Wikipedia:Table of consonants

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The following tables show the symbols for some of the consonants found in human language, including all of the consonant letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet, some additional letters not found in the IPA, some which do not occur in normal human speech, and an arbitrary number of consonants derived via diacritics. The first table contains mostly consonants articulated in the front part of the mouth (lips, teeth, and tip or blade of the tongue), and the second table contains mostly consonants articulated in the back part of the mouth (body of tongue and throat). The places of articulation are listed on top, and the manners of articulation on the left side. Where consonants occur in pairs, the consonant on the left represents a voiceless articulation and the consonant on the right represents a voiced articulation, except for [ɦ], which is murmured, and [ʡ], which is undefined with respect to voice. Although the symbols ʕ, ʢ, ɦ and ʁ can represent fricatives or approximants, in this article the lowering diacritic ( ̞) will be used to avoid ambiguity. Some consonants have multiple possible symbols e.g. β̞ and ʋ̟, ɹ̪ and ð̞, ɰ̊ and . If this is the case, the most commonly used symbol will be shown.

Affricates are not included in the table, since they are written with combinations of letters found in the tables.

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Dental, alveolar, and postalveolar Domed postalveolar Retroflex Labialized palatal
(should be in lower table)
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ
Implosive ɓ̥ ɓ ɓ̪̊ ɓ̪ ɗ̪̊ ɗ̪ ɗ̥ ɗ ᶑ̥
Ejective p̪ʼ t̪ʼ t̠ʼ ʈʼ
Nasal m ɱ̊ ɱ n̪̊ n n̠̊ ɳ̊ ɳ
Trill ʙ̥ ʙ ʙ̪̊ ʙ̪ r̪̊ r r̠̊ *
Tap or Flap ̟̥ ̟ ̥ ɾ̪̊ ɾ̪ ɾ̥ ɾ ɾ̱̊ ɾ̱ ɽ̊ ɽ
Lateral flap ɺ̪̊ ɺ̪ ɺ̥ ɺ ɺ̠̊ ɺ̠ ̥
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ
Lateral fricative ɬ̪ ɮ̪ ɬ ɮ ɬ̠ ɮ̠ * ̌*
Ejective fricative ɸʼ θʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ
Ejective lateral fricative ɬ̪ʼ ɬʼ ʼ* ̌ʼ*
Percussive ʬ ʭ requires separate column
Approximant β̞̊ β̞ ʋ̥ ʋ ð̞̊ ð̞ ɹ̥ ɹ ɹ̠̊ ɹ̠ ɻ̊ ɻ ɥ̊ ɥ
Lateral approximant l̪̥ l l̠̊ ɭ̊ ɭ
Click consonants (numerous consonants per symbol) ʘ ǀ ǃ ǃǃ*
Lateral click ǀǀǀ* ǁ
Palatalized postalveolar
(should be in upper table)
Palatal Labial-velar and labialized velar Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Plosive * * c ɟ k͡p ɡ͡b k g q ɢ ʡ ʔ
Implosive ʄ̊ ʄ ɠ̊͡ɓ̥ ɠ͡ɓ ɠ̊ ɠ ʛ̥ ʛ
Ejective tʲʼ* k͡pʼ
Nasal n̥ʲ * ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊͡m̊ ŋ͡m ŋ̊ ŋ ɴ̊ ɴ
Trill ʀ̥ ʀ я̊* я*
Tap or Flap ɢ̥̆ ɢ̆ ʡ̯̊ ʡ̯
Lateral flap ʎ̯̊ ʎ̯ ʟ̥̆ ʟ̆
Fricative ɕ ʑ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Lateral fricative * ̌* * ̌*
Approximant j ʍ w ɰ̊ ɰ ʁ̞̊ ʁ̞ ʕ̞̊ ʕ̞ ʢ̞̊ ʢ̞ ɦ̞
Lateral approximant l̥ʲ * ʎ̥ ʎ ʟ̥ ʟ
Click consonant ǂ
Lateral click

*Not IPA.

Other consonants:

See also[edit]