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October 19[edit]

Name of the game[edit]

I remember a game where was three main characters. Young woman named Maya, her weapon was gun. Bald man with glasses, his weapon was spear and knife and he had ability to use green card or purple card that damaged enemy or healed the character. And a dog, who was able to shoot an energy beam in his mouth, either blue, green or red. If I remember correctly, Maya first had to train herself before she was able to recruit that man and dog with her. The game was released to Playstation 2 but I dont remember name of the game. Does someone know which game this was? (talk) 06:01, 19 October 2014 (UTC)

Legaia 2: Duel Saga, perhaps? InedibleHulk (talk) 14:03, October 19, 2014 (UTC)
No it wasn't that. I also remember that she was first fighting with some sort of hyena creatures whitch was able to call other hyenas by howling and after killing it you sometimes get you skin and you was able to sell it somewhere. There was green hyenas at some point. There was charching bar where was three different strike forces and after the bar was full the strike was the strongest against the enemy. They were able to talk with others and get clues that helped them to solve puzzles. You were also able to buy new weapons and food and try steal and if you get caught then the prices were higher. There were different levels, several fights and boss fights at the end. It was fantasy game and it was actually released in PC not in Playstation if I remember correctly. It was released between 1998-2004. (talk) 16:00, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
Any luck yet? InedibleHulk (talk) 19:25, October 24, 2014 (UTC)

Morality of taking classes in things you already know[edit]

Is it intellectually dishonest to take credit-bearing classes in things you already know well from non-credit-bearing activities, or just because you grew up surrounded by them? I know someone who was raised bilingual from birth, and did a school-leaver exam (an A-Level) in her other language. It was her highest grade and helped her into a good undergraduate degree (in a non-language subject), but as far as I can see, it doesn't represent any active effort. Am I being unfair in seeing this as a kind of cheating? (talk) 19:15, 19 October 2014 (UTC)

the purpose of a levels i think is to demonstrate knowledge to universities, regardless of how such knowledge is required..this site gives a number of general purpose statements, one being to demonstrate qualification in a particular subject matter. if she's qualified due to her upbringing then good for her, i personally see it a bit like a child from a family of doctors likely doing naturally better in science subjects than a more artsy family so to speak idk ~Helicopter Llama~ 19:23, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
Let's reverse the question. Suppose someone who was bilingual in English and Spanish to the point of being able to read The Canterbury Tales and Cantar de Mio Cid as easily as this sentence, such that they can also get the gist of most Germanic and Romance languages. But they didn't take any classes to gain this fluency. Would it intellectually honest for schools treat such as person only as just functionally fluent in the language they applied in, and refuse to acknowledge any skill beyond that? Ian.thomson (talk) 19:39, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
If you're fluent in English, you're skilled enough to pass a class that demands fluency. Same with anything. The school's not there to teach you, it's there to accredit you. If it has to help, it will. No different than a "natural" in sports. If you can win the games without the coach struggling with you, you're a welcome addition. People who smartened up early are likewise welcome alumni. InedibleHulk (talk) 20:05, October 19, 2014 (UTC)
I met my (now ex-)wife when we were both studying Russian at university. I had no Russian family background, although I had taught myself the alphabet some years earlier. She was born here to Russian-speaking parents, her first language was Russian till she went to school, and she became bilingual. That is to say, she could carry on Russian conversation completely fluently, could read the language, and could translate and interpret for her parents etc. But her knowledge of Russian grammar was rudimentary, because she had never studied it academically. So, when she had the opportunity, she went to uni to learn it. They certainly did not make it any easier on her just because she started ahead of the 8-ball, and there was no intellectual dishonesty involved. Funnily enough, she scored mainly Credits while I, the newbie, got Distinctions and a few High Distinctions. (Fat lot of good that does me now, though.) -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 20:55, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
No matter how much you think you know about something, you can always learn more or get a refresher. And if you're willing, you could even help the teacher by helping other kids in the class, and then it's a win for everybody. So, no, there's nothing wrong with it. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 21:36, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
A friend of mine was bi-lingual in English and Italian, so when he did a Modern Languages degree at Oxford (which is actually very much focused on literature as well as just competency in the languages themselves), he did it in French and Spanish. I can't remember whether this was mandated by the university languages department, or just a suggestion that it would be a bit silly to take what was essentially a foreign language degree in a language that wasn't foreign to him. There are presumably benefits to studying literature in languages that you are not fluent in, because it changes the way you think about and relate to the material. Of course, other types of qualification are about language competency in the narrow sense, and one imagines that if he did a version of the General Studies A-level that had a foreign languages section in it, it would have been wise and proper for him to do the Italian option.
Similar to what someone else said above, if your father is a carpenter, then you end up knowing a fair bit about carpentry, and there's nothing morally wrong or misleading about taking a course that confirms that. --Demiurge1000 (talk) 21:46, 19 October 2014 (UTC)

  • No. I agree with almost everthing said above. Some classes you can "test out of" which I did as an undergrad, being allowed to skip the lower level ones. I knew the Greek alphabet from basic study on my own before taking it as 101. In other cases you simply have to take the class. As a bio major I had to take bio 101-102 when it was far less advanced than what I'd taken as a 15 year-old. Although I learned how to use the card catalog in first grade, I was still required to learn that over again in "English" as a freshman in college. Was that my fault?
Likewise, I took the swimming and boating badges three times over at summer camp. I simply enjoyed being in the water. The first Spanish class I ever took was a 400 (4th year university) one and I got an A. I don't find any of that dishonest--I got the grades I deserved for the work I completed. Of course I didn't apply as a foreign student to get preferred admission, even though I was born in Hawaii of two American citizen parents, nor have my records sealed. That might have been criminal, or immoral. Define crime and immorality and I will respond. μηδείς (talk) 21:52, 19 October 2014 (UTC)
It's a bit of a waste of time in many cases, but not because you aren't learning anything. If you are so knowledgeable or experienced, you can challenge many courses in lots of universities and save yourself the time of having to actually sit and do the full project workload. Not all courses are challengeable, mind, but it's common enough. Mingmingla (talk) 00:47, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
The main purpose of university/college courses is to get you an accreditation. Many companies require you to prove you have experience/qualification in the subject by asking you to provide a certificate from a university/college, etc., regardless of how good at the subject you say you are. They don't want you to tell them. They want somebody else to tell them. If you are already good at the subject before you take a course on it, then who should complain? You might not learn anything new, but at least you have a piece of paper to show a prospective employer. I don't think there is anything morally or ethically wrong with this. In the UK, you are paying for it with your ridiculously large student loan, anyway. KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 09:58, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
The prospective employer is looking for a "reliable source". Novel idea! I'm reminded of a TV ad from the 1960s showing Abraham Lincoln looking for a job, telling the employment counselor he has no college degree, but has learned a lot from reading on his own. The guy tells him, "I know you're a smart guy... but you're not going anywhere without that sheepskin!" ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 11:45, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
And by the way, there is a huge gulf between "intellectual dishonesty" and "immorality". ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 11:46, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
Can be. But murdering your professor to get out of a test is a bit of both. InedibleHulk (talk) 20:55, October 21, 2014 (UTC)
Some colleges require certain courses that have nothing to do with one's chosen field. I once had to fulfill a science requirement that was outside my major. Because I did not want to devote much time to that course, I opted for an astronomy class on the nature of the Solar System. Because my grandfather had been an aerospace engineer, much of what was covered in the course I knew by the age of 8. I went to class on the first day and picked up the syllabus, then attended for only the mid-term and final exams. I pulled an A, and was able to focus my time on my major courses.    → Michael J    17:56, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
Yes, as an undergrad I had to take 6 "distribution" courses, but luckfully my majors and study of German covered five of the required categories. I ended up taking Continental history from 1789-1848. I really enjoyed that class immensely. I found out after I graduated that they had added 6 more categories, for 12 total, that included all the identity studies classes. What a shame there was no requirement actually to study formal logic, to read Smith or De Tocqueville, or learn a foreign language, or to calculate the paths of celestial bodies, or read Suetonius and watch I, Claudius. μηδείς (talk) 20:43, 21 October 2014 (UTC)

October 20[edit]

Easter Island[edit]

My name is Ed McGarrity. I'm doing some research on historical low temperatures on Easter Island. I've run into some data from other sources that conflicts with the numbers posted on Wikipedia.

Can anyone tell me what the source of those records was? If I can validate those numbers, it will be very helpful. Please refer any helpful information to: (Redacted)

Ed — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 00:14, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
There are three citations at the bottom of the climate chart at Easter Island. The only English language one is from here, and there are two more Spanish language sites used as references (this one and a PDF linked through this one. If your findings are substantially different, I'd suggest discussing at at the talk page for the article, located here. There seems to have been a similar claim made about the climate table last year, but I'd suggest starting a new section (after reading through the old one first). Matt Deres (talk) 01:18, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Does this prank call to 911 in this youtube video look real?[edit] He blogs about it here: Venustar84 (talk) 04:28, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

What you're after is an opinion, but we're constitutionally incapable of providing opinions here. Our life blood is references. Please seek a more appropriate forum. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 05:56, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

The reference desk is for asking questions. It isn't a discussion forum.Whereismylunch (talk) 06:29, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

If only, if only! Richard Avery (talk) 07:41, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
It definitely looks like a real live recording, as opposed to a cartoon or CGI. Beyond that, it's anybody's guess. And keep in mind that blogs are not reliable sources here. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 11:37, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
One possibly telltale sign is that you don't actually see him dialing the number. So for all we know, he could have phoned a friend who was helping him set up this prank. And the footage of the police could have been made at a totally different time. In short, there is no way that I can see to determine the real story of this video. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 11:41, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

What was the first app ever released on Android?[edit]

What was the first app ever released on AndroidWhereismylunch (talk) 06:27, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Android comes bundled with apps, so all of them would have been released together. Do you mean which app was first on the PlayStore? KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 09:42, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Simchat Torah in Mir[edit]

I have heard that in Mir (Eastern Europe) before the Second World War, a person would walk before the Sifrei Torah during the hakafot of Simchat Torah holding some lighted candles. I would be grateful if a user could confirm this, and if possible, also add further details. Thank you Simonschaim (talk) 07:25, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Those most likely to be able to answer your question can probably be found at the Otzar HaHochma forum (in Hebrew). I doubt anyone here can help you (except perhaps Rachack?). הסרפד (call me Hasirpad) 17:14, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Thank you Hasirpad Simonschaim (talk) 04:38, 23 October 2014 (UTC)


How allergic reactions happen

This is not a request for medical advice, as I have already solved the problem myself, and I am not going to book an appointment to waste my doctor's time just to ask this, when he has far more important cases to see to.

My question is, can people with no previous history of allergies actually suddenly develop them? I had a belt with a buckle made of nickle, and developed a rash on my tummy (really itchy one!). I had no idea what was causing it, but (out of the blue) my father suggested I change belts, and gave me one of his. It cleared up in a matter of days. Now, I wear prescription glasses made of titanium, and some of the paint has worn off on the inside of the arms of the glasses, and this has caused rashes both sides of my face (fixed by repainting). I am now thinking I am allergic to titanium as well. As far as I know, I was never allergic to anything when I was younger.

Does anyone know if someone can just develop allergies over time? Personal anecdotes are also welcome. KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 17:28, 20 October 2014 (UTC)

Yes. Marco polo (talk) 17:36, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
Perfect and succint answer, Marco. 謝謝!KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 17:49, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
Here's a personal anecdote. I've always loved cats and I had a succession of feline pets all through my earlier years. There was never the slightest problem with them or any other animals. That is, until the problem arose, in my early 30s. Since then, I have been strongly allergic to cats, dogs, horses, any land animals, and have to either keep my distance or be scrupulous in washing my hands if I do venture to touch them or let them lick me. Because if I do get my tainted hands anywhere near my face, eyes or mouth, I have hell to pay for a few hours. If this is the price of "growing up", I wanna be a little kid again. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 19:18, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
As someone who works with laboratory animals (rodents), this is a familiar story. Quite a few people will develop a rodent allergy after years of working with them. It's apparently a big enough problem that we're all supposed to have regular respiratory monitoring by occupational health. Fgf10 (talk) 07:07, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
I believe there's also a condition where anything rubbing on the skin can cause a rash, regardless of the material. I'm not sure of the name of this condition. StuRat (talk) 17:47, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
  • I have added a wonderfully succinct chart to the right. Just be aware B cells are normally present in the body. They have receptors with random shapes on the outside. They float around the body for about a month, and if the receptor is activated during that time the cell is deactivated--the idea is that any protein they meet during that first month is more likely to be a normal protein belonging to the subject organism. After a month or so they mature. At this point, if the receptor matches any protein (or appropriately shaped allergen) the B cell reproduces clones of itself and the process in the chart begins. It's hence possible to develop an allergy at any time, and an allergic reaction after the first priming incident. The articles Allergy and immunoglobulin-E are quite good, but this chart gives the essence. μηδείς (talk) 19:41, 20 October 2014 (UTC)
@ StuRat, are you thinking about dermographia? perhaps. Richard Avery (talk) 06:55, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
Or contact dermatitis. ZMBrak (talk) 15:04, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
Dermographia seems more like what I had in mind, where it's not specific to any irritant, just any friction on the skin that causes a problem. StuRat (talk) 16:23, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
Em, please can someone change the title of this question to an English font? I just get placeholder symbols on my screen, and I can't imagine I'm the only one. --TammyMoet (talk) 11:29, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
The title of the question is "Allergies", in normal plain English. Not sure what's going on your side... (talk) 12:19, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
it was broke but i dond it ~Helicopter Llama~ 12:24, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
I'm glad I'm not the only one that saw that it was in a non-standard font. I took a quick look but couldn't figure out why it was appearing in that font. I'm glad to see it's back to normal though. Dismas|(talk) 20:18, 21 October 2014 (UTC)
The section title was using the "fullwidth forms" of the ASCII characters. These symbols are used for typesetting Latin characters in an environment where you would otherwise use CJK characters. See Halfwidth and fullwidth forms. —Tobias Bergemann (talk) 11:16, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
Yes, sorry, everyone. I was taking a break from work, and my input method was sill set to Japanese. I changed it after the title. I thought it would still show up as normal, though. Thanks for changing it. KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 18:34, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

October 22[edit]

Mystery books?[edit]

I know this isn't really a reference sort of thing but it's out of my area a bit and I could see someone asking a librarian this question...

Can you give me some titles of mystery novels which:

  • Don't involve murders
  • Aren't too "techie" (that's the word the person who I'm inquiring for used and I can't readily ask for clarification)
  • And aren't too... heavy... is maybe the word I'm looking for.

That third one is because this person isn't really a reader, so something that reads quickly and doesn't go on for pages about the protagonist's feelings or some other dry point would be best. They'll have a lot of down time to do nothing more than read but don't already really enjoy the act of reading. They're requested something in the mystery genre. Thanks, Dismas|(talk) 14:36, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

Someone has complied a list of [Nonmurder mysteries] on Goodreads. Some of the titles that I recognize are usually classed as YA (children's) which might be too light?. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime seems to involve the murder of a dog. Rmhermen (talk) 15:39, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
Notwithstanding its name and some of its promotion, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime is really a book about autism, not a conventional mystery. John M Baker (talk) 15:59, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
Some cozy mysteries might fit the bill. Here is a list of cozy mysteries without murders. Rmhermen (talk) 15:42, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
I just read Gaudy Night (in the list cited by Rmhermen above) for the first time—I'm not much of a mystery reader—and thought that it was pretty good. I'm not sure that it would appeal to the sort of "non-reader" that you describe, though. Only some of the Sherlock Holmes short stories involve murders, and a book of those might be more appealing to the person. Deor (talk) 18:57, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
  • just what you are looking for: Lisa Scottoline and Janet Evanovich. They are (according to my source, who hates gore, and finds Michael Crichton too techie) humorous and lighthearted page turners who write non-murder mysteries. She also recommends Robert B. Parker as not gory, but he does depict murders. μηδείς (talk) 21:20, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
Isaac Asimov's Black Widowers stories feature a group of people who get together and solve mysteries by talking about them over the dinner table. Sometimes the mysteries involve murders, but many of them don't; some don't even involve crimes. (For example, in the first of the series, The Acquisitive Chuckle, the mystery to be solved is "What, if anything, did was stolen?") If there is a murder then you only "see" these people talking about it. Now these are short stories, not novels, but that means your friend can try a few stories in a relatively short time and see if they like the series. They were written some time ago (Asimov died in 1992) and have been collected in... let's see, here we go... five books with "Black Widowers" in the title each time:
  • Tales of the Black Widowers (1974)
  • More Tales of the Black Widowers (1976)
  • Casebook of the Black Widowers (1980)
  • Banquets of the Black Widowers (1984)
  • Puzzles of the Black Widowers (1990)
The ones I've read contain about 12 stories each. There is also a book The Return of the Black Widowers (2003) containing some reprinted stories and some additional stories written for the series by other writers. I have no idea of whether any of these books are easy or hard to find now. -- (talk) 22:18, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

Thank you for the ideas, everyone. If anyone thinks of more, I'll be checking back here again, I'm sure. Also a bit of clarification, it's not the gore that I'm trying to avoid, it's specifically the murder aspect. Thanks again, Dismas|(talk) 17:42, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

Chess and "check"[edit]

Is there a reason why chess games end without actually taking the enemy king? It seems that all the rules preventing moving into check, and announcing "check" when you put someone in that position would all be much simpler if the rule was "The objective is to take the enemy king". Was there, perhaps, some kind of political-correctness issue about killing kings? (Seems odd that you're allowed to take the queen if that was the reason.) ...Or is it maybe that you don't want players to lose by accident because they fail to spot that their king is in check?

I just can't think of any other game where the game ends right BEFORE the obvious final objective is met.

SteveBaker (talk) 15:07, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

From Checkmate#History:
In early Sanskrit chess (c. 500–700) the king could be captured and this ended the game. The Persians (c. 700–800) introduced the idea of warning that the king was under attack (announcing check in modern terminology). This was done to avoid the early and accidental end of a game. Later the Persians added the additional rule that a king could not be moved into check or left in check. As a result, the king could not be captured,[1] and checkmate was the only decisive way of ending a game.[2]
Before about 1600 the game could also be won by capturing all of the opponent's pieces, leaving just a bare king. This style of play is now called annihilation or robado.[citation needed] In Medieval times players began to consider it nobler to win by checkmate, so annihilation became a half-win for a while, until it was abandoned.[2]
Cucumber Mike (talk) 15:27, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
  1. ^ Davidson 1949, p. 22
  2. ^ a b Davidson 1949, pp. 63–64

There's the optional physical tipping over of the king to indicate resignation or concession by the loser. I doubt tipping over the opponent's king when you've one would be in good form, though. μηδείς (talk) 21:03, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

Changing the rule to "the objective is to take the enemy king" would have two effects:

  1. It would introduce a new way to stupidly lose a game, by accidentally moving your king into check.
  2. In a position where you have now no legal move, you could find yourself required to move your king into check, and then lose on the next turn. In other words, most positions where the game is now a tie due to stalemate would become a win for the player creating that position.

The treatment of situation 1 is a matter of preference by the rulemakers, but situation 2 is often significant in endgames.

As to why if you give checkmate on move 29 the other player isn't required to take a turn and let you win on move 30 by capturing his king, the simple answer is that you play until you know who's going to win. (That's why a large number of won games end in resignation rather than checkmate.) Once checkmate is given, the win is assured, so it makes sense to stop.

And yes, there is certainly at least one other game like that: bridge. The play of each hand is made up of 13 tricks, but normally you only play until you're sure who's winning how many. For a simple example, if with 6 tricks remaining your hand consists of the 6 highest remaining trumps, the usual and recommended[1] procedure is to show it and claim the remaining tricks. The only legitimate reason to play on would be if you weren't certain whether the trumps were in fact the highest remaining ones. Sometimes you can claim only one or two tricks into the play of a hand. -- (talk) 22:45, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

  1. ^ In the Laws of Contract Bridge, see item 3F in the Proprieties (page vii in the front matter), about not "prolonging" play. In the Laws of Duplicate Bridge, the wording is more explicit and clearly refers to not claiming: see Law 74B4 (page 90).

-- (talk) 22:45, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

I don't play go, but I think it went through a similar rule change: play originally continued until the board was completely filled, but modern play ends when the outcome is clear, and the scoring approximates what would have happened if the board had been filled. -- BenRG (talk) 07:09, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
Hearts is another example of a game that can be ended early if the final outcome is clear. A player may end a hand by showing their remaining cards and declaring TRAM (The Rest Are Mine) - although this is not mandatory. Gandalf61 (talk) 14:16, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
It's not a board or table game, but in baseball, if the home team is winning, they don't play the bottom of the ninth inning because it would be pointless. (There is not even an option in case, say, a player going for a record could benefit from an additional time at bat.)   → Michael J    14:39, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

I am not convinced by the responders who claim that the rule exists because it's pointless to play on once the outcome is determined. Why not extend it to mate-in-one, then? Or further?
I don't have a ref, but my understanding has always been that the real reason is to avoid the implication of disrespect for royalty. Can't have people getting dangerous republican ideas. --Trovatore (talk) 15:14, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

You may have a point. Some people say the term checkmate comes from the Persian words for "the king is dead". But our article says shāh māt (شاه مات) really means "the king is helpless".   → Michael J    15:25, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
Mate in X moves is established by the losing player, and handled by resignation, as described above. I think the analogies to bridge, hearts, and go are apt, and we could add Euchre and perhaps many other Trick-taking_games to the list as well. Lacking better refs than those provided above, we can't rule out a political aversion to "killing a king," among some players at some time, but I find the reasoning based only on game logic compelling, and in accord with several other games where we quit once the winner is clearly established. SemanticMantis (talk) 15:54, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
I disagree. For one thing, if that were in fact the reasoning, then a stalemate should be won by the player who made the last move before it. I don't think that's the reason. --Trovatore (talk) 02:55, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
The rule against taking the king, regardless of its origin, adds a significant strategic element to the game. Without that, it might merely be like checkers with pieces that can move different ways. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 03:40, 24 October 2014 (UTC)


This may be a sensitive question to some, so I don't think it would be appropriate to answer with any anecdotes or personal experiences.

I was talking to a friend today, and the topic of conversation came to genetic deformities. We then both pondered on what happens to foetuses which are aborted. We then went on to talk about what happens to babies which are still-born. Are the latter entitled to a funeral? We were talking about it in the context of the Western world. Does anyone know the answer? KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 18:25, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

I don't know about "entitled", but some people have funerals for still born babies, some do not. Here's a few links that talk a bit about the options and choices that can be made [1] [2]. SemanticMantis (talk) 18:37, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
I don't know about "entitled", but certainly in Scotland there's a history of them being cremated - indeed there was a major scandal recently because parents were told there were no ashes for them to mourn over, when there were, see [3]. In my own family in north Wales, my second-oldest brother died at 1 day old (this was nearly 70 years ago, over a decade before I was born), and I only fairly recently discovered that he was buried by the wall of the local parish churchyard. -- Arwel Parry (talk) 18:43, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
  • If the situation comes up, you have to demand immediate attention from the hospital chaplain and medical staff. I know a person whose stillborn child was disposed of as medical waste, then was lied to, being told the child had been buried with rites being said. It's not easy under such circumstances to act quickly and effectively. You might also discuss the issue while pregnant with your doctor and chosen hospital to determine their policies and procedures ahead of time, in case. Most medical facilities treat "tissue that has been removed" as waste, and hence not the patient's property. You may even want to consult a lawyer to determine your rights. μηδείς (talk) 20:58, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
A bit anecdotal, but I grew up in a funeral home and it did stillborns. I remember two services offhand. Neither used a real casket (though we did sell them in that size), but at least one got its own plot. There was also at least one pregnant crash victim whose family considered whether to have separate services. They ultimately went with one. There was a small (I'd guess first trimester) fetus in a jar in that morgue, apparently from the 1950s. Never asked my grandpa about it, and after he died, only got fuzzy stories from other relatives. Not sure where it is now. InedibleHulk (talk) 22:45, October 22, 2014 (UTC)
Traditional Jewish cemeteries have a section for stillborns. הסרפד (call me Hasirpad) 23:09, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
In the United States the disposition of a stillborn child's remains would be a matter of state law. In other words, it can be complex. In the late 1980s in Minnesota, for instance, fetal remains after a certain period of development needed to be disposed of in a "dignified" manner (I believe the minimum was a cremation within a certain period; the law specifically stated that no religious ceremony was required). I'm sure other states' laws vary widely. You or your friend may wish to consult an attorney in this matter. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 10:51, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
I should clarify that most of the discussion of the law I mention has to do with the remains of aborted fetuses, though it is also mentioned that the same laws would apply to miscarriages as to induced abortions. Some discussion here has dealt with infants that were born live but died soon thereafter. My instinct is that those cases would, at law, be treated the same as any other dead body case. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 13:07, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
In most of the UK, stillbirths (after the 24th week of pregnancy) have to be registered [4] [5] (the specifics of the law differ between England and Wales, and Scotland). In Northern Ireland you may register a stillbirth, but it is not mandatory [6]. Stillbirths are in a separate register to live births (and deaths). The link I've included, which is to, includes the statement "You can arrange a funeral for your baby." is unhelpfully unclear on what exactly you would need to do to bring this about, but the General Register Office for Scotland website makes it clear that in Scotland you will be given a "certificate of registration of stillbirth" which you would need to provide to the cemetery or crematorium [7]. I'm assuming the process is similar in England and Wales and guidance on the necessary legal steps from (non-stillbirth) death to funeral is here. The website of the Stillbirth and Neonatal Death Society (which is linked to from advises that if a baby is stillborn after 24 weeks then a formal burial or cremation must be held. If the stillbirth is before 24 weeks then burial or cremation is permitted, but not mandatory [8]. Valiantis (talk) 21:21, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
French Wikipedia has the law for France and for Belgium, which is quite similar to the UK. If the baby is born after 22 weeks and is dead or "alive but not viable", a stillbirth is registered and the parents may arrange a funeral. What Medeis describes is horrendous. I hope there is an organisation like the UK Stillbirth and Neonatal Death Society that can get best practice spread throughout the USA. Itsmejudith (talk)
The case I mentioned was probably at 20-24 weeks. I don't know the state, but it was some decades ago. The mother was sedated and when she asked to see the child after waking she was told it had already been buried. She asked if rites had been performed, and was told yes, but this was obviously an outright lie (they certainly didn't know her denomination) meant to console her/make her compliant. (She learned the truth of the matter on her next pregnancy when she and her doctor discussed the prior stillbirth.)
This reminds me of my sister. She and her husband made a considered decision not to circumcise their sons. All went well with the first child but when they attempted to take her second son out of the delivery room she insisted (knowing her, probably rather ferociously) on knowing why and was told he was being taken to be circumcised, which was immediately halted. Again, my suggestion is that of the disclaimer, seek out the advice of your doctor (and lawyer if necessary), do it ahead of time, and don't expect your instructions to be followed, even if you've made them clear, if you are not your own active advocate. μηδείς (talk) 18:17, 24 October 2014 (UTC)

Have you ever taken a dump and not wiped properly then . . .[edit]

Your anus feels itchy and irritated for the rest of the day?

Sometimes when you shower or bathe afterwards, the skin around your anus is sore, red, and stingy?

What causes that? I mean, it's probably from not wiping properly, but what is the scientific process at work?

Thanks in advance.

Zombiesturm (talk) 19:38, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

Many cases of itchy and irritated skin are a type of Dermatitis. Note in the article there are many types, and they have different mechanisms. But that should be good general reading regarding your question. You also might be interested in Irritant diaper dermatitis. (WARNING, last link features a graphic image of the medical phenomenon)SemanticMantis (talk) 19:58, 22 October 2014 (UTC)
You said during the day. What about at night? See:Pinworm & [9]. Or it could be down to something your eating (really hot curries and red hot chili con carne does it for me) Either-way, this complaint is what doctors are for.--Aspro (talk) 22:40, 22 October 2014 (UTC)

October 23[edit]

Recent Changes patrol[edit]

How do I get access to patrol recent changes? Deaths in 2013 (talk) 03:47, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

On the left side of your screen, in the "Tools" section of the left menu bar, is a link titled "Recent changes". Click that. Now you can patrol recent changes all you want. --Jayron32 02:58, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
I am at the page in another internet window. I still can't get access. I'm new to recent changes patrol on Wikipedia. Can you please be more specific? Deaths in 2013 (talk) 04:34, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
When you click 'recent changes', what do you see? What happens? (talk) 04:48, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
I'm seeing "Recent changes" in the "Interaction" section not the "Tools". Here's a link to Wikipedia:Recent changes patrol and one directly to Recent Changes and just in case you were meaning something else here is New Pages. CBWeather, Talk, Seal meat for supper? 17:15, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

Domian name[edit]

hello,wiki volunteers.thanks in advance .i really need a solution to this. i have developed a webpage regarding job search and preparations and thinking of buying a domain name as jog to jobs but i am thinking of some exciting name other than this.can u suggest some catchy names. thanks again. (talk) 06:33, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

Sorry but we don't answer questions for opinion ~Helicopter Llama~ 11:59, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
Except in certain special cases, apparently. I'm not sure just what it is that makes them special, but I obviously still have a lot to learn around here. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 17:53, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
No opinion, but I can direct you to this book/workbook on the topic of picking a name for things [10]. SemanticMantis (talk) 13:24, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

On Icelandic names and sex-changes[edit]

Not sure whether this lives here or in language,but we'll give it a try here.Icelandic(and Faroese)families have unique naming systems so a male will be X Yson and a female will be X Ydottir.The name itself reflects whether you are male or female. If you had such a name and were to have a sex-change,would you have to change your name so you would now be Ydottir instead of Yson? Lemon martini (talk) 13:21, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

See Talk:Icelandic name#Sex change convention?, where this same question was explored. My understanding of the situation, which is very limited, is that a person getting a sex change (presuming their sex is legally changed following the surgery) may have to switch between -dottir and -son because of Icelandic law. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 13:56, 23 October 2014 (UTC)
This might help. The bill got passed BTW. Fiddlersmouth (talk) 20:57, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

spam trends[edit]

It occurred to me that I haven't heard from a prestigious non-accredited university in a long time, nor from anyone offering to submit my website to umpty-leven search engines in even longer. The Russians have shifted from email spam to phony HTTP requests (to fill up my website's referral log); my mail filter now catches more from Japan, South Africa and Sweden. Does anyone keep track of the types and sources of spamming as they come and go? —Tamfang (talk) 16:03, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

The Spamhaus Project is the first thing that pops into my head. That's at least a jumping-off point. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 18:01, 23 October 2014 (UTC)

October 24[edit]

how many people have their wikipedia article[edit]

Respected sir/ mam

i want to know how many person in the world (live or dead) have their wikipedia biography. Means their profile or their biography are created as a wikipedia page article. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 06:38, 24 October 2014 (UTC)

Category:Living people contains 681,235 people currently. It's not as easy to provide a tally of dead people, but I'm sure it can be done. -- Jack of Oz [pleasantries] 07:52, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
According to Wikipedia:WikiProject Biography 1,199,840 articles within the scope, although some of these may be duplicates of sorts, some may be groups (including some which probably aren't really in scope and shouldn't be tagged but are) and obviously some stuff won't be tagged even though within scope. Also this includes stubs like Aaron (saint) & Aaron (Copt). Actually there are 674,039 articles in Category:Stub-Class biography articles but many would be better e.g. Jerzy Stroba, A-ca-oo-mah-ca-ye, Kiur Aarma, Aaron I or even better. Also while editors are allowed to have some info on them including what could be called a short biography on their user page, this info is limited and isn't normally considered a "profile" and those which may fit whatever definition you are using aren't counted anywhere specially. (In any case, I suspect their number amounts to basically noise compared to the number of real articles.) Nil Einne (talk) 13:38, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
I believe the above answers are for English Wikipedia. There are 286 other Wikipedias. They range in size from a few dozen articles to over a million. Some of the undoubtedly contain articles about people who are not featured in English Wikipedia. It would not be easy to count them all. Many duplications between different Wikipedias would go through Wikidata, but not all, I think. --ColinFine (talk) 17:01, 24 October 2014 (UTC)

Burial vs. Cremation[edit]

If I die, which is a distinct possibility as I am a mere mortal, how do I arrange that I be buried, rather than cremated? I would also like to have a simple wooden box to lie in, rather than a lead-lined one. I don't want lead poisoning as well as death to compound things further. Sorry, joking aside, how do I do this? I don't want to ask my family, and I have no idea who else to ask. This is not a joke question - I have actually been seriously pondering this for years. KägeTorä - () (Chin Wag) 16:53, 24 October 2014 (UTC)

You normally declare what you want in your Will. MilborneOne (talk) 16:55, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
I believe you are located in the UK, but I live in the US, and here, you can use the services of a funeral home to pre-arrange what happens when you die. You can also pre-pay for the expenses involved in carrying out those wishes, so that your family or other loved ones are not responsible for those expenses. --Thomprod (talk) 17:29, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
Yeah, most homes do that now. Some may not be thrilled about selling you the simpler option, but they shouldn't push the deluxe package too hard. If they do, they're probably not the guys for the job. Most cemeteries require at least a grave liner for your cheap box, though, mainly to keep the ground flat. You're probably allowed to be buried on your own land, which can dip if you'd like, but you'll want to check with a local lawyer or government about that. InedibleHulk (talk) 18:20, October 24, 2014 (UTC)
This is a request for legal advice, quite frankly. Matters of last wishes, disposition of remains, and a will are matters to consult a licensed attorney about. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 17:30, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
I agree, so it's a good thing that the responders have suggested talking to the correct people (lawyer and/or funeral home). Sometimes the legal advice you need is where to get your legal advice. Matt Deres (talk) 19:11, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
Proper disposal of the dead is definitely a matter of law. Assuming that either burial or cremation are available, talking to a lawyer could be good, but talking to a local funeral home could be just as useful, as you will need to buy a burial plot anyway. I wouldn't simply "put it in the will", as the will is not necessarily read immediately after death and before burial. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, Doc? carrots→ 19:50, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
It's becoming more common to cremate unclaimed bodies, rather than use a pauper's grave. Saves money and space. Same might go if yours was claimed, but the claimants didn't know what you wanted and didn't want to guess (or pay). On the plus side, it's easier to bury the ashes if the will reappears than exhume and rebury the whole thing. On the other hand, you didn't want to be ashes. InedibleHulk (talk) 20:07, October 24, 2014 (UTC)
I'm sure that your will is the place to state this - but I'm not convinced that this is any guarantee that it'll be honored. If you say that you wish to be buried in a solid gold coffin, studded with 10 carat diamonds at the peak of Mt Everest by the light of a solar eclipse - then unless you provide a significant chunk of cash, it's not going to happen. It's a common idea that you can make all sorts of silly demands in your will - but very often they'll get thrown out.
Your request seems kinda modest - but burial plots are getting really expensive in some places - and you may find that at time of death, there isn't enough money on hand to do that - so you're going to get cremated no matter what.
You should certainly talk to a lawyer and be prepared to set aside money specifically for doing this. But even if you've paid for a burial plot and pre-purchased the headstone and coffin - should you happen to die while on vacation on the far side of the world, the cost of transporting your body might prove to be too much. So I think it would take considerable effort and preparation to be 100% certain of anything you might decide. SteveBaker (talk) 20:33, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
It might go without saying, but if you die in a particularly hot fire or heavy explosion, you may have to settle for less. Not much the courts can do about you being lost at sea, either. InedibleHulk (talk) 21:04, October 24, 2014 (UTC)

Resolution of copyright-free images downloaded by Wikipedia[edit]


For a book I have written I have included some images which I downloaded from Wikipedia.

The publisher has got back to me to say their resolution is too low for their printers (about 70 dpi when they require 300 dpi).

Is there any way I can download these same images in higher resolution?

God bless.

Best wishes, Doug — Preceding unsigned comment added by Douglas Wardrop (talkcontribs) 17:25, 24 October 2014 (UTC)

It depends on the images. It's possible that the image you wish to use is not available in a higher resolution. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 17:31, 24 October 2014 (UTC)
If you're using the Chrome browser, you can right-click on any image and select "Search Google for this Image". If the image is found anywhere else on the Internet, Google will say:
Find other sizes of this image:
All sizes - Small - Medium - Large
Click on "All sizes" and you'll see a bunch of copies of the image at different sizes. Click on them to see where on the web they are stored. The problem now is whether you have permission to use the images. Even though they are used on Wikipedia, they may not be free for all uses. Wikipedia sometimes uses the "fair use" provisions of the copyright laws to display certain copyrighted images - and very often, we restrict the resolution of the image to comply with those laws. You have to check for yourself whether you have permission to display them - and at some higher resolution.
Failing that, all of our images have information about who uploaded them - and sometimes where they came from. You may be able to send a message to the original uploader from their Talk: page or an 'email this user' link in the left-side menu on their user page. Of course, they may or may not be able to help...but it's worth a try. SteveBaker (talk) 20:21, 24 October 2014 (UTC)