Portal:Contents/Outlines

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Wikipedia's contents: Outlines

Below is a summary of the world's knowledge, in the form of an outline.   Each subject in turn links to an outline that summarizes that subject.   Together, these outlines also form a multipage site map of Wikipedia.

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P literature.svg General reference   (see in all page types)

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P culture.svgCulture and the arts   (see in all page types)

Culture – set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that define a group of people, such as the people of a particular region. Culture includes the elements that characterize a particular peoples' way of life.

  • The Arts – vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. The arts encompasses visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts.
    • Literature – the art of written works.
      • Fiction – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
      • Poetry – literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning.
      • Critical theory – examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
    • Visual arts – art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature.
      • Architecture – The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
        • Classical architecture – architecture of classical antiquity and later architectural styles influenced by it.
      • Crafts – recreational activities and hobbies that involve making things with one's hands and skill.
      • Drawing – visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium.
      • Film – motion pictures.
      • Painting – practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface with a brush or other object.
      • Photography – art, science, and practice of creating pictures by recording radiation on a radiation-sensitive medium, such as a photographic film, or electronic image sensors.
      • Sculpture – three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials - typically stone such as marble - or metal, glass, or wood.
    • Performing arts – those forms of art that use the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium.
      • Dance – art form of movement of the body.
      • Film – moving pictures, the art form that records performances visually.
      • Theatre – collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place.
      • Music – art form the medium of which is sound and silence.
        • Music genres
          • Jazz – musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States, mixing African and European music traditions.
          • Opera – art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (called a libretto) and musical score.
        • Musical instruments – devices created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds.
          • Guitars – the guitar is a plucked string instrument, usually played with fingers or a pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings.
      • Stagecraft – technical aspects of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes, but is not limited to, constructing and rigging scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, makeup, procurement of props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound.
  • Gastronomy – the art and science of good eating, including the study of food and culture.
    • Food preparation – act of preparing foodstuffs for eating. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools, and combinations of ingredients to improve the flavour and digestibility of food.
    • Food and drink
      • Chocolate – raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree.
      • Wine – alcoholic beverage made from fermented fruit juice (typically from grapes).
  • Recreation and Entertainment – any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie.
    • Festivals – entertainment events centering on and celebrating a unique aspect of a community, usually staged by that community.
    • Fiction – any form of narrative which deals, in part or in whole, with events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary and invented by its author(s).
      • Spy fiction – genre of fiction concerning forms of espionage
        • James Bond – fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming. Since then, the character has grown to icon status, featured in many novels, movies, video games and other media.
      • Fantasy – genre of fiction using magic and the supernatural as primary elements of plot, theme or setting, often in imaginary worlds, generally avoiding the technical/scientific content typical of Science fiction, but overlapping with it
        • Middle-earth – fantasy setting by writer J.R.R. Tolkien, home to hobbits, orcs, and many other mystical races and creatures.
      • Science fiction – a genre of fiction dealing with imaginary but more or less plausible (or at least nonsupernatural) content such as future settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, aliens, giant monsters (Kaiju), and paranormal abilities. Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas".
    • Games – structured playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment, involving goals, rules, challenge, and interaction.
      • Board games
        • Chess – two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: One king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns.
      • Card games
        • Poker – family of card games that share betting rules and usually (but not always) hand rankings.
      • Video games – electronic games that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device.
    • Sports – organized, competitive, entertaining, and skillful activity requiring commitment, strategy, and fair play, in which a winner can be defined by objective means. Generally speaking, a sport is a game based in physical athleticism.
      • Ball games
        • Baseball – bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each where the aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond.
        • Basketball – team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules.
        • Cricket – bat-and-ball team sport, the most popular form played on an oval-shaped outdoor arena known as a cricket field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard (20.12 m) long pitch that is the focus of the game.
        • Tennis – sport usually played between two players (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles), using specialized racquets to strike a felt-covered hollow rubber ball over a net into the opponent's court.
      • Canoeing and kayaking – two closely related forms of watercraft paddling, involving manually propelling and navigating specialized boats called canoes and kayaks using a blade that is joined to a shaft, known as a paddle, in the water.
      • Combat sports
        • Fencing – family of combat sports using bladed weapons. It is also known as french swordfighting or french swordfencing.
        • Martial arts – extensive systems of codified practices and traditions of combat, practiced for a variety of reasons, including self-defense, competition, physical health and fitness, as well as mental and spiritual development.
      • Motorcycling – riding a motorcycle. A variety of subcultures and lifestyles have been built up around motorcycling and motorcycle racing.
      • Running – moving rapidly on foot, during which both feet are off the ground at regular intervals.
  • Humanities – academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences.
    • Area studies – comprehensive interdisciplinary research and academic study of the people and communities of particular regions. Disciplines applied include history, political science, sociology, cultural studies, languages, geography, literature, and related disciplines.
      • Sinology – study of China and things related to China, such as its classical language and literature.
    • Classical studies – branch of the Humanities comprising the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and all other cultural elements of the ancient Mediterranean world (Bronze Age ca. BC 3000 – Late Antiquity ca. AD 300–600); especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

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P countries.png Geography and places   (see in all page types)

Geography

Continents and major geopolitical regions (non-continents are italicized)
Africa • Antarctica • AsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceania (includes Australia) • South America
Political divisions of the World, arranged by continent or major geopolitical region
Africa
West Africa LocationWesternAfrica.png
BeninBurkina FasoCape VerdeCôte d'IvoireGambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauLiberiaMaliMauritaniaNigerNigeriaSenegalSierra LeoneTogo
North Africa LocationNorthernAfrica.png
AlgeriaEgyptLibyaMauritaniaMoroccoSudanSouth SudanTunisiaWestern Sahara
Central Africa LocationCentralMiddleAfrica.png
AngolaBurundiCameroonCentral African RepublicChadThe Democratic Republic of the CongoEquatorial GuineaGabonRepublic of the CongoRwandaSão Tomé and Príncipe
East Africa LocationEasternAfrica.png
BurundiComorosDjiboutiEritreaEthiopiaKenyaMadagascarMalawiMauritiusMozambiqueRwandaSeychellesSomaliaTanzaniaUgandaZambiaZimbabwe
Southern Africa LocationSouthernAfrica.png
BotswanaLesothoNamibiaSouth AfricaSwaziland
Dependencies
Mayotte (France)St. Helena (UK)PuntlandSomalilandSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Antarctica
None
Asia
Central Asia
Kazakhstan[1]KyrgyzstanTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistan
East Asia
China[2]
Tibet
Hong Kong[3]Macau[4]
JapanNorth KoreaSouth KoreaMongoliaTaiwan[5]
North Asia
Russia[6]
Southeast Asia[7]
BruneiBurma (Myanmar)Cambodia[8]East Timor (Timor-Leste)[9]Indonesia[10]LaosMalaysiaPhilippinesSingaporeThailandVietnam
South Asia
AfghanistanBangladeshBhutanIranMaldivesNepalPakistanSri Lanka
India[11]
States of India: Kerala • Haryana • RajasthanWest Bengal
West Asia
Armenia[12]Azerbaijan[13]BahrainCyprus[14] (including disputed Northern Cyprus) • Georgia[15]IraqIsraelJordanKuwaitLebanonOmanPalestinian territories [16]QatarSaudi ArabiaSyriaTurkey[17]United Arab EmiratesYemen
Caucasus (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe, or between them)
North Caucasus
Parts of Russia (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan, Adyghea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachai-Cherkessia, North Ossetia, Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai)
South Caucasus
Georgia (including disputed Abkhazia, South Ossetia) • ArmeniaAzerbaijan (including disputed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic)
Europe Europe location.png
Akrotiri and DhekeliaÅlandAlbaniaAndorraArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia and HerzegovinaBulgariaCroatiaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkEstoniaFaroe IslandsFinlandFranceGeorgiaGermanyGibraltarGreeceGuernseyHungaryIcelandIrelandIsle of ManItalyJerseyKazakhstanKosovoLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMaltaMoldova (including disputed Transnistria) • MonacoMontenegroNetherlandsPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSerbiaSlovakiaSlovenia
Norway
Svalbard
Spain
Autonomous communities of Spain: Catalonia
SwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraine
United Kingdom
EnglandNorthern IrelandScotlandWales
Vatican City
European Union
North America
Canada LocationCanadaAmerica.png
Provinces of Canada:AlbertaBritish ColumbiaManitobaNew BrunswickNewfoundland and LabradorNova ScotiaOntario (Toronto) • Prince Edward IslandQuebecSaskatchewan
Territories of Canada: Northwest TerritoriesNunavutYukon
GreenlandSaint Pierre and Miquelon
United States Location USA in America.PNG
Alabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming
District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
Mexico Location mexico in america.jpg
Central America
BelizeCosta RicaEl SalvadorGuatemalaHondurasNicaraguaPanama
Caribbean
AnguillaAntigua and BarbudaArubaBahamasBarbadosBermudaBritish Virgin IslandsCayman IslandsCubaDominicaDominican RepublicGrenadaHaitiJamaicaMontserratNetherlands AntillesPuerto RicoSaint BarthélemySaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint MartinSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesTrinidad and TobagoTurks and Caicos IslandsUnited States Virgin Islands
Oceania (includes the continent of Australia)
Australasia[18]
Australia Location Australia.svg
Dependencies/Territories of Australia
Christmas Island[7]Cocos (Keeling) IslandsNorfolk Island
New Zealand[19]
Melanesia[20]
FijiIndonesia (Oceanian part only)[21]New Caledonia (France) • Papua New Guinea[22]Solomon IslandsVanuatu
Micronesia
Federated States of MicronesiaGuam (USA) • KiribatiMarshall IslandsNauruNorthern Mariana Islands (USA) • PalauWake Island (USA) •
Polynesia[23]
American Samoa (USA) • Chatham Islands (NZ) • Cook Islands (NZ) • Easter Island (Chile) • French Polynesia (France) • Hawaii (USA) • Loyalty Islands (France) • Niue (NZ) • Pitcairn Islands (UK) • AdamstownSamoaTokelau (NZ) • TongaTuvaluWallis and Futuna (France)
South America Location of South America.svg
ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaEcuadorFalkland IslandsGuyanaParaguayPeruSurinameUruguayVenezuela
South Atlantic
Ascension IslandSaint HelenaTristan da Cunha
Notes
  1. ^ Kazakhstan is sometimes considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
  2. ^ The state is commonly known as simply "China", which is subsumed by the eponymous entity and civilization (China).
  3. ^ Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC.
  4. ^ Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the PRC.
  5. ^ Under the de facto control of the Republic of China (ROC) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the PRC; see political status of Taiwan.
  6. ^ Russia is a transcontinental country; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
  7. ^ a b Excludes Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australian external territories in the Indian Ocean southwest of Indonesia).
  8. ^ General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 - Provisional population totals, National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning, released 3rd September, 2008
  9. ^ East Timor is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania.
  10. ^ Indonesia is often considered a transcontinental country in Southeastern Asia and Oceania
  11. ^ Includes Jammu and Kashmir, a contested territory among India, Pakistan, and the PRC.
  12. ^ Armenia is sometimes considered a transcontinental country: physiographically in Western Asia, it has historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
  13. ^ Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only. Figures include Nakhchivan, an autonomous exclave of Azerbaijan bordered by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
  14. ^ The island of Cyprus is sometimes considered a transcontinental territory: in the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea south of Turkey, it has historical and socio-political connections with Europe. The U.N. considers Cyprus to be in Western Asia, while the C.I.A. considers it to be in the Middle East.
  15. ^ Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe; population and area figures are for the Asian portion only.
  16. ^ Gaza and West Bank, collectively referred to as the "Occupied Palestinian Territory" by the UN, are territories partially occupied by Israel but under de facto administration of the Palestinian National Authority.
  17. ^ Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Southern Europe; population and area figures are for Asian portion only, excluding all of Istanbul.
  18. ^ The use and scope of this term varies. The UN designation for this subregion is "Australia and New Zealand."
  19. ^ New Zealand is often considered part of Polynesia rather than Australasia.
  20. ^ Excludes parts of Indonesia, island territories in Southeast Asia (UN region) frequently reckoned in this region.
  21. ^ Indonesia is generally considered a territory of Southeastern Asia (UN region); wholly or partially, it is also frequently included in Australasia or Melanesia. Figures include Indonesian portion of New Guinea (Irian Jaya) and Maluku Islands.
  22. ^ Papua New Guinea is often considered part of Australasia as well as Melanesia.
  23. ^ Excludes the US state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean, and Easter Island, a territory of Chile in South America.

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P medicine.svg Health and fitness   (see in all page types)

See also: Biology (below)

Health – level of functional and (or) metabolic efficiency of a person in mind, body and spirit; being free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

  • Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
  • Life extension – The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
  • Healthcare science – all the sciences related to the overall improvement of physical well-being of humans.
  • Medicine – science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
    • Anesthesia
    • Clinical research
    • Diabetes
    • Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the mouth, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures (teeth) and their impact on the human body.
    • Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
    • Trauma & Orthopedics – medical specialty dealing with bones, joints and operative management of trauma.
  • Nutrition – provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
  • Psychiatry – medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities.

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Klepsydra-pt.svg History and events   (see in all page types)

History – records of past events and the way things were. It is also a field responsible for the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about the past.

  • History, by period (See also Timeline of world history)
    • Prehistory – events occurring before recorded history (that is, before written records).
    • Ancient history – from ≈3350 BCE to ≈500 CE
      • Classical antiquity – long period of cultural history in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the Greco-Roman world.
        • Ancient Greece – period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages (ca. 1100 BC) to 146 BC and the Roman conquest of Greece. It was the seminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization.
        • Ancient Rome – civilization that started on the Italian Peninsula and lasted from as early as the 10th century BC to the 5th century AD. Over centuries it shifted from a monarchy to a republic to an empire which dominated South-Western Europe, South-Eastern Europe/Balkans and the Mediterranean region.
        • Classical architecture
      • Ancient India
    • Middle Ages (Medieval history)– historical period following the Iron Age, fully underway by the 5th century and lasting to the 15th century and preceding the early Modern Era. It is the middle period in a three-period division of history: Classic, Medieval, and Modern.
    • Renaissance – cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. It encompassed a flowering of literature, science, art, religion, and politics, and gradual but widespread educational reform.
    • Early modern history – from 1500 to 1899
    • Modern history – since 1900.
    • Globalization – from ancient times to the present




  1. ^ "Chronology". Digital Egypt for Universities, University College London. Retrieved 25 March 2008. 
  2. ^ Halsall, Paul (1995). "Byzantium". Fordham University. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  3. ^ Millar 2006, pp. 2, 15; James 2010, p. 5: "But from the start, there were two major differences between the Roman and Byzantine empires: Byzantium was for much of its life a Greek-speaking empire oriented towards Greek, not Latin culture; and it was a Christian empire."
  4. ^ Dunnigan, James; Albert Nofi. Dirty Little Secrets of World War II: Military Information No One Told You About the Greatest, Most Terrible War in History, William Morrow & Company, 1994. ISBN 0-688-12235-3
  5. ^ DoD 1998
  6. ^ Lawrence 2009, p. 20
  7. ^ James Olson and Randy Roberts, Where the Domino Fell: America and Vietnam, 1945–1990, p. 67 (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991).
  8. ^ Origins of the Insurgency in South Vietnam, 1954–1960, The Pentagon Papers (Gravel Edition), Volume 1, Chapter 5, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971), Section 3, pp. 314–346; International Relations Department, Mount Holyoke College.
  9. ^ Due to the early presence of American troops in Vietnam the start date of the Vietnam War is a grey zone. In 1998 after a high level review by the Department of Defense (DoD) and through the efforts of Richard B. Fitzgibbon's family the start date of the Vietnam War was changed to 1 November 1955.[5] U.S. government reports currently cite 1 November 1955, as the commencement date of the “Vietnam Conflict,” for this was the day when the U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Indochina (deployed to Southeast Asia under President Truman), was reorganized into country-specific units and MAAG Vietnam was established. So on 1 November 1955 a Vietnamese MAAG was created.[6] Other start dates include when Hanoi authorized Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in December 1956.[7] Whereas some view 26 September 1959 when the first battle occurred between the Communist and South Vietnamese army.[8]
  10. ^ "Vietnam War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 March 2008. "Meanwhile, the United States, its military demoralized and its civilian electorate deeply divided, began a process of coming to terms with defeat in its longest and most controversial war" 

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P mathematics.svg Mathematics and logic   (see in all page types)

Formal sciences – branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems. Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules.

  • Mathematics – study of quantity, structure, space, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns, and formulate new conjectures. (See also: Lists of mathematics topics)
    • Arithmetic – oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, involving the study of quantity, especially as the result of combining numbers. The simplest arithmetical operations include addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
    • Algebra – branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures.
    • Analysis/Calculus – branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. Calculus is the study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.
    • Category theory
    • Discrete mathematics – study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values.
      • Combinatorics – branch of mathematics concerning the study of finite or countable discrete structures.
    • Geometry – one of the oldest branches of mathematics, it is concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
    • Trigonometry – branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves.
  • Logic – formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science.
  • Other mathematical sciences – academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper.
    • Statistics – study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
    • Probability – way of expressing knowledge or belief that an event will occur or has occurred. The concept has an exact mathematical meaning in probability theory, which is used extensively in such areas of study as mathematics, statistics, finance, gambling, science, artificial intelligence/machine learning and philosophy to draw conclusions about the likelihood of potential events and the underlying mechanics of complex systems.
    • Regression analysis – techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed.

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P physics.svg Natural and physical sciences   (see in all page types)

Science – systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Basis of science

  • Big Science
  • Metric system – decimal based system of measurement based on the metre and the kilogram, units of measure that were developed in France in 1799 and which is now used in most branches on international commerce, science and engineering.
  • Scientific method – body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.

Branches of science

  • Biology – The study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
    • Anatomy – The study of the structure of living things.
    • Biochemistry – The study of substances found in biological organisms.
    • Biophysics – interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems.[1] Studies included under the branches of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems.
    • Botany – The study of plant life.
    • Cell biology – The study of cells. Their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death.
    • Ecology – The study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
    • Genetics – The study of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.
    • Immunology – The study of immune systems in all organisms.
    • Paleontology – The study of prehistoric life, including organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology).
      • Dinosaurs – diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (about 65 million years ago), when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of most dinosaur species at the close of the Mesozoic era.
    • Physiology
    • Zoology – The study of the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct.
      • Ants – more than 12,000 species of social insects evolved from wasp-like ancestors, that live in organised colonies which may consist of millions of ants.
      • Birds – feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. There are about 10,000 living species of birds.
      • Fish
        • Sharks – type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago.
  • Physical sciences – encompasses the branches of science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena.
    • Chemistry – The study of matter, especially its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, interactions and the changes it undergoes.
      • Organic chemistry – The study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.
      • Water – chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam).
    • Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet.
      • Geography – study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth".
      • Geology – The study of the Earth, with the general exclusion of present-day life, flow within the ocean, and the atmosphere. The field of geology encompasses the composition, structure, physical properties, and history of Earth's components, and the processes by which they are shaped. Geologists typically study rock, sediment, soil, rivers, and natural resources.
      • Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods. Includes Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation. Geophysical methods are also applied to the hydrological cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.
      • Meteorology – The study of the atmosphere.
        • Tropical cyclones – storm systems characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain.
    • Physics – The study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
      • Energy – A scalar physical quantity that describes the amount of work that can be performed by a force. Energy is an attribute of objects and systems that is subject to a conservation law.
    • Space science
      • Astronomy – The study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation).

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P vip.svg People and self   (see in all page types)

People

Types of people
Children
Self
Aspects of people
Their bodies (biology)
Their minds (psychology)
Thought
Their behavior (sociology)
Human sexuality
BDSM
Relationships

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Socrates blue version2.png Philosophy and thinking   (see in all page types)

Philosophy – The study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Branches of philosophy

  • Aesthetics – The study of the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
  • Epistemology – The study of knowledge and belief.
  • Ethics – The study of the right, the good, and the valuable. Includes study of applied ethics.
    • Sexual ethics – The study of sexual relations rooted in particular behaviors and standards.
  • Logic – The study of good reasoning, by examining the validity of arguments and documenting their fallacies.
  • Metaphysics – traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined.

Philosophies

  • Atheism – the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.
  • Critical theory – examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across the social sciences and humanities.
  • Humanism – approach in study, philosophy, worldview or practice that focuses on human values and concerns.
  • Transhumanism – international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. It is often abbreviated as H+ or h+.
  • Political philosophies:
    • Anarchism – political philosophy which considers the state undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy.
    • Libertarianism – political philosophy that advocates minimization of the government and maximization of individual liberty and political freedom.
  • Philosophical debates:

Thought – mental or intellectual activity involving an individual's subjective consciousness. It can refer either to the act of thinking or the resulting ideas or arrangements of ideas.

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P religion.png Religion and belief systems   (see in all page types)

Religion – collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and sometimes to moral values.

  • Abrahamic religions:
    • Judaism – "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people. Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, it is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel.
    • Christianity – monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings.
      • Catholicism – Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole.
      • Protestantism – Protestantism is a broad term, usually used for Christians who are not of the Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Churches. However, some consider Anglicanism to be Protestant, and some consider Radical Reformism not to be Protestant.
    • Islam – monotheistic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Arabic: الله Allāh), and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad, considered by them to be the last prophet of God.
    • Bahá'í Faith – a monotheistic religion founded by Baha'u'llah in the 19th century, proclaims Spiritual unity of mankind
  • East Asian religions:
  • Indian religions:
    • Buddhism – religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha (Pāli/Sanskrit "the awakened one").
    • Hinduism – predominant and indigenous religious tradition), amongst many other expressions.
    • Ayyavazhi
    • Jainism
    • Sikhism – monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and ten successive Sikh Gurus (the last teaching being the holy scripture Guru Granth Sahib Ji).
  • Contemporary Paganism - a contemporary set of beliefs modelled on the ancient pagan religions (usually of Europe or the Near East).
  • Religious debates:
    • Creation–evolution controversy – recurring theological and cultural-political dispute about the origins of the Earth, humanity, life, and the universe, between the proponents of evolution, backed by scientific consensus, and those who espouse the validity and/or superiority of literal interpretations of a creation myth. The dispute particularly involves the field of evolutionary biology, but also the fields of geology, palaeontology, thermodynamics, nuclear physics and cosmology.
    • Theology – systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.
    • Christian theology – enterprise to construct a coherent system of Christian belief and practice based primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as the historic traditions of the faithful. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis, and argument to clarify, examine, understand, explicate, critique, defend or promote Christianity.
  • Irreligion – absence of religious belief, or indifference or hostility to religion, or active rejection of religious traditions.
    • Atheism – rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Most inclusively, atheism is simply the absence of belief that any deities exist. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.
    • Secular humanism – embraces human reason, ethics, and justice while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience or superstition as the basis of morality and decision-making.
  • Spirituality – can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality; an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of his/her being; or the “deepest values and meanings by which people live.”

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P social sciences.png Society and social sciences   (see in all page types)

Social science – study of the world and its cultures and civilizations. Social science has many branches, each called a "social science". Some of the major social sciences are:

  • Anthropology – study of how humans developed biologically and culturally.
  • Archaeology – study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation, and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes.
  • Economics – study of how people satisfy their wants and needs. Economics is also the study of supply and demand.
  • Geography – study of physical environments and how people live in them.
  • History – study of the past.
  • Law – set of rules and principles by which a society is governed. (For branches, see Law under Society below).
  • Linguistics – study of natural languages.
  • Political science – study of different forms of government and the ways citizens relate to them.
  • Psychology – study of mental processes and behavior.
  • Semiotics – study of symbols and how they relate to one another.
  • Sociology – study of the formation of human societies and social organizations, their structure, and the interaction and behavior of people in organized groups.

Society – group of people sharing the same geographical or virtual territory and therefore subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Such people share a distinctive culture and institutions, which characterize the patterns of social relations between them.

  • Community – group of interacting people, possibly living in close proximity, and often refers to a group that shares some common values, and is attributed with social cohesion within a shared geographical location, generally in social units larger than a household.
  • Business – organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers for the purpose of making a profit.
    • Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.
    • Industrial organization – studies the structure of and boundaries between firms and markets and the strategic interactions of firms.
    • Finance – study of funds management.
    • Management – comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.
    • Projects
    • Marketing – process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments.
    • Production
  • Communication – activity of conveying meaningful information, which requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient.
    • Journalism
      • Environmental journalism – collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact.
  • Education – any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, and values from one generation to another. Education can also be defined as the process of becoming an educated person.
    • Harvard University – private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation (officially The President and Fellows of Harvard College) chartered in that country.
  • GlobalizationGlobalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.
  • Politics – process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate, academic, and religious segments of society.
    • Political ideologies:
      • Environmentalism – broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements.
      • Green politics – political ideology that aims for the creation of an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, social liberalism, and grassroots democracy.
    • Government types:
      • Democracy – form of government in which all the people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives.
    • International organizations:
    • Political movements:
    • Public affairs – public policy and public administration. Public policy is a principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of a state with regard to issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. Public administration is "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."
  • Law – A set of rules and principles by which a society is governed.
    • Commercial law – body of law that governs business and commercial transactions.
    • Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Those accused of crime have protections against abuse of investigatory and prosecution powers.
      • Crime
        • Domestic violence – violence between partners in a close relationship (marriage, family, dating and so on). This form of violence can manifest itself in a variety of ways.
        • Forgery
      • Law enforcement – any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to promote adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate the rules and norms governing that society. The term usually refers to organizations that engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, and to those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders.
    • Intellectual property – distinct types of creations of the mind for which a set of exclusive rights are recognized—and the corresponding fields of law.
    • Tort law – laws and legal procedures dealing with torts. In common law jurisdictions, a tort is a civil wrong that involves a breach of a civil duty (other than a contractual duty) owed to someone else. A tort is differentiated from a crime, which involves a breach of a duty owed to society in general. Though many acts are both torts and crimes, prosecutions for crime are mostly the responsibility of the state; whereas any party who has been injured may bring a lawsuit for tort.
    • Law of the United States
  • Rights – legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

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P train.svg Technology and applied sciences   (see in all page types)

Applied science – application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.

Technology – making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures.

Technologies and applied sciences

  • Aerospace – flight or transport above the surface of the Earth.
    • Space exploration – the physical investigation of the space more than 100 km above the Earth by either manned or unmanned spacecraft.
  • Applied physics – physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between "pure" physics and engineering.
  • Agriculture – cultivation of plants, animals, and other living organisms.
    • Fishing – activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping.
      • Fisheries – a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats, purpose of the activities or a combination of the foregoing features".
      • Fishing industry – industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors.
    • Forestry – art and science of tree resources, including plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services.
    • Organic gardening and farming
    • Sustainable agriculture
  • Business management – act of getting people together to accomplish profit-oriented goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. It comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling a business or effort for the purpose of earning a profit.
    • Actuarial science – discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in the insurance and finance industries.
    • Marketing – process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and generate the strategy of sales techniques and business communication to build strong customer relationships.
  • Communication
    • Books
    • Telecommunication – the transfer of information at a distance, including signaling, telegraphy, telephony, telemetry, radio, television, and data communications.
      • Radio – Aural or encoded telecommunications.
      • Internet – the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).
      • Television broadcasting – Visual and aural telecommunications.
  • Computing – any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; and more.
    • Computer engineering – discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems, from designing individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design.
      • Computers – general purpose devices that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, computers can solve more than one kind of problem.
    • Computer science – the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems.
    • Information technology – the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.
    • Internet – the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).
    • Software engineering – the systematic approach to the development, operation, maintenance, and retirement of computer software.
      • Programming – the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs.
      • Software development – development of a software product, which entails computer programming (process of writing and maintaining the source code), but also encompasses a planned and structured process from the conception of the desired software to its final manifestation.
      • C++ – one of the most popular programming languages with application domains including systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.
      • Perl – high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Used for text processing, CGI scripting, graphics programming, system administration, network programming, finance, bioinformatics, and more.
    • Software – one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for one or more purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
      • Free software – software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction.
      • Search engines – information retrieval systems designed to help find information stored on a computer system.
    • Computer industry
      • Apple Inc. – manufacturer and retailer of computers, hand-held computing devices, and related products and services.
      • Google – Google Inc. and its Internet services including Google Search.
  • Construction – building or assembly of any physical structure.
  • Design – the art and science of creating the abstract form and function for an object or environment.
    • Architecture – the art and science of designing buildings.
  • Electronics
  • Industry – production of an economic good or service.
    • Automation – use of machinery to replace human labor.
    • Industrial machinery
    • Machines – devices that perform or assist in performing useful work.
    • Manufacturing – use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale.
    • Robotics – deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots.
  • Energy
    • Energy development – ongoing effort to provide abundant, efficient, and accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and construction.
    • Energy storage – the storage of a form of energy that can then be used later.
    • Nuclear technology – the technology and application of the spontaneous and induced reactions of atomic nuclei.
    • Wind energy
    • Solar energy
  • Engineering – the application of science, mathematics, and technology to produce useful goods and systems.
  • Firefighting – act of extinguishing fires. A firefighter fights fires to prevent destruction of life, property and the environment. Firefighting is a professional technical skill.
  • Forensic science – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action.
  • Health
    • Biotechnology – applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
    • Ergonomics – the study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.
  • Hydrology – The study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • Information science
    • Cartography – the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
    • Library science – technology related to libraries and the information fields.
  • Military science – the study of the technique, psychology, practice and other phenomena which constitute war and armed conflict.
  • Mining – extraction of mineral resources from the earth.
  • Nanotechnology – The study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometre in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices possessing at least one dimension within that size.
  • Prehistoric technology – technologies that emerged before recorded history (i.e., before the development of writing).
  • Sustainability – capacity to endure. In ecology, the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions.
  • Transport – the transfer of people or things from one place to another.
    • Rail transport – means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks consisting of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast.
    • Vehicles – mechanical devices for transporting people or things.
      • Automobiles – human-guided powered land-vehicles.
      • Bicycles – human-powered land-vehicles with two or more wheels.
      • Motorcycles – single-track, engine-powered, motor vehicles. They are also called motorbikes, bikes, or cycles.
    • Tires – ring-shaped coverings that fit around wheel rims
  1. ^ Careers in Biophysics brochure, Biophysical Society https://www.biophysics.org/Portals/1/PDFs/Career%20Center/Careers%20In%20Biophysics.pdf