1195 | doi = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190 | pmid = 16772246 | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>{{cite journal | author = Pereira, Mark A. | coauthors = Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. | year = 2006 | title = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women. | url = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 | journal = Archives of Internal Medicine | volume = 166 | issue = 12 | pages = 1311–1316 | pmid = 16801515 | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>{{
cite web | last = Bakalar | first = Nicholas | date = 2006-08-15 | title = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits | publisher  = New York Times | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
| accessdate = 2007-07-28 }}</ref>

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref>Op. Cit. {{Harvnb|Kummer|2003|p=152}}</ref>  Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>{{cite journal | last = Mahmud | first = A. | coauthors  = Feely, J. | year = 2001 | title = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform | url = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 | journal = Hypertension | volume = 38 | issue = 2 | pages = 227–231 | pmid = 11509481 | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>{{cite journal | author = Johnson, S. | date = 2001 | title = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency | url = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf | format = PDF | journal = Medical Hypotheses | volume = 56 |issue = 2 |pages = 163–170 |publisher = Harcourt Publishers Ltd |doi = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133 | pmid = 11425281 |accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>{{cite web | author = BBC News | coauthors = Lesk, Valerie |date = 2004-07-20 | title = A coffee can make you forgetful | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm | publisher = BBC News | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>{{cite journal |author = Smith, A. | year = 2002 | title = Effects of caffeine on human behavior | url = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196 | journal = Food and Chemical Toxicology | volume = 40 | issue = 9 | pages = 1243-1255 | doi = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0 | pmid = 12204388 | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>{{cite web | author = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine |year = 2003| title = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine | url = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources | work = Information about Caffeine Dependence | accessdate = 2008-02-23 }}</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>{{cite web | author = Haines, Cynthia Dennison | year = 2007 | title = Caffeine in the diet | url = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm | work = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia | publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine | accessdate = 2008-02-23}}</ref>

== References ==
{{reflist}}

Rendering for footnote full references[edit]

All three of the above footnote examples would render exactly the same. Note that reference No. 5 is a second reference to the supporting source cited in reference No. 1.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[1]

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[2] and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[3] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[4]

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.[5] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[6] Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia,[7] and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[8] About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[9] and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.[10] Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[11]

References
  1. ^ Kummer, Corby (2003). "Caffeine and Decaf". The Joy of Coffee. Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks. pp. 151–170. ISBN 0618302409. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  2. ^ Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006). "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes". Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (11): 1190–1195. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190. PMID 16772246. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  3. ^ Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006). "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.". Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (12): 1311–1316. PMID 16801515. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  4. ^ Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-08-15). "Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-28. 
  5. ^ Op. Cit. Kummer 2003, p. 152
  6. ^ Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001). "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform". Hypertension 38 (2): 227–231. PMID 11509481. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  7. ^ Johnson, S. (2001). "The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency" (PDF). Medical Hypotheses (Harcourt Publishers Ltd) 56 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133. PMID 11425281. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  8. ^ BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20). "A coffee can make you forgetful". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  9. ^ Smith, A. (2002). "Effects of caffeine on human behavior". Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 (9): 1243–1255. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0. PMID 12204388. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  10. ^ Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003). "Use and Common Sources of Caffeine". Information about Caffeine Dependence. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  11. ^ Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007). "Caffeine in the diet". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. The U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 

Shortened notes[edit]

Shortened notes with references written freehand[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of shortened notes. Using shortened footnotes in the Refs allows an editorial choice to be made regarding the arrangement of the full citations. These are usually arranged alphabetically by author surname.

In this example, note that the Ref for "Kummer 2003" has been named with the name= parameter, and has been re-used at a second point in the wikitext. For more information regarding this, see Wikipedia:Footnotes#Reference name (naming a ref tag so it can be used more than once).

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref name=Kummer2003ch8>Kummer 2003.</ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>Klatsky 2006.</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>Pereira 2006.</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>Bakalar 2006.</ref>

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref name=Kummer2003ch8 /> Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>Mahmud 2001.</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>Johnson 2001.</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>BBC 2004.</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>Smith 2002.</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>Johns Hopkins 2003.</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>Haines 2007.</ref>

== Notes ==
{{reflist|3}}

== References ==
{{refbegin}}
* Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-08-15), ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits]'', New York Times, retrieved 2007-07-28 
* BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20), ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm A coffee can make you forgetful]'', BBC News, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007), [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm "Caffeine in the diet"], ''MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia'' (The U.S. National Library of Medicine), retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003), [http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources "Use and Common Sources of Caffeine"], ''Information about Caffeine Dependence'', retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Johnson, S. (2001), [http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf "The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency"] (PDF), ''Medical Hypotheses''(Harcourt Publishers Ltd) '''56''' (2): 163–170, doi:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133, PMID 11425281, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes"], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (11): 1190–1195, doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190, PMID 16772246, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Kummer, Corby (2003), [http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I "Caffeine and Decaf"], ''The Joy of Coffee'', Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks, ISBN 0618302409, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Lesk, Valerie E.; Womble, Stephen P. (June 2004), "Caffeine, Priming, and Tip of the Tongue: Evidence for Plasticity in the Phonological System", Behavioral Neuroscience '''118''' (3): 453-461 
* Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001), [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform"], ''Hypertension'' '''38''' (2): 227–231, PMID 11509481, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women."], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (12): 1311–1316, 
{{refend}}

Rendering:

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[1]

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[2] and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[3] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[4]

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.[1] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[5] Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia,[6] and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[7] About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[8] and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.[9] Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[10]

Notes
  1. ^ a b Kummer 2003.
  2. ^ Klatsky 2006.
  3. ^ Pereira 2006.
  4. ^ Bakalar 2006.
  5. ^ Mahmud 2001.
  6. ^ Johnson 2001.
  7. ^ BBC 2004.
  8. ^ Smith 2002.
  9. ^ Johns Hopkins 2003.
  10. ^ Haines 2007.
References

Shortened notes with wikilinks[edit]

Shortened notes with wikilinks to references written freehand[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of shortened notes including wikilinks from the notes to the references written freehand. Note that an editorial choice has been made here to specify the page number range of the cited chapter in the initial "Kummer 2003" Ref, and to specify a specific page number in the second Ref, rather than to re-use a named Ref without specifying page numbers as was done above.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref>[[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]] pp.151–170.</ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>[[#refKlatsky2006|Klatsky 2006]].</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>[[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006]].</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>[[#refBakalar2006|Bakalar 2006]].</ref>

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref>[[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]] p.152.</ref> Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>[[#refMahmud2001|Mahmud 2001]].</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>[[#refJohnson2001|Johnson 2001]].</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>[[#refBBC2004|BBC 2004]].</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>[[#refSmith2002|Smith 2002]].</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>[[#refJohnsHopkins2003|Johns Hopkins 2003]].</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>[[#refHaines2007|Haines 2007]].</ref>

== Notes ==
{{reflist|3}}

== References ==
{{refbegin}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refBakalar2006 |reference=Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-08-15), ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits]'', New York Times, retrieved 2007-07-28}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refBBC2004 |reference=BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20), ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm A coffee can make you forgetful]'', BBC News, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refHaines2007 |reference=Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007), [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm "Caffeine in the diet"], ''MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia'' (The U.S. National Library of Medicine), retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refJohnsHopkins2003 |reference=Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003), [http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources "Use and Common Sources of Caffeine"], ''Information about Caffeine Dependence'', retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refJohnson2001 |reference=Johnson, S. (2001), [http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf "The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency"] (PDF), ''Medical Hypotheses''(Harcourt Publishers Ltd) '''56''' (2): 163–170, doi:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133, PMID 11425281, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refKlatsky2006 |reference=Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes"], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (11): 1190–1195, doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190, PMID 16772246, retrieved 2008-02-23 }}
* {{wikicite |ref=refKummer2003 |reference=Kummer, Corby (2003), [http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I "Caffeine and Decaf"], ''The Joy of Coffee'', Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks, ISBN 0618302409, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refMahmud2001 |reference=Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001), [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform"], ''Hypertension'' '''38''' (2): 227–231, PMID 11509481, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refPereira2006 |reference=Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women."], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (12): 1311–1316, PMID 16801515, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refSmith2002 |reference=Smith, A. (2002), [http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196 "Effects of caffeine on human behavior"], ''Food and Chemical Toxicology'' '''40''' (9): 1243-1255, doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0, PMID 12204388, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
{{refend}}

Shortened notes with wikilinks using citation templates[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of shortened notes including wikilinks from the notes to the references using citations. The body text is the same as the example above (shortened notes with wikilinks to references written freehand). Note how the citations in the references section do not need to be wrapped in the wikicite template however, as the templates all support the reference anchor parameter.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.<ref>[[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]] pp.151–170.</ref>

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],<ref>[[#refKlatsky2006|Klatsky 2006]].</ref> and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.<ref>[[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006]].</ref> For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.<ref>[[#refBakalar2006|Bakalar 2006]].</ref>

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.<ref>[[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]] p.152.</ref> Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.<ref>[[#refMahmud2001|Mahmud 2001]].</ref> Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],<ref>[[#refJohnson2001|Johnson 2001]].</ref> and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.<ref>[[#refBBC2004|BBC 2004]].</ref> About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,<ref>[[#refSmith2002|Smith 2002]].</ref> and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.<ref>[[#refJohnsHopkins2003|Johns Hopkins 2003]].</ref> Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.<ref>[[#refHaines2007|Haines 2007]].</ref>

== Notes ==
{{reflist|3}}

== References ==
<div class="references-small">
*{{cite web 
|ref        = refBakalar2006
|last       = Bakalar 
|first      = Nicholas 
|date       = 2006-08-15 
|title      = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits 
|publisher  = New York Times 
|url        = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
|accessdate = 2007-07-28
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refBBC2004
|author     = BBC News
|coauthors  = Lesk, Valerie 
|date       = 2004-07-20 
|title      = A coffee can make you forgetful 
|url        = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm 
|publisher  = BBC News
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refHaines2007
|author     = Haines, Cynthia Dennison 
|year       = 2007
|title      = Caffeine in the diet
|url        = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm
|work       = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
|publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refJohnsHopkins2003
|author     = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
|year       = 2003
|title      = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine
|url        = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources
|work       = Information about Caffeine Dependence
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refJohnson2001
|author     = Johnson, S.
|date       = 2001
|title      = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
|url        = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf
|format     = PDF
|journal    = Medical Hypotheses
|volume     = 56
|issue      = 2
|pages      = 163–170
|publisher  = Harcourt Publishers Ltd
|doi        = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133
|pmid       = 11425281 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = refKlatsky2006
|last       = Klatsky 
|first      = Arthur L. 
|coauthors  = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. 
|date       = 2006 
|title      = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine 
|volume     = 166 
|issue      = 11 
|pages      = 1190–1195 
|doi        = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190
|pmid       = 16772246
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite book
|ref        = refKummer2003
|author     = Kummer, Corby
|year       = 2003
|title      = The Joy of Coffee
|url        = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC
|chapter    = Caffeine and Decaf
|chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I
|publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks
|isbn       = 0618302409
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = refMahmud2001
|last       = Mahmud 
|first      = A. 
|coauthors  = Feely, J. 
|year       = 2001 
|title      = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform
|url        = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 
|journal    = Hypertension 
|volume     = 38 
|issue      = 2 
|pages      = 227–231 
|pmid       = 11509481
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refPereira2006
|author     = Pereira, Mark A.
|coauthors  = Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. 
|year       = 2006
|title      = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine
|volume     = 166
|issue      = 12
|pages      = 1311–1316
|pmid       = 16801515 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refSmith2002
|author     = Smith, A.
|year       = 2002
|title      = Effects of caffeine on human behavior
|url        = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196
|journal    = Food and Chemical Toxicology
|volume     = 40
|issue      = 9
|pages      = 1243-1255
|doi        = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0
|pmid       = 12204388
|accessdate = 2008-02-23 
}}
</div>

Shortened notes linked with {{sfn}} and citation templates[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of shortened notes written using {{sfn}} with citation templates. Templates in the {{Cite *}} family need to have the parameter ref=harv added to them, which allows linking from {{sfn}} via matching author last names and year (part of date). Overriding ref parameter CITEREFSurnameYear may also be used (e.g. when coauthor names mismatch). When using the generic {{Citation}} template, ref=harv does not need to be specified, as the ref parameter automatically defaults to harv.

A template call like {{sfn|Smith|2007|p=25}} is equivalent to <ref>{{harvnb|Smith|2008|p=25}}.</ref>, except that it automatically combines identical footnotes. (To get the equivalent effect using the {{harvnb}} construction, you'd need to add matching name= parameters to the footnotes to be combined.) The longer form can be used if more control is needed.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.{{sfn|Kummer|2003|pp=151–170}}

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]],{{sfn|Klatsky|2006}} and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.{{sfn|Pereira|Parker|Folsom|2006}} For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage.{{sfn|Bakalar|2006}}

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.{{sfn|Kummer|2003|p=152}} Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.{{sfn|Mahmud|Feely|2001}} Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]],{{sfn|Johnson|2001}} and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.{{sfn|Lesk|2004}} About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,{{sfn|Smith|2002}} and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.{{sfn|Johns Hopkins|2003}} Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.{{sfn|Haines|2007}}

== Notes ==
{{reflist|3}}

== References ==
<div class="references-small">
*{{cite web 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Bakalar 
|first      = Nicholas 
|date       = 2006-08-15 
|title      = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits 
|publisher  = New York Times 
|url        = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
|accessdate = 2007-07-28
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = harv
|last       = Lesk
|first      = Valerie 
|date       = 2004-07-20 
|title      = A coffee can make you forgetful 
|url        = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm 
|publisher  = BBC News
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = harv
|last       = Haines
|first      = Cynthia Dennison
|year       = 2007
|title      = Caffeine in the diet
|url        = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm
|work       = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
|publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = {{harvid|Johns Hopkins|2003}}
|author     = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
|year       = 2003
|title      = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine
|url        = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources
|work       = Information about Caffeine Dependence
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Johnson
|first      = S.
|year       = 2001
|title      = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
|url        = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf
|format     = PDF
|journal    = Medical Hypotheses
|volume     = 56
|issue      = 2
|pages      = 163–170
|publisher  = Harcourt Publishers Ltd
|doi        = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133
|pmid       = 11425281 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Klatsky 
|first      = Arthur L. 
|coauthors  = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. 
|year       = 2006 
|title      = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine 
|volume     = 166 
|issue      = 11 
|pages      = 1190–1195 
|doi        = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190
|pmid       = 16772246
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite book
|ref        = harv
|last       = Kummer
|first      = Corby
|year       = 2003
|title      = The Joy of Coffee
|url        = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC
|chapter    = Caffeine and Decaf
|chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I
|publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks
|isbn       = 0618302409
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Mahmud 
|first      = A. 
|last2      = Feely 
|first2     = J. 
|year       = 2001 
|title      = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform
|url        = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 
|journal    = Hypertension 
|volume     = 38 
|issue      = 2 
|pages      = 227–231 
|pmid       = 11509481
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Pereira
|first      = Mark A.
|last2      = Parker
|first2     = D.
|last3      = Folsom
|first3     = A.R.
|year       = 2006
|title      = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine
|volume     = 166
|issue      = 12
|pages      = 1311–1316
|pmid       = 16801515 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Smith
|first      = A.
|year       = 2002
|title      = Effects of caffeine on human behavior
|url        = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196
|journal    = Food and Chemical Toxicology
|volume     = 40
|issue      = 9
|pages      = 1243-1255
|doi        = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0
|pmid       = 12204388
|accessdate = 2008-02-23 
}}
</div>

Rendering for shortened notes linked with {{sfn}} and citation templates[edit]

All three of the above shortened notes with wikilinks examples would render exactly the same.

Rendering:

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption.[1]

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver,[2] and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components.[3] For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.[4]

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether.[5] Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls.[6] Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia,[7] and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information.[8] About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn,[9] and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects.[10] Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults.[11]

Notes
References



Parenthetical references[edit]

Parenthetical references are conceptually very much like shortened footnotes, but insert the shortened reference inline into the text rather than in a footnote. The advantages are that the source of the reference is shown more clearly, and getting to the full citation takes only one click rather than two with shortened footnotes (one to reach the shortened footnote, a second to reach the full citation). The disadvantage, though, is that the references clutter up the article text, and for this reason, parenthetical references are not nearly as common as shortened footnotes in Wikipedia articles.

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Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption (Kummer 2003, pp. 151–170).

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]] (Klatsky 2006), and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components (Pereira 2006). For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage (Bakalar 2006).

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether (Kummer 2003, p. 152). Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls (Mahmud 2001). Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]] (Johnson 2001) and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information (BBC 2004). About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn (Smith 2002), and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects (Johns Hopkins 2003). Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults (Haines 2007).

== References ==
{{refbegin}}
* Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-08-15), ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits]'', New York Times, retrieved 2007-07-28 
* BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20), ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm A coffee can make you forgetful]'', BBC News, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007), [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm "Caffeine in the diet"], ''MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia'' (The U.S. National Library of Medicine), retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003), [http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources "Use and Common Sources of Caffeine"], ''Information about Caffeine Dependence'', retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Johnson, S. (2001), [http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf "The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency"] (PDF), ''Medical Hypotheses''(Harcourt Publishers Ltd) '''56''' (2): 163–170, doi:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133, PMID 11425281, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes"], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (11): 1190–1195, doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190, PMID 16772246, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Kummer, Corby (2003), [http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I "Caffeine and Decaf"], ''The Joy of Coffee'', Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks, ISBN 0618302409, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Lesk, Valerie E.; Womble, Stephen P. (June 2004), "Caffeine, Priming, and Tip of the Tongue: Evidence for Plasticity in the Phonological System", Behavioral Neuroscience '''118''' (3): 453-461 
* Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001), [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform"], ''Hypertension'' '''38''' (2): 227–231, PMID 11509481, retrieved 2008-02-23 
* Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women."], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (12): 1311–1316, 
{{refend}}

Rendering:

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption (Kummer 2003, pp. 151–170).

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver (Klatsky 2006), and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components (Pereira 2006). For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage (Bakalar 2006).

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether (Kummer 2003, p. 152). Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls (Mahmud 2001). Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia (Johnson 2001) and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information (BBC 2004). About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn (Smith 2002), and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects (Johns Hopkins 2003). Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults (Haines 2007).

References

Parenthetical references with wikilinks[edit]

Parenthetical references with wikilinks to references written freehand[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of parenthetical references including wikilinks from the notes to the references written freehand.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption ([[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]], pp.151–170).

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]] ([#refKlatsky2006|Klatsky 2006]]), and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components ([[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006]]). For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage ([[#refBakalar2006|Bakalar 2006]]).

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether ([[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]], p.152). Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls ([[#refMahmud2001|Mahmud 2001]]). Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]] ([[#refJohnson2001|Johnson 2001]]), and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information ([[#refBBC2004|BBC 2004]]). About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn ([[#refSmith2002|Smith 2002]]), and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects ([[#refJohnsHopkins2003|Johns Hopkins 2003]]). Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults ([[#refHaines2007|Haines 2007]]).

== References ==
{{refbegin}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refBakalar2006 |reference=Bakalar, Nicholas (2006-08-15), ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits]'', New York Times, retrieved 2007-07-28}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refBBC2004 |reference=BBC News; Lesk, Valerie (2004-07-20), ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm A coffee can make you forgetful]'', BBC News, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refHaines2007 |reference=Haines, Cynthia Dennison (2007), [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm "Caffeine in the diet"], ''MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia'' (The U.S. National Library of Medicine), retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refJohnsHopkins2003 |reference=Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003), [http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources "Use and Common Sources of Caffeine"], ''Information about Caffeine Dependence'', retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refJohnson2001 |reference=Johnson, S. (2001), [http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf "The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency"] (PDF), ''Medical Hypotheses''(Harcourt Publishers Ltd) '''56''' (2): 163–170, doi:10.1054/mehy.2000.1133, PMID 11425281, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refKlatsky2006 |reference=Klatsky, Arthur L.; Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 "Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes"], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (11): 1190–1195, doi:10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190, PMID 16772246, retrieved 2008-02-23 }}
* {{wikicite |ref=refKummer2003 |reference=Kummer, Corby (2003), [http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I "Caffeine and Decaf"], ''The Joy of Coffee'', Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks, ISBN 0618302409, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refMahmud2001 |reference=Mahmud, A.; Feely, J. (2001), [http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 "Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform"], ''Hypertension'' '''38''' (2): 227–231, PMID 11509481, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refPereira2006 |reference=Pereira, Mark A.; Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. (2006), [http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311 "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women."], ''Archives of Internal Medicine'' '''166''' (12): 1311–1316, PMID 16801515, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
* {{wikicite |ref=refSmith2002 |reference=Smith, A. (2002), [http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196 "Effects of caffeine on human behavior"], ''Food and Chemical Toxicology'' '''40''' (9): 1243-1255, doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0, PMID 12204388, retrieved 2008-02-23}}
{{refend}}

Parenthetical references with wikilinks using citation templates[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of parenthetical references including wikilinks from the notes to the references using citations. The body text is the same as the example above (parenthetical references with wikilinks to references written freehand). Note how the citations in the references section do not need to be wrapped in the wikicite template however, as the templates all support the reference anchor parameter.

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption ([[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]], pp.151–170).

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]] ([#refKlatsky2006|Klatsky 2006]]), and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components ([[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006]]). For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage ([[#refBakalar2006|Bakalar 2006]]).

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether ([[#refKummer2003|Kummer 2003]], p.152). Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls ([[#refMahmud2001|Mahmud 2001]]). Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]] ([[#refJohnson2001|Johnson 2001]]), and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information ([[#refBBC2004|BBC 2004]]). About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn ([[#refSmith2002|Smith 2002]]), and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects ([[#refJohnsHopkins2003|Johns Hopkins 2003]]). Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults ([[#refHaines2007|Haines 2007]]).

== References ==
<div class="references-small">
*{{cite web 
|ref        = refBakalar2006
|last       = Bakalar 
|first      = Nicholas 
|date       = 2006-08-15 
|title      = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits 
|publisher  = New York Times 
|url        = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
|accessdate = 2007-07-28
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refBBC2004
|author     = BBC News
|coauthors  = Lesk, Valerie 
|date       = 2004-07-20 
|title      = A coffee can make you forgetful 
|url        = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm 
|publisher  = BBC News
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refHaines2007
|author     = Haines, Cynthia Dennison 
|year       = 2007
|title      = Caffeine in the diet
|url        = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm
|work       = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
|publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = refJohnsHopkins2003
|author     = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
|year       = 2003
|title      = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine
|url        = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources
|work       = Information about Caffeine Dependence
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refJohnson2001
|author     = Johnson, S.
|date       = 2001
|title      = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
|url        = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf
|format     = PDF
|journal    = Medical Hypotheses
|volume     = 56
|issue      = 2
|pages      = 163–170
|publisher  = Harcourt Publishers Ltd
|doi        = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133
|pmid       = 11425281 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = refKlatsky2006
|last       = Klatsky 
|first      = Arthur L. 
|coauthors  = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. 
|date       = 2006 
|title      = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine 
|volume     = 166 
|issue      = 11 
|pages      = 1190–1195 
|doi        = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190
|pmid       = 16772246
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite book
|ref        = refKummer2003
|author     = Kummer, Corby
|year       = 2003
|title      = The Joy of Coffee
|url        = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC
|chapter    = Caffeine and Decaf
|chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I
|publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks
|isbn       = 0618302409
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = refMahmud2001
|last       = Mahmud 
|first      = A. 
|coauthors  = Feely, J. 
|year       = 2001 
|title      = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform
|url        = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 
|journal    = Hypertension 
|volume     = 38 
|issue      = 2 
|pages      = 227–231 
|pmid       = 11509481
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refPereira2006
|author     = Pereira, Mark A.
|coauthors  = Parker, D.; Folsom, A.R. 
|year       = 2006
|title      = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine
|volume     = 166
|issue      = 12
|pages      = 1311–1316
|pmid       = 16801515 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = refSmith2002
|author     = Smith, A.
|year       = 2002
|title      = Effects of caffeine on human behavior
|url        = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196
|journal    = Food and Chemical Toxicology
|volume     = 40
|issue      = 9
|pages      = 1243-1255
|doi        = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0
|pmid       = 12204388
|accessdate = 2008-02-23 
}}
</div>

Parenthetical references linked with {{harv}} and citation templates[edit]

This is an example edit mode representation showing use of parenthetical references written using {{harv}} with citation templates. Templates in the {{Cite *}} family need to have the parameter ref=harv added to them, which allows linking from {{harv}} via matching author last names and year (part of date). Overriding ref parameter CITEREFSurnameYear may also be used (e.g. when coauthor names mismatch). When using the generic {{Citation}} template, ref=harv does not need to be specified, as the ref parameter automatically defaults to harv.

Alternatives to {{harv}} are:

  • Template {{harvnb}} omits the parentheses ("brackets") and can be used to bundle citations together inside a single surrounding pair of parens.
  • Template {{harvtxt}} moves the last name outside of the parens ("brackets") and is useful when you want to use the author name as the subject or object of a phrase, e.g. "According to Smith (2009, p. 25), …".
  • Templates {{harvcol}}, {{harvcolnb}} and {{harvcoltxt}} are similar but use a colon to separate the page number instead of an abbreviation like "p.". Hence, the output of {{harvcoltxt}} would look something like "According to Smith (2009:25), …".
Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption {{harv|Kummer|2003|pp=151–170}}.

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of [[Alzheimer's disease]], [[Parkinson's disease]], [[heart disease]], [[diabetes mellitus type 2]], [[cirrhosis]] of the [[liver]] {{harv|Klatsky|2006}}, and [[gout]]. Some health effects are due to the [[caffeine]] content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components {{harv|Pereira|Parker|Folsom|2006}}. For example, the [[antioxidant]]s in coffee prevent [[Radical (chemistry)|free radicals]] from causing cell damage {{harv|Bakalar|2006}}.

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether {{harv|Kummer|2003|p=152}}. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls {{harv|Mahmud|Feely|2001}}. Excess coffee consumption may lead to a [[magnesium deficiency (medicine)|magnesium deficiency]] or [[hypomagnesaemia]] {{harv|Johnson|2001}}, and may be a risk factor for [[coronary heart disease]]. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on [[short-term memory]], by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current [[train of thought]], but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information {{harv|Lesk|2004}}. About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn {{harv|Smith|2002}}, and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects {{harv|Johns Hopkins|2003}}. Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults {{harv|Haines|2007}}.

== References ==
<div class="references-small">
*{{cite web 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Bakalar 
|first      = Nicholas 
|date       = 2006-08-15 
|title      = Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits 
|publisher  = New York Times 
|url        = http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/15/health/nutrition/15coff.html?ex=1313294400&en=d420f19ee1c77365&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss 
|accessdate = 2007-07-28
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = harv
|last       = Lesk
|first      = Valerie 
|date       = 2004-07-20 
|title      = A coffee can make you forgetful 
|url        = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3909085.stm 
|publisher  = BBC News
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = harv
|last       = Haines
|first      = Cynthia Dennison
|year       = 2007
|title      = Caffeine in the diet
|url        = http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002445.htm
|work       = MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
|publisher  = The U.S. National Library of Medicine
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite web
|ref        = {{harvid|Johns Hopkins|2003}}
|author     = Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
|year       = 2003
|title      = Use and Common Sources of Caffeine
|url        = http://www.caffeinedependence.org/caffeine_dependence.html#sources
|work       = Information about Caffeine Dependence
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Johnson
|first      = S.
|year       = 2001
|title      = The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency
|url        = http://www.george-eby-research.com/html/wide-mag-deficiency-path.pdf
|format     = PDF
|journal    = Medical Hypotheses
|volume     = 56
|issue      = 2
|pages      = 163–170
|publisher  = Harcourt Publishers Ltd
|doi        = 10.1054/mehy.2000.1133
|pmid       = 11425281 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Klatsky 
|first      = Arthur L. 
|coauthors  = Morton, C.; Udaltsova, N.; Friedman, D. 
|year       = 2006 
|title      = Coffee, Cirrhosis, and Transaminase Enzymes
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/11/1190 
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine 
|volume     = 166 
|issue      = 11 
|pages      = 1190–1195 
|doi        = 10.1001/archinte.166.11.1190
|pmid       = 16772246
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite book
|ref        = harv
|last       = Kummer
|first      = Corby
|year       = 2003
|title      = The Joy of Coffee
|url        = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC
|chapter    = Caffeine and Decaf
|chapterurl = http://books.google.com/books?id=qNLrJqgfg7wC&pg=PA151&sig=zL7_XqPYPeBVq8vs3ukYFuwjn2I
|publisher  = Houghton Mifflin Cookbooks
|isbn       = 0618302409
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal 
|ref        = harv
|last       = Mahmud 
|first      = A. 
|last2      = Feely 
|first      = J. 
|year       = 2001 
|title      = Acute Effect of Caffeine on Arterial Stiffness and Aortic Pressure Waveform
|url        = http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/2/227 
|journal    = Hypertension 
|volume     = 38 
|issue      = 2 
|pages      = 227–231 
|pmid       = 11509481
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Pereira
|first      = Mark A.
|last2      = Parker
|first2     = D.
|last3      = Folsom
|first3     = A.R.
|year       = 2006
|title      = Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an 11-year prospective study of 28 812 postmenopausal women.
|url        = http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/166/12/1311
|journal    = Archives of Internal Medicine
|volume     = 166
|issue      = 12
|pages      = 1311–1316
|pmid       = 16801515 
|accessdate = 2008-02-23
}}
*{{cite journal
|ref        = harv
|last       = Smith
|first      = A.
|year       = 2002
|title      = Effects of caffeine on human behavior
|url        = http://www.erowid.org//references/refs_view.php?A=ShowDocPartFrame&ID=6685&DocPartID=6196
|journal    = Food and Chemical Toxicology
|volume     = 40
|issue      = 9
|pages      = 1243-1255
|doi        = 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0
|pmid       = 12204388
|accessdate = 2008-02-23 
}}
</div>

Rendering for parenthetical references linked with {{harv}} and citation templates[edit]

All three of the above parenthetical references with links examples would render exactly the same.

Rendering:

Scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and an array of medical conditions. Findings are contradictory as to whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly conflicting regarding negative effects of coffee consumption (Kummer 2003, pp. 151–170).

Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of the liver (Klatsky 2006), and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated coffee, while others appear to be due to other components (Pereira, Parker & Folsom 2006). For example, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage (Bakalar 2006).

Although caffeine has not been linked to any life-threatening disease, doctors and nurses routinely advise some patients to watch their caffeine intake or to eliminate it altogether (Kummer 2003, p. 152). Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls (Mahmud & Feely 2001). Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia (Johnson 2001), and may be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies suggest that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information (Lesk 2004). About 10% of people with a moderate daily intake (235 mg per day) reported increased depression and anxiety when caffeine was withdrawn (Smith 2002), and about 15% of the general population report having stopped caffeine use completely, citing concern about health and unpleasant side effects (Johns Hopkins 2003). Nevertheless, the mainstream view of medical experts is that drinking three 8-ounce (236 ml) cups of coffee per day (considered average or moderate consumption) does not have significant health risks for adults (Haines 2007).

References