Help:IPA for Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ukrainian-language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian makes contrasts between palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ‹j› / ʲ /, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the ‹y› sound in yes. All Ukrainian consonants except /j/ have a soft and hard variant, however this distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs—for the others the distinction can be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Ukrainian.

Consonants
IPA Examples English equivalents
b б boot; beautiful
d д do
дь dew
d͡z дз pads
d͡zʲ дзь
d͡ʒ дж jump; ridge
f ф fool; few
ɡ ґ goo; ague
ɦ г behind
k к cooper; cute
ɫ л pill
ль least
m м moot; mute
n н noon
нь new
p п poo; pew
r~ɾ р trilled r, like in Spanish
rʲ~ɾʲ рь
s с soup
сь super
ʃ ш shop
t т tool
ть tune
t͡s ц cats
t͡sʲ ць
t͡ʃ ч choose
v в vanish; visit
x х Bach; loch
z з zoo
зь azure
ʒ ж measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English equivalent
Stressed
ɑ а, я father
ɛ е, є met
i і, ї GA and Canadian key (shorter, without gliding)
ɪ[1] и six
ɔ о born (General American and Canadian English)
u у, ю No exact equivalent, like boot but further back, lips are more rounded and without gliding
Unstressed
ɐ а, я cut
Semivowels
IPA Examples English equivalent
j й[2] yes
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː Gemination[3] (doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Сучасна українська мова: Підручник / О.Д. Пономарів, В.В.Різун, Л.Ю.Шевченко та ін.; За ред. О.Д.пономарева. — 2-ге вид., перероб. —К.: Либідь, 2001. — с. 14
  2. ^ The "soft" vowel letters ‹є, ї, ю, я› represent a /j/ plus a vowel when initial or following other vowels. Ukrainian may also possess allophones before or between palatalized consonants: /e/, /ʉ/, /æ/ respectively.
  3. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /ba'ɦatʲːɐ/ bonfire, подружжя /pɔdruʒːɐ/ married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the start of a few words: лляний /lʲːænɪj/ flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю /lʲːʉ/, ллєш /lʲːeʂ/ etc.), ссати /sːatɪ/ to suck and derivatives.