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April 20[edit]

How long does it take for package to come in the mail from California to Vancouver?[edit]

I'm waiting for a package. Venustar84 (talk) 03:22, 20 April 2015 (UTC)

It's going to depend dramatically on the type of package and type of shipping. Overnight delivery was probably available, although perhaps not from more isolated spots in California. Then you go to 2-day, 3-day, or longer delivery, depending on what you are willing to pay for. The shipping terms should have been disclosed when you purchased the item. Or, if it was shipped by a friend or relative, the postal service should be able to tell you the schedule. In any case, they can likely also provide you with a tracking number you can use to track it's progress, using your PC.
If you did buy something, note that some companies take weeks to deliver an item. In that case it's not just delivery to you that takes so long, they probably wait until they get enough orders, then order a batch from China or wherever. StuRat (talk) 05:06, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
Additionally, the package would have to go through customs. When I worked for a gift company here in Vermont, we couldn't guarantee the shipping times to Canada because our packages might be held up in customs. We didn't know how long that would be and had no way of finding out beforehand. That was only a few years ago and I doubt things have changed much since then. Dismas|(talk) 05:14, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
If it's via USPS, it also depends on where it was posted from. There are two post offices near us, one is a huge regional postal center, the other isn't...that makes one to two days difference depending on what time of day we drop your packages off. SteveBaker (talk) 08:14, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
Anything dealing with Canada Post is cursed in my experience. When I mailed something this last summer USPS was quoting shorter delivery times to Eastern Europe than to major cities in Canada. In my case my three-week vacation in Canada was shorter than the delivery time of a package. Rmhermen (talk) 16:43, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
I'm near the border. Mail from the nearest city in Canada takes about eight days; mail from a thousand miles away within the US takes four. —Tamfang (talk) 09:00, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Counter-example. I'm in Vancouver. I've had cross border shipments from the UK take 4 days from placing the order and the US take 3. Customs can be, but isn't always, a hold up. Mingmingla (talk) 15:52, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

NeuroRadiologist help needed[edit]

Human Voice Researcher- w/ MRI of 2 singers one Pop, one Opera - facinating responce from inside MRI - Need NeuroRadiologist Opinion (

Need Help — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 16:05, 20 April 2015 (UTC)

I moved the Q out of the title for you. StuRat (talk) 17:07, 20 April 2015 (UTC)

Beer Street and Gin Lane[edit]

The article Beer Street and Gin Lane is about a 18th century painting depicting "Beer Street" and "Gin Lane", with the intention of showing that drinking beer is good and healthy, while drinking gin only leads to ruin. But gin, by volume, is considerably stronger than beer. Did some people in 18th century England drink as much gin by volume as others drank beer, which would lead to obvious alcohol overuse, or was this only about the actual qualities of beer vs. gin? JIP | Talk 20:50, 20 April 2015 (UTC)

See Gin Craze which states that the average was 10 gallons per person per year around 1743. Nanonic (talk) 20:56, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
Our article actually states it was 10 litres per person, although 10 gallons doesn't sound unreasonable, either. This BBC article gives a figure of "14 gallons per adult male" in London, which would suggest either that "per person" in our article means "per man, woman and child", or the 10 litre figure is incorrect. (I'm reminded of a book I read recently which describes a (large) medieval book as being "nearly eight metres tall" - it's almost certainly 26" tall in reality.) Tevildo (talk) 23:41, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
This article from the British Library gives a figure of six gallons per person. I think it's time to look for some primary sources... Tevildo (talk) 23:56, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
Et viola. Is there somebody kind enough to do the arithmetic? Thanks. Tevildo (talk) 00:11, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
What has this got to do with small violins? KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 05:09, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Do we have an article on Sid Snot? No? Well, that's where I got it from. ;) Tevildo (talk) 07:47, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Think that is a good link. Beer has soluble fiber (one can't see it but it is there), it is weaker and serves as food source. People would drink a gallon a day. It was a bit more complicated than others suggest.. Back street distillers did not separate out the headers and tails during the distilling process. Also the stills often had lead soldered joints. Vodka would be a better description, cause it could be made from cheap potatoes too. Thus, it was not gin as we recognize it to day and did not provide the addition substance that beer did. Err... which I think is a complicated way of saying Hogarth was right.--Aspro (talk) 18:31, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

Wilfully homosexual[edit]

We've all heard of closest gays. Those who are homosexual and keep it under wraps.

But are there any instances of straight individuals who force themselves to be gay outside a coercive environment (prison, rape etc) — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 22:24, 20 April 2015 (UTC)

You're assuming sexual orientation is an either/or situation. It ain't necessarily so. It is often a sliding scale. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 22:42, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
  • Are you saying that no one is strongly hetero? —Tamfang (talk) 08:57, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Not quite what you're asking, because he doesn't force himself (and because it's fiction), but I immedately thought of a late 60s hairdresser pretending to be gay, in order to make out "like a bandit" with all the wives and girlfriends of his friends (pseudoquoting Peter Biskind). ---Sluzzelin talk 23:01, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
"Force oneself to be gay" is a bit vague. Certainly homosexual sex (mutual masturbation etc) can be practiced by non-homosexuals; witness single-sex dormitory schools and cultures where females are kept under lock, key and veil. (talk) 23:02, 20 April 2015 (UTC)
Also, you don't force yourself to be gay. Homosexual and heterosexual are ends of a continuum of sexual orientation, which is how you identify yourself. It is not an act. People can self-identify as one, and still have sexual acts with the other sex. See Down-low for example.--Jayron32 00:28, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

s en

Perhaps the op means something like forcing oneself to have sex with men, although one would prefer female sheep, but bestiality is illegal? There is also the standard fraternity/british public school thing. μηδείς (talk) 02:10, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Also, the OP seems to be confusing orientation with behavior. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 03:23, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
It might be worth noting Political lesbians, some of whom became lesbian for reasons other than sexual attraction. RomanSpa (talk) 09:07, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
At some points it seems to have been fashionable for upper-class men (or those pretending to be) to behave in a feminine manner. See fop and dandy. They had high heels, wigs, corsets, make-up, would faint at the slightest provocation, etc. The closest modern equivalent might be a metrosexual. And of course, there are also straight female impersonators and straight actors playing the part of gay men (like Robin Williams in The Birdcage or Eric Stonestreet on Modern Family). StuRat (talk) 04:00, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Basically, the answer is yes, assuming you mean homosexual behavior and not gay sexual orientation. Rule 34 applies as usual. Google /forced bi kink/ for a variety of discussion fora, personal ads, porn, etc. It's basically a sub-genre of the cuckold kink. You can probably find all kinds of people who want to talk about that kind of thing at e.g. Fetlife SemanticMantis (talk) 04:46, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
The other phrase that applies here is gay-for-pay. Rojomoke (talk) 04:55, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
The OP is also using "willfull" and "forcing oneself" as synonyms, which they are not.[1]Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 15:18, 21 April 2015 (UT)
The op hasn't clarified himself. It is entirely possible he's interested in having a straight man wilfully forcing himself on him homosexually. There's no necessary contradiction in that. μηδείς (talk) 04:51, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
That's certainly possible, but it's getting into the area of sexual abuse, sexual attack or rape. Except, those require the victim not to have invited such behaviour. Would a rape victim ever be said to have "engaged in sexual activity" without their consent? Not likely. Because there is no "engagement" in forced behaviour. If the OP is asking whether a straight person could choose to engage in gay sex, then the answer is definitely yes. But if the OP is asking whether a straight person could choose to change their orientation to gay, I think that's as unlikely as choosing to change their handedness from right to left or vice-versa, or choosing to dislike broccoli after a lifetime of loving it. I mean, one can decide to change those things, that's simple; but executing those choices, ah, well, that's a different kettle of fish. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 09:53, 25 April 2015 (UTC)
I know one man who claims to have more-or-less deliberately switched to being gay, having had a reasonably large selection of girlfriends. It's an extraordinarily rare phenomenon: even having met one, I'm not sure I really believe in his existence! RomanSpa (talk) 13:09, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

April 21[edit]

Anime in Japan[edit]

Is anime in Japan made for children? I was told by a friend that anime is childish and for children but when I watched some the plot was about a man who activates his magical suit of armor by groping his mentors breasts. This doesn't seem like something that would be aimed for children, at least not in the Western world. I know Japan has some weird ideas regarding children like "lolicon" and incest fetishes. AnimeQuestion (talk) 08:57, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

There is a lot of Japanese anime and manga meant for adults. Likewise, My Little Pony has a larger fanbase in the US amongst adult men than little girls. It's nothing to do with fetishes. They are simply escapist stories. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 12:08, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
(EC) I'm not sure that any reference is likely to provide a straight answer to the question, so speaking strictly from Personal Observation: no, anime is made for all ages, just as live action films and printed fiction is made for all ages – that is to say, some is made for children, some for young adults, some for adults, some for all ages: I've certainly seen examples of all of these. In addition, of course, there is (*cough* so I'm reliably informed *cough*) pornographic anime (see also Hentai).
I would expect our article on Anime (there, I knew we'd have one) to provide links that will lead to examples of all of these (with the possible exception of the porn). {The poster formerly known as} (talk) 12:18, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
I lived in Japan for ten years, and saw a lot of manga which was definitely directed at adults - mostly horror manga, and you know it is directed at adults and not children because of the kanji used, most of which is not taught at university level, never mind primary school level, and of course, the content of the story. Manga and anime is big in Japan, with both children and adults alike. It's not like Disney. It's a massive industry, but aimed at people from all walks of life. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 12:54, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
A nice quote from our article on Anime -
Analogous statements apply to Akira, Trigun, Cowboy BeBop and many other popular anime. Culturally, the otaku stereotype has made its way to the USA, in spirit if not in name - many people see interest in Anime as a childish, nerdy, socially inept signifier, but those people are just ignorant ;) SemanticMantis (talk) 13:45, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

Whole wild boar[edit]

I'm fairly sure that for most people in northern, western and central Europe, most of the ideas of eating wild boar come from Asterix comics, where Asterix usually eats one whole wild boar, and Obelix eats several. Then when these people go to Parc Asterix in France and order wild boar at a restaurant, they are disappointed because they are only served a small part of the whole boar.

Now is eating a whole wild boar in one go even possible or feasible? How much meat would it contain? Are there any people in the world who have managed to eat that much meat in one go? And how much would such a dish cost? JIP | Talk 19:20, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

Our wild boar article reveals that an adult boar carcass should yield about 50kg of meat. Our human body weight article reveals that the average human weighs 62kg. The graph in meat suggests that the average American eats 16.7kg of pork products a year. So not only can no-one eat that in one sitting, a typical American would take 3 years to do so at normal rates. AlexTiefling (talk) 19:51, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Thank you for your reply that it's physically impossible to eat a whole wild board in one sitting. However, you say that the average American eats 16.7 kg of pork products per year. Surely the average American eats other meat too. Suppose a hypothetical American or European person who only eats pork, not other meat. And that hypothetical person would eat as much meat as it's possible for a real-life person. I've heard of people who can manage eating almost 4 kg of meat in one sitting, but that's at the top level of meat eating championships. I can manage almost half a kg myself easily, provided I haven't eaten earlier during the day. So how much time would such a person require to eat a whole wild boar? And how much would a restaurant dish consisting of a whole wild boar cost? JIP | Talk 20:00, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
At 544calories per 340g, 50kg of meat would be 80,000kcal, which is a month's worth of energy for an adult. (talk) 19:57, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Maybe they have a breed of really small wild boars. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 19:59, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
The boars depicted in Asterix are actually fairly small (may be the size of a large turkey or something), but not that small that many are likely to eat one let alone many in a single sitting. Nil Einne (talk) 21:47, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
It's like pizza, a man will gladly eat six, even eight, at one sitting, a woman usually one, and at most two. μηδείς (talk) 21:48, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Someone eats two pizzas at a sitting? Reference? Itsmejudith (talk) 22:23, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
That would all depend on the size of the pizza. In this example, 2 pizzas is the normal serving size: [2] (see nutrition info for serving size). StuRat (talk) 22:32, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
The correct number of those to eat in one sitting is zero. When they have to say that it is real cheese! And I thought pizza was an Italian or Italian-American dish, so what is the point of "French" bread? This [3] is a bit more like actual food. Next time I'm in Detroit I will pop over and cook one for you. Itsmejudith (talk) 13:05, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
I am sorry, I meant slices of 18" pizza, although I am quite sure my father would eat two smaller pizzas at one sitting, if they actually made such a thing near Philly. This hearkens back to a previous thread. I asserted men normally eat six slices (and later confirmed from my father he expects six) and will eat eight if given the chance. Keep in mind he's 6'2" but only 190lbs. On the occasion I eat pizza with my parents, we order two 18" pies, and there will be 4-6 of the 16 slices left, since mother and I prefer the broccoli and white cheese, but if I eat two of his slices he won't eat any of hers. So the question is, given these are small wild boars, how many pizzaweight are they each. μηδείς (talk) 17:00, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
  • Didn't find any boar/whole pig eating records but just this week Molly Schuyler ate 6kg (13.5lb) of steak (plus additional sides) in 20 minutes. So she could possibly polish off a smaller whole wild boar at a sitting, since this website advertises sizes starting from 15lb, and this one starting from 30lb (I assume the meat yield will be smaller still). Abecedare (talk) 05:24, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
To us in England, we are quite familiar with the idea of eating suckling pig on high days and holidays, usually at country fairs and things like that, and I have seen newborn piglets advertised on menus as a sharing dish. But no, we don't normally eat a whole one. --TammyMoet (talk) 08:52, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Around my part of England – Hampshire, whose emblem is the Hampshire Hog – it's not uncommon to have a hog roast at country pubs or at events such as County Fairs, Steam Fairs, Music Festivals and suchlike, where a whole adult domestic pig or 'wild' boar (*) is roasted on a spit. Meat is carved in slices from the roast carcase, but the carcase likely weighs in excess of 100bs and no-one in their right mind would expect to be able to eat a whole one by themselves. Asterix is a cartoon and exaggerates things for humorous effect.
(* Wild boars - as a species distinct from domestic pigs, became extinct in England centuries ago but are farmed here (the stock being derived from Continental animals). Some have escaped (or have been released by Animal Activists) and formed feral colonies, certainly in the Forest of Dean and probably in Hampshire's New Forest (I've seen evidence of rooting).) {The poster formerly known as} (talk) 12:44, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Asterix's boars don't look all that small to me, even if Obelix can carry one under each arm (I think that's an exaggeration too). Alansplodge (talk) 21:14, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
It depends on the depiction, but I wouldn't exactly say they are large [4] [5] [6]. (The cooked examples are particularly illustrative, consider that their length often appears less then the width of Obelix's chest with arms. Obelix is an obese and large man, so it's not as small as it seems, but it still doesn't seem that large.) I admit though small, is potentially misleading, when I wrote the above I was under the impression wild boars were closer to 200kg average, it seems in reality it's they're often average less than 100kg and 50kg isn't uncommon. Nil Einne (talk) 16:14, 24 April 2015 (UTC)


What do Africans use for bicycle innertubes instead of air since Africa has massive thorns everywhere and they would get punctures all the time with air that they couldn't afford to fix since they make like only $50 a year total? — Preceding unsigned comment added by ThickRopesOfLove (talkcontribs) 20:10, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

Guess they just use their common sense and keep to paths that are not strewn with thorns (many run around in bare feet – how do you think they get along)?(see a venomous snake ahead – then don't tread on it).--Aspro (talk) 20:20, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
What makes you think that Africa has massive thorns everywhere? Africa is a very diverse continent, with many different climates and vegetation. Oh, and roads - I nearly forgot the obvious one, sorry. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 20:34, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
As the previous posters point out, the premise of this question is somewhat questionable, but historically people have used wooden bicycle tires in times when rubber was scarce. Where thorns are a big problem, this would be a cheap and effective solution, though not very comfortable. Outer tires can also be made very puncture resistant by adding e.g. a kevlar layer. - Lindert (talk) 20:58, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Or you could just use solid rubber. It's a bit less effective than air-filled, but punctures wouldn't be a problem (although eventually the rubber will still wear away). StuRat (talk) 21:08, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
Pneumatic tyres. (Damn US/UK variations in spelling!) --TammyMoet (talk) 08:46, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Yes, I once got a really bad review from a proofreader once after pouring my heart over a translation, and I'd written 'tire' instead of 'tyre', and the proofreader wrote 'either the translator doesn't know or doesn't care about the correct spelling'. So my counter-comment was 'The proofreader doesn't seem to acknowledge the existence of international forms of English.' I got paid, she got fired. Job done. Being impolite in business is never a good idea, no matter how frustrated one may feel. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 10:43, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
I grew up in South Australia where the Three Cornered Jack always gave me punctures. There were thorn proof inner tubes which had thicker rubber on the crown but these weren't that effective. Dad fixed the problem permanently by replacing the inner tube with some thick walled hose. It rode like a tube, never needed pumping up and was puncture proof. A friend had thorn sweepers on his bike. These were loops of curved wire which ran across the tread. The theory was a thorn was picked up but wouldn't cause a puncture until the wheen had turned a couple of times, and the wires would knock the thorns out. On the subject of Africa, I remember reading that motorbikes there were prone to punctures in the rear wheel, due to the extra weight. Some riders had a long mudflap attached to the front mudguard, which brushed the ground and swept thorns out of the way. Perhaps cyclists could try that too. TrogWoolley (talk) 14:12, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Africa Overland by Siân Pritchard-Jones has some suggestions such as thorn-resistant tubes, airless tubes and tube protectors, but they are all a lot more expensive than a standard tube. I suspect that a puncture repair kit is the cheapest solution. London cyclists have the same issue with broken glass. Alansplodge (talk) 19:45, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

Police destruction of evidence[edit]

The latest incident of police misconduct in the US seems to be a Federal Marshall destroying the cell phone of a woman attempting to record their actions. I'm wondering if police have ever been charged with destroying evidence for such behavior, since it's quite apparent it's an attempt to ensure that there is no evidence that can be used against them. The tricky bit is that they destroy the evidence before any charges are brought against them. StuRat (talk) 21:06, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

He may have smashed it but the memory chip may well have survived. It has happen with a compact camera where the chip was still intact. Can't remember off hand were I read this. Still, as it was reported on /. recently, authorities steer clear of hiring policemen that show too much intelligence. --Aspro (talk) 21:46, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
If it's still intact, then I suppose that would be attempted destruction of evidence and malicious destruction of property. StuRat (talk) 22:48, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
  • Stu, there are cases of police and forensic officials tampering with evidence, usually planting or faking it, and where scores of cases have been vacated on that ground. When I lived in a certain precinct of the Bronx, it was common knowledge that there were only two cops who weren't on the take, but this was back when people had beepers, not camera phones. Given all the lynchings throughout history we can assume plenty of evidence has been destroyed.
My father tells the story of witnessing a distant cousin who was a cop in the early fifties accosting and beating a black man for being in the wrong neighborhood (my dad put a stop to it) and I have seen the same, as well, personally, from various perspectives, dozens of times.
The day Giuliani was first inaugurated, the precinct held a parade of paddywagons at a traffic-stopping crawl during rush hour, and cops in riot gear walked down the street banging every door and storefront window (all owned by taxpayers and guilty of no crime) with their billy clubs.
But you haven't given us a link to a specific case (don't, because then we'd be giving a legal opinion), so we're just left, based on obviously true speculation, but speculation nonetheless that such things do happen. I think we can read this as read and agree more filming will mean more accountability. μηδείς (talk) 02:06, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Yes, in this case we only know about it because there was a 2nd cell phone video of the Federal Marshall destroying the first cell phone. Eventually they won't be able to destroy all of the cameras aimed at them. StuRat (talk) 03:58, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
The question wasn't whether police ever destroy evidence, or whether they did in the case Stu has in mind, but whether police have ever been charged with destroying evidence. And here is one news media reference to such a case. -- (talk) 16:25, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
I implied as much in the first sentence of my response, but didn't really think googling "police officer convicted""destroying evidence" for StuRat was necessary--it gets 16khits. μηδείς (talk) 16:59, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

Original Railroad Tracks[edit]

Someone told me that the original tracks for the first railroads were made of wood instead of iron or steel. Is this correct and if so how long would a set of tracks last before having to be replaced. Thanking you in advance for your response and information. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Hogleg2 (talkcontribs) 22:38, 21 April 2015 (UTC)

They could be protected from the weather by coating them with something like creosote, which is commonly used on railroad ties. They would wear a lot faster than metal, but presumably those trains were much lighter then. I'd also suspect the ties would need to be placed closer together, to support the wooden rails better. StuRat (talk) 22:42, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
We have an article on Track (rail transport), as well as on Permanent way (history) - which details wooden tracked systems. See also Wagonway. AndyTheGrump (talk) 22:57, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
(creosote was first discovered in 1832, by which time wrought iron rails were in use). AndyTheGrump (talk) 22:57, 21 April 2015 (UTC)
In 'Stephenson's Britain' by Derrick Becket (ISBN 0 7153 8269 1), he states 'Initially, coal was carried to the river in panniers on horses' backs and subsequently in horse-drawn carts. It has been recorded that in about 1630, wagons with wooden flanged wheels running along wooden tracks were in use. Subsequently, strips of iron were attached to the top of the wooden rails to prevent wear, and later various shapes of iron rail were designed to replace wooden rails. The Wylam wagonway which passed the cottage in which George Stephenson was born, used wooden rails until 1807'. Widneymanor (talk) 11:06, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Note that those "first railroads" did not carry locomotive-hauled trains, because steam locomotives did not exist until the early 1800s. They carried wagons that were typically pulled by horses, or (as in this old picture) they rolled downhill with loads, to be brought back uphill by horse. Metal rails were in use by the time locomotives appeared, so it does appear that even with with relatively lightweight early traffic, wood was found not durable enough; but I don't have information about his long the wooden rails lasted. Incidentally, in the US, early passenger railroads often used those wooden rails with metal strips on top what Widneymanor mentioned; it was called strap rail. But this proved dangerous because when it could fail in such a way that the metal strap pierced the train cars with fatal results. -- (talk) 16:44, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
As our article on the Johore Wooden Railway demonstrates, steam engines could run on wooden rails without 'straps'. The Johore tracks were apparently made of teak, which is naturally rot-resistant as well as being wear-resistant and relatively easy to work with. AndyTheGrump (talk) 17:29, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
A slight digression, but note that Richard Trevithick had the misfortune to invent the first railway locomotives before anybody had invented rolled-steel rails. Trevithick used the cast iron ones employed on mine tramways at the time and they continually broke under the weight of his engines. By the time that steel rails had been introduced, Trevithick had given up on the idea and eventually died in poverty. Alansplodge (talk) 21:06, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

April 22[edit]


Are there any statistics or surveys which tell us how most Americans feel about the fact that their government has invaded roughly half a dozen countries since the start of the millennium. Plus they have plans to invade more. Hhplactube (talk) 12:56, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

See Here. I'd implore every other person who wants to answer this question to likewise provide references and avoid giving opinions or speculation. --Jayron32 13:25, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
A couple of articles that might give you a start on this are Public opinion on the Iraq War and International public opinion on the war in Afghanistan. Also take a look at the references for each of the articles which should help you to find some further reading. - Cucumber Mike (talk) 16:06, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
I have no idea what type of numbering system the OP is using, but two (Iraq + Afghanistan) is hardly half a dozen as we learned it in primary school. Half a dozen would be 'six'. 'Roughly half a dozen' would be 'five, or six, or seven'. 'Two' doesn't even get close to that. Evidence by the OP for the supposed US plans to invade more would also be welcome, as we know of no such plans. Bear in mind that countries do not usually release plans to invade other countries - for obvious reasons, so I have no idea what website you have got your information from, but it is very definitely wrong. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 13:57, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Well, besides the formally declared ground wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. has also conducted military operations in Pakistan, Yemen and Libya. That's just five I can name off the top of my head, without digging deeper. See Drone strikes in Pakistan, Terrorism in Yemen#US air attacks, 2011 military intervention in Libya. I'm sure there are more countries the U.S. has conducted military operations in since 2000. So the OP's premise is perfectly sound: The U.S. has been involved militarily in about a half-dozen countries. The tenor and tone of his post indicates that he has feelings about this, which we should neither confirm nor deny the legitimacy of. But demonstratedly, the facts hold up. --Jayron32 14:11, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
An air attack does not constitute an invasion. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 15:12, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Now, you're just splitting hairs just for the sake of debate. Again, I am not affirming the political stance of the OP or his feelings about such events. But it's certainly true that the U.S. military has been involved in about a half dozen locations around the world. The word invasion may be inflammatory, but all you're doing is being inflammatory in the other direction by denying that a military action is not military enough for your own definitions. Rather than engage in the heated political debate the OP wants to get you involved in, it would be best to dispassionately report on the facts. --Jayron32 15:24, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
I am not trying to debate anything, as I know the OP's question is designed for us to fall into that trap. I am merely saying that air attacks do not constitute an invasion, with the inevitable occupation thereafter, whilst a change of government and training of local troops takes place. Military intervention, yes, but not an invasion. Would you call the air attacks against IS in Iraq an 'invasion'? Certainly not. Hey, I'm on your side for once. KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 08:32, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Define "invaded". Also, review which politicians have supported such, and how they have fared at election time. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 15:48, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Here [7] [8] [9] [10] are a few news articles that report on polls and the views of Americans on the topic of military action in various non-USA countries. Here are a few that are specific to drone strikes [11] [12] [13]. SemanticMantis (talk) 16:12, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

Blocking in the back[edit]

I am looking for highly technical clarification for what "blocking in the back" means in American Football. As they state it during the games, it is illegal to push someone from behind. Is that for everyone or only certain players? Is it only for offense or only for defense? Does it have to happen in a certain area of the field? Can you avoid getting pushed simply by turning around so the other player has to run around you to push you? (talk) 17:07, 22 April 2015 (UTC)

Block in the back - we have an article but it is very short. Rmhermen (talk) 17:30, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
And it's close-kin, Clipping. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 18:22, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
That's an interesting question to ask in April. The three major professional sports being played in the United States in April do not include American football. I see that your question has been answered. I will also note that questions about sports are often asked at the Entertainment Reference Desk. Robert McClenon (talk) 18:58, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
Defensive players do have less restrictions than offensive players, but not none. Defensive players are not blockers, so cannot be called for "blocking in the back", but the can be called for unnecessary roughness for a number of penalties, including hitting a defenseless receiver in the air. There are also penalties against defenders grasping the face mask, making contact with a player's head or neck, illegal "horse-collar" tackles, and the like. --Jayron32 20:16, 22 April 2015 (UTC)
A block in the back and clipping are both often called on kick returns. (The nature of play on a normal run from scrimmage is such that blocking in back is unlikely and difficult.) On a punt return, in particular, the team that had been the offense becomes the "defense", but is still subject to the restrictions on blocking. Robert McClenon (talk) 02:11, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Offense/defense is determined by who is in possession of the ball. Prior to the kick, the punting team has possession, so is subject to offensive penalties. During the return, the receiving team is in possession, so it is subject to offensive penalties. The same is true on all changes of possession, so, for example, on an interception, offensive blocking penalties can be assessed against the intercepting team. --Jayron32 12:44, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
OK, so, highly technical. You want the NFL rulebook and casebook (which provides examples of play and the rulings associated with them), available at Block in the Back is in rule 12-1-3 (b). There are several technical exceptions, including kick coverage, "close-line play" (which is a region of the field defined by its proximity to where the offensive line began the play, and is particularly relevant for run blocking), loose-ball recovery, the defending player turning his body to make a legal block into an illegal one, and so forth. The casebook has at least four block in the back examples, A.R. 12.8 - A.R. 12.10.a. Note also that rule 12-1-1 is a more comprehensive list of various illegal blocks, including chop blocks, crackback blocks, low blocks, cut blocks, peel back blocks, blindside blocks, and more -- none of them are technically blocks in the back, but several are close enough to be of interest to basically anyone who's not at the level of an official. — Lomn 14:58, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

April 23[edit]

Driving age in California, USA[edit]

I remember ten years ago there were a proposed law to delay the driving license age to 18 in California stating that individuals born after the year 1990 would not eligible to get a drivers license until the age 18. Were there a proposal to delay the permit eligibility? Did they plan to delay the permit to 16 or 17. Because at that time some people told me the permit were going to stay the same, just instead they wouldn't receive a drivers license until the age 18. If they did propose to delay the permit is it 16 or is it 17. Is license age still 16 in California, USA?-- (talk) 01:17, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

See Driver's license in the United States. Dismas|(talk) 01:42, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

subsides by state goverment[edit]

in INDIA is a state goverment is allowed to give subsides on CHINA agricultural pumps rather then giving subsides on same products produced in india ?

Is there any law to stop it ?

NOTE:- CENTRAL GOVERMENT GIVE SUBSIDES TO STATE GOVERMENT FOR THE LOCAL MANUFACTURERS. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 03:42, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

Answering this question definitively would require a good knowledge of India's constitution, which I lack. Because India is a federal state, unless the constitution gives the central government the power to restrict this kind of state government spending, then the rules on this kind of subsidy could vary from state to state within India. According to this document, however, "India’s public procurement regime, except for a limited degree of preference for micro and small enterprises/public sector enterprises, maintains non-discrimination between domestic and foreign suppliers." India's National Manufacturing Policy outlines a government policy of promoting domestic manufacturing, but no requirement that government expenditures be limited to domestic manufacturers. So, if the central government has a policy of limiting subsidies to domestic manufacturers, it does not seem that state governments are required to observe those limits. However, as I say, I am not an expert, and for a definitive opinion, you should probably consult an Indian constitutional attorney. Marco polo (talk) 14:29, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Note in the case where the federal government is giving money to the states, as the OP's final statement seems to imply, then unless this is money the government is required to give, or there's some constitutional issue preventing the government from restricting how money they voluntarily give state governments is spent, then there's a fair chance the government would not need explicit constitutional allowance for them to limited how it's spent. The states could reject the money if they aren't happy with the restrictions, or accept it with the restrictions. Nil Einne (talk) 16:36, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
What you say makes sense in a case in which the state government is merely distributing a central government subsidy, but this is not clear from the question. To me the question suggests that there is a separate state subsidy program, part or all of which ends up subsidizing pumps made in China. It is plausible that the central government gives states money to support manufacturing within each state, while a state may have a separate program giving money to farmers to help them purchase pumps, some of which end up coming from China. But your scenario is also plausible without further information from the questioner. Marco polo (talk) 20:40, 24 April 2015 (UTC)

knowing which pages we edited.[edit]

I created an account with Gpavlou in july 2014 and can't find which pages we edited - I want to use this for an assignment as evidence of helping the public (by uploading academic information) can you show me which pages i edited please — Preceding unsigned comment added by 2001:388:608C:4C03:F800:B495:8EF3:BAEF (talk) 05:51, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

There appears never to have been an account created on the English Wikipedia under the name Gpavlou - and without the name, finding edits is going to be difficult. Can you remember any particular article you edited, and approximately when? AndyTheGrump (talk) 06:01, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
There is one, see Special:Contributions/Gpavlou. Sjö (talk) 09:15, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Oops - I must have mistyped or something. Thanks, Sjö. AndyTheGrump (talk) 16:03, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Who is "we"? You and who else? ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 19:11, 24 April 2015 (UTC)

Does the baby chicken come alive when you are boiling the egg?[edit]

Mommey hen sits on the eggs to give them heat to give them life. When you boil the egg it also gets heat. Does that make it come alive for a bit before it boils to death? — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 15:53, 23 April 2015 (UTC)

The eggs we eat are unfertilized, so there is no baby chicken inside (perhaps you noticed that when you broke open the shell). We don't boil baby chickens to death, only lobsters, and only adult lobsters. ―Mandruss  15:57, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
True, although it is possible for a rooster to sneak into the hen house and fertilize an occasional egg, especially on small, organic farms. However, the "baby chicken" is unlikely to make it past an embryo, as it's growth would stop as soon as the egg is taken from the hen and (in the US) refrigerated. StuRat (talk) 16:04, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
Also, oysters and clams are most often cooked alive as well. Unless you're eating them at a raw bar, at which point the oysters are merely numb. --Jayron32 16:23, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
To be pedantic you missed out crabs, prawns, langoustine, then there are fried ants, locus, scorpions etc. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Aspro (talkcontribs) 16:42, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
And witchetty bugs. Yum. John Carter (talk) 17:01, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
And of course octopus.--JohnBlackburnewordsdeeds 01:11, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
For Mr Pseudo-Pedantic Aspro: Locus is what the link says. I think you were meaning locusts. Lesson: If one cannot be exactly, precisely, bone-crunchingly, mind-destroyingly correct in one's pedantry, one may as well not even try, because there's a conga line of people like me, just itching to out-pedant the try-hards. :) -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 09:23, 25 April 2015 (UTC)
People like I may succumb to such temptations, as well. Of course, Jack's usage of the objective case would arguably be acceptable in general, but strict pedantry is vital in this genus of posting. :) Tevildo (talk) 10:30, 25 April 2015 (UTC)
This genus of posturing, more likely.  :) According to Point 9, "People like you and me should have no problems with grammatical case". -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 11:30, 25 April 2015 (UTC)
One should point out that it isn't the heat of the mother that gives them life. It maintains the already-existing life. Mingmingla (talk) 17:11, 23 April 2015 (UTC)
That, and yolk. InedibleHulk (talk) 00:55, April 24, 2015 (UTC)
What about balut (food)? The embryo is alive prior to cooking and I'd imagine this is more in line with OP's question. Justin15w (talk) 14:58, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
Thanks, I needed that. (not)Mandruss  15:05, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
No need for them to develop as far as balut. I have laying hens and a rooster. I know that some of the eggs that I take from the nest boxes are fertilized and would develop if allowed to. Dismas|(talk) 15:16, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
NB, every time you cook a fresh fruit or vegetable, it is also alive prior to cooking... SemanticMantis (talk) 15:18, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
Yes, originally Thomas Harris's book was going to be about a girl who grew up on a sweet potato farm, The Silence of the Yams. μηδείς (talk) 15:52, 24 April 2015 (UTC)
Fun Horror Fact: Contrary to popular music, some eggs also bleed. If you find an egg with a beak, best to let it be. Or just quickly bite its head off, if you're a monster. InedibleHulk (talk) 00:20, April 25, 2015 (UTC)
Speaking of Beatle finales in America, this invasive female carries mites which eat fly eggs from corpses, clearing room for her own, continuing the good kind of revolution, not the other. InedibleHulk (talk) 00:29, April 25, 2015 (UTC)
It's very likely that any chick inside an egg will be dead anyway, due to being refrigerated for several days before being boiled.KägeTorä - () (もしもし!) 09:51, 25 April 2015 (UTC)
I thought A) that you lived in the UK and that B) people in the UK don't normally refrigerate their eggs. I have a friend who lived in Ireland for a number of years and she said that many people in that area don't store their eggs in the fridge. Dismas|(talk) 12:14, 25 April 2015 (UTC)

April 25[edit]

The Little Man in My Fridge[edit]

For some reason the door on my refrigerator no longer turns out the light when it is closed. To help it out, I've had a paperclip taped to the switch to lengthen the switch which assures that the door will turn the light off. Due to the cold and moisture and such, tape wears out every so often. Would Superglue work to hold the paperclip? I'd rather not buy some to find it's not going to work and I'd like to find a more permanent solution. Thanks, Dismas|(talk) 12:18, 25 April 2015 (UTC)

I'd be more inclined to use Epoxy adhesive than superglue. The latter does not like smooth surfaces nor shear, both of which I anticipate would be factors in fixing the Homunculus Fridgidus. The former is expressely a structural adhesive, and you are creating a structure. It will not be affected by the cold & damp. --Tagishsimon (talk) 12:28, 25 April 2015 (UTC)