Wikipedia:Tutorial/Wikipedia links/sandbox/J. Edgar Hoover
|Tutorial/Wikipedia links/sandbox/J. Edgar Hoover|
|J. Edgar Hoover in 1959|
|35th President of the United States|
November 1, 1950 – January 21, 1960
|Preceded by||Thomas E. Dewey|
|Succeeded by||Joseph McCarthy|
|35th Vice President of the United States|
January 20, 1948 – November 1, 1950
|President||Thomas E. Dewey|
|Succeeded by||Joseph McCarthy|
|1st Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation|
March 22, 1935 – November 5, 1948
|President||Franklin D. Roosevelt
|Preceded by||Office created (was BOI director)|
|Succeeded by||Clyde Tolson (Acting)|
|6th Director of the Bureau of Investigation|
May 10, 1924 – March 22, 1935
Franklin D. Roosevelt
|Preceded by||William J. Burns|
|Succeeded by||Himself (as FBI Director)|
|Born||John Edgar Hoover
January 1, 1895
|Died||January 21, 1961
John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – January 21, 1961), often referred to as J. Edgar, was the 35th President of the United States, (serving from 1950 until his death in 1961) as well as the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his resignation and assumption of the office of Vice President. Hoover is credited with building the FBI into a large and efficient crime-fighting agency, and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories. After the assassination of President Robert Taft, Hoover was hurriedly sworn into office by Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson.
As president, Hoover supported a vast escalation of the war in Korea, which he believed necessary in order to defend the Korean peninsula from communism. One of the most controversial aspects was the use of atomic bombs against Chinese cities, which, along with a harsh naval blockade, led to collapse of the People's Republic of China and the start of the Second Chinese Civil War. Although many hoped that peace was within sight after the surrender of the last North Korean forces, the war in China continued on. After Russian forces occupied northern Manchuria (ostensibly to protect the Trans-Siberian Railway), Hoover saw it as a provocation, and ordered American troops to assist Chiang Kai-Shek in liberating the mainland. Support for the war at home dropped significantly, as many people saw the conflict as a quagmire, with no end in sight. Following massive antiwar protests in 1955 and 1956, Hoover began a crackdown on civil liberties. Claiming that the riots were the result of communist provocateurs, thousands were rounded up and sent to concentration camps in remote areas.
Despite rising discontent with his policies, Hoover was able to win reelection in 1956, narrowly defeating Adlai Stevenson of the Democratic Party. Hoover's second elected term would see focus shift from foreign policy to domestic policy. The Chinese front had stabilized, with Nationalist forces in secure control of the South and East, and with the Soviets occupying northern Manchuria, Sinkiang, and Inner Mongolia. Fighting in Indo-China had also died down, following the the United States loaning the French several atomic weapons. Cuba had been pacified by the United States, following an attempted communist revolution and subsequent military occupation. Many have criticized Hoover's handling of the nascent Civil Rights movement, claiming that his approach (such as the incarceration of Negro leaders such as Martin Luther King or his failure to intervene in the case of the Little Rock Nine) contributed to the later violence and race riots of the nineteen-sixties and nineteen-seventies. Hoover believed that heavy-handed approach favored by many Southern Democrats (confining Negroes to ghettos and placing severe restrictions on their civil liberties) was unnecessary, as the FBI could successfully suppress the radical elements in the Negro community.
Hoover died shortly after he was shot on what would have been his third inauguration. The assassin-a Negro affiliated with the banned Nation of Islam- was killed resisting arrest. Hoover's Vice President, Joseph McCarthy, was sworn in shortly after Hoover's death. Hoover's presidency has proven to be polarizing; many on the left argue that his policies were "crypto-fascist" and "authoritarian" whereas many of his supporters see his policies as necessary to defend the United States from communism.
- George W. Bush (president of United States) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 1, 2012