Help:IPA for Mandarin

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The representations of these sounds in the standard romanization (pinyin) are also shown.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of the language. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent loose approximations to the original pronunciations.

Consonants
IPA Pinyin English approximation
ɕ x she
f f fan
j y-, -i- you
k g skim
kʰ k cup
l l leaf
m m moon
n n-, -n noon
ŋ -ng song
p b span
pʰ p pan
ɻ -r area (ends syllable)
s s see
ʂ sh show; Russian Ш
t d stand
tʰ t tan
j itchy
ʰ q cheer
ts z pizza
tsʰ c tsunami (with t pronounced)
zh pitcher
ʰ ch church
w w-, -u- water
x h loch (Scottish English)
ɥ yu-, -ü-[a] (simultaneous y and w); French nuit
ʐ r- pleasure; Russian Ж
Vowels
IPA Pinyin English approximation
a a (a, an) roughly like cat
ɑ a (ang), e (er) car
ɛ e (ye), a (yan, yuan, ian) yes
œ e (yue) roughly like bird; German ö
ə e (en[b]) about
ɤ e (eng) roughly like Am.eng. sir
i yi/-i (yi, yin, ying) see
ɨ i (si, zi, ci, shi, zhi, chi, ri) glasses[c]
ɔ o (wo, bo, po, mo, fo) war
u wu/-u shoe
ʊ o (ong) hook
y yu/-ü[a] (yu, yun) somewhat like few; French tu
Diphthongs
ai bye
ɑʊ ao now
ei[b] day
ou[b] no
Nasal vowels[d]
ɑ̃ ang (angr) roughly like croissant
ə̃ eng (engr) roughly like uh-huh
ʊ̃ ong (ongr) roughly like own
Tones
IPA Pinyin Description
ǎ ɤ̌ á, é mid rising: ˧˥
â ɤ̂ à, è high falling: ˥˩
á ɤ́ ā, ē high: ˥
à, ɤ̀ ǎ, ě medially, low: ˩
initially, mid falling: ˧˩
finally, low rising: ˩˧
in isolation, dipping: ˧˩˧
a, ɤ a, e "toneless":
low after the high falling tone ˥˩ and the high tone ˥ ;
mid after all other tones

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b ü ([y], [ɥ]) is spelled u after j, q, x as [u], [w] cannot occur after these consonants.
  2. ^ a b c wei, you, wen are spelled ui, iu, un respectively in pinyin, but pronounced identically, when preceded by a consonant.
  3. ^ Slightly "buzzing" vowels, and the frication of the preceding consonant may continue through the vowel. In si, zi, ci, the vowel may be a further back [ɯ].
  4. ^ Only occurs in erhua and generally not considered part of the main vowel inventory.

External links[edit]