Wikipedia:WikiProject Bible/Encyclopedic articles

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Eerdman's Dictionary of the Bible[edit]

Major articles[edit]

2 pages or more

Significant articles[edit]

3 paragraphs or over 1 column to 2 pages

Minor articles[edit]

1 or 2 paragraphs under a column, with reference(s)

Summaries[edit]

1 or 2 paragraphs unreferenced

Multiple summaries[edit]

  • Abda – Abda (father of Adoniram); Abda (son of Shammua); Abdi – Abdi (grandfather of Ethan); Abdi (father of the Levite Kish); Abdi (divorcing Israelite of the time of Ezra); Abdon (person) – Abdon (son of Hillel); Abdon (son of Shashak); Abdon (son of Jeiel); Abdon (son of Micah); Abiel – Abiel (father of Kish); Abiel (Arbathite warrior); Abiezer – Abiezer (descendant of Manasseh); Abiezer (of David's Champions); Abihail – Abihail (father of Zuriel); Abihail (wife of Abishur); Abihail (man of the tribe of Gad); Abihail (daughter of Eliab); Abihail (father of Esther); Abijah – Abijah (son of Samuel); Abijah (son of Jeroboam I); Abijah (head of the eighth division of priests); Abijah (wife of Hezron); Abijah (son of Becher); Abijah (priest who signed the covenant of Nehemiah); Abijah (head of a priestly group); Abijah (name on ostracons); Abimelech – Abimelech (king of Gerar); Abimelech (Ruler David escaped); Abimelech (son of Abiathar); Abinadab – Abinadab (father of Eleazer); Abinadab (son of Jesse); Abinadab (son of Saul); Abiram – Abiram (son of Eliab); Abiram (son of Hiel); Abishua – Abishua (son of Phinehas); Abishua (son of Bela); Absalom – Absalom (messenger of Judas Maccabeus); Achbor – Achbor (father of Baal-hanan); Achbor (son of Micaiah); Achzib – Achzib (town in the Shephelah); Achzib (city 9 miles north of Acco); Adah – Adah (wife of Lamech); Adah (wife of Esau); Adaiah – Adaiah (man from Boskath); Adaiah (Levite of the family of Gershom); Adaiah (son of Jeroham); Adaiah (descendants of Bani and Binnui); Adaiah (son of Joiarib); Adaiah (father of Maaseiah); Addi – Addi (leader of returning clan of Israelites); Addi (ancestor of Jesus); Adiel – Adiel (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Adiel (son of Jahzerah); Adiel (father of Azmaveth); Adna – Adna (son of Pahath-moah); Adna (priest of the family of Harim); Adnah – Adnah ("chief of thousands"); Adnah (officer under Jehoshaphat); Adonijah – Adonijah (Levite of 2 Chr.); Adonijah (signer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Ahab – Ahab (son of Kolaiah); Ahasuerus – Ahasuerus (possible Biblical name of Xerxes I); Ahasuerus (Ahasuerus the Mede); Ahasuerus (a destroyer of Ninezeh in Tobit); Ahiezer – Ahiezer (son of Ammishaddai); Ahiezer (kinsman of Saul); Ahihud – Ahihud (son of Shelomi); Ahihud (descendant of Ehud); Ahijah – Ahijah (son of Ahitub); Ahijah (prophet from Shiloh); Ahijah (son of Shisha); Ahijah (father of Baasha); Ahijah (son of Jerahmeel); Ahijah (son of Ehud); Ahijah (Pelonite); Ahijah (Levite under David); Ahimaaz – Ahimaaz (father of Ahinoam); Ahimaaz (son of Zadok); Ahimaaz (one of Solomon's commissary officers); Ahiman – Ahiman (descendant of Anak); Ahiman (Levite of 1 Chr.); Ahimelech – Ahimelech (son of Ahitub); Ahimelech (friend of David); Ahimelech (son of Abiathar); Ahio – Ahio (son of Abinadab); Ahio (son of Beriah); Ahio (brother of Kish); Ahitub – Ahitub (son of Phinehas); Ahitub (son of Amariah); Ahitub (son of another Amariah); Ahitub (ancestor of Judith); Ahlai – Ahlai (daughter of Sheshan); Ahlai (father of Zabad); Aiah – Aiah (son of Zibeon); Aiah (father of Rizpah); Aijalon – Aijalon (levitical city); Aijalon (burial place of Elon); Ain – Ain (town in Numbers); Ain (city in Judah); Ain (city given to the descendants of Joshua); Akkub – Akkub (son of Elioenai); Akkub (head of levitical family of gatekeepers); Akkub (chief of a family of temple servants); Akkub (Levite in Neh.); Alemeth (person) – Alemeth (son of Becher); Alemeth (descendant of Saul); Alexander – Alexander (son of Simon of Cyrene); Alexander (priest who questioned Peter and John after their arrest); Alexander (Jew of Ephesus); Alexander (of 1 Tim.); Alexander (coppersmith of 2 Tim.); Alexandra – Alexandra (daughter of Aristobulus); Alexandra (daughter of Phasael); Alphaeus – Alphaeus (father of James); Alphaeus (father of Levi); Amariah – Amariah (son of Hebron); Amariah (priest descended from Eleazar); Amariah (son of Azariah); Amariah (high priest at the time of Jehoshaphat); Amariah (levitical priest of time of Hezekiah of Judah); Amariah (son of Hezekiah); Amariah (priest and son of Azariah); Amariah (man of the family of Azzur); Amariah ("son of Amariah" in Neh.); Amariah (name on seals); Amasa – Amasa (kinsman of David); Amasa (son of Hadlai); Amasai – Amasai (son of Elkanah); Amasai (Chief of David' Thirty); Amasai (priest of 1 Chr.); Amasai (father of Mahath); Amaziah – Amaziah (father of Joshah); Amaziah (Levite of the family of Merair); Amaziah (priest of era of Jeroboam II); Ammiel – Ammiel (son of Gemalli); Ammiel (father of Machir); Ammiel (father of Bathsheba); Ammiel (son of Obed-edom); Ammihud – Ammihud (father of Elishama); Ammihud (father of Shemuel); Ammihud (father of Pedahel); Ammihud (father of King Talmai); Ammihud (returning exile of 1 Chr.); Aminadab – Aminadab (son of Ram); Aminadab (son of Kohath); Aminadab (chief of levitical family of Uzziel); Aminadab (father of Esther); Aminadab (King of Beth-ammon); Amnon – Amnon (son of David); Amnon (son of Shimon); Amon (person) – Amon (official of Samaria); Amon (returner from exile); Amram – Amram (grandson of Levi); Amram (son of Bani); Amzi – Amzi (son of Bani); Amzi (son of Zechariah); Anah – Anah (son of Zibeon); Anah (son of Seir); Anaiah – Anaiah (who stood at Ezra's right hand); Anaiah (chief who sealed the covenant of Nehemiah); Andronicus – Andronicus (deputy under Antiochus IV Epiphanius); Andronicus (Commander of garrison at Gerizim); Andronicus (fellow prisoner of Paul); Anna – Anna (wife of Tobit); Anna (widow in Luke); Anna (Mother of Mary); Antigonus – Antigonus (general of Alexander the Great); Antigonus (son of John Hyrcanus); Antigonus (Antigonus II of Judea); Antipas – Antipas (Herod Antipas); Antipas (martyr of Pergamum); Antipater – Antipater (son of Jason); Antipater (Idumean noble); Antipater (son of Herod); Aphek – Aphek (Afqā); Aphek (town of the tribe of Asher); Aphek (town in the Golan); Arah – Arah (son of Ulla); Arad (ancestor of returners); Aram (person) – Aram (son of Shem); Aram (son of Kemuel); Aram (son of Shemer); Aram (ancestor of Jesus); Ariel (person) – Ariel (of Ezra's delegation); Ariel (two Moabites killed by Benaiah); Arioch – Arioch (king of Ellasar); Arioch (captain of Nebuchadnezzar's bodyguards); Arioch (King of the Chaldeans); Aristobulus – Aristobulus I; Aristobulus II; Aristobulus (mentioned in Romans); Aroer – Aroer (Aroer on the Arnon); Aroer (town in Gilead); Aroer (town near Damascus); Aroer (settlement west of Jordan); Arphaxad – Arphaxad (king of the Medes); Arphaxad (ancestor of Jesus); Artaxerxes – Artaxerxes I Longimanus; Artaxerxes II Mnemon; Asa - Asa (father of Berechiah); Asahel – Asahel (son of Zeruiah); Asahel (Levite sent into Judah in 2 Chr.); Asahel (Levite who collected tithes); Asahel (father of Jonathan); Asahel (son of Ezora); Asaiah – Asaiah (servant sent to Huldah); Asaiah (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Asaiah (head of a Merarite levitical family); Asaiah (firstborn of the Shilonites returning from exile); Asaph – Asaph (father of Joah); Asaph ("sons of Asaph"); Asaph (Keeper of Artaxerxes' park); Asher – Asher (Akkadian god); Asher (son of Jacob); Ashnah – Ashnah (Josh 15:33); Ashnah (Josh 15:43); Asiel – Asiel (father of Seraiah); Asiel (ancestor of Tobit); Asiel (scribe of Ezra); Asshur (place) – Asshur (Assur of Assyria); Asshur (alternate name for Assyria); Assir – Assir (son of Korah); Assir (son of Ebiasaph); Ataroth – Ataroth (town in Transjordan); Ataroth (town in Josh 16:2); Ataroth (town in Josh 16:7); Ataroth (place in 1 Chr 2:54); Ater – Ater (ancestor of returning family); Ater (Levite leader of a family of gatekeepers); Ater (Israelite covenant sealer in Neh.); Athaliah – Athaliah (son of Jeroham); Athaliah (father of Jeshaiah); Attai – Attai (son of Jarha); Attai (Gadite warrior at Ziklag); Attai (son of Rehoboam); Aven – Aven (abbreviation of Beth-aven); Aven (derisive epithet for an Armenean valley); Aven (city possibly Heliopolis); Avvim – Avvim (inhabitants of the Philistine Plain); Avvim (city of the tribe of Benjamin); Azarel – Azarel (Korahite at Ziklag); Azarel (levitical singer of time of David); Azarel (son of Jeroham); Azarel (descendant of Binnui); Azarel (son of Ahzai); Azarel (priest of Neh.); Azariah – Azariah (son of Zadok); Azariah (son of Nathan); Azariah (given name of King Uzziah); Azariah (great-grandson of Judah); Azariah (descendant of Judah); Azariah (descendant of Aaron); Azariah (priest in Solomon's temple); Azariah (father of Hilkiah); Azariah (of the Kohathite division of Levites); Azariah (priest of 1 Chr.); Azariah (son of Oded); Azariah (two sons of Jehoshaphat); Azariah (son of Jeroham and son of Oded, military officers); Azariah (priest of 2 Chr.); Azariah (murdered Ephraimite); Azariah (two men, father of Joel and son of Jehallel, who helped clean the temple); Azariah (chief priest under Hezekiah); Azariah (grandfather of Ezra); Azariah (father of Amariah); Azariah (wall repairer of Neh.); Azariah (one of the leaders of the exile returners); Azariah (interpreter of Ezra); Azariah (emigrant to Egypt in Jer.); Azariah (Hebrew name of Abednego); Azaziah – Azaziah (Levite who played the lyre); Azaziah (father of Hoshea); Azaziah (overseer of the temple in 2 Chr.); Azvameth (person) – Azvameth (one of David's Champions); Azvameth (Benjaminite of Ziklag); Azvameth (treasurer at the palace of David); Azvameth (son of Jehoaddah); Azriel – Azriel (of the tribe of Manasseh); Azriel (father of Jerimoth); Azriel (father of Seraiah); Azrikam – Azrikam (son of Neariah); Azrikam (son of Azel); Azrikam (son of Hashabiah); Azrikam (murdered by Zichri); Azubah – Azubah (daughter of Shilhi); Azubah (wife of Caleb); Azzur – Azzur (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Azzur (father of Hananiah); Azzur (father of Jaazaniah);
  • Baal (person) – Baal (descendant of Joel); Baal (son of Jeiel); Baalah – Baalah (Kiriath-jearaim); Baalah (mountain on the border of Judah); Baalah (city of southern Judah); Baal-hanan – Baal-hanan (son of Achbor); Baal-hanan (Overseer of olives under David); Baana – Baana (son of Ahilud); Baana (son of Hushai); Baana (father of Zadok); Baanah – Baanah (son of Rimmon); Baanah (father of Heleb); Baanah (leader of exile returners); Bani – Bani (Gadite member of David's Thirty); Bani (Levite of the line of Ethan of the time of David); Bani (son of Perez); Bani (family of 642 returners); Bani (father of Rehum); Bani (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Barsabbas – Barsabbas (surname of Joseph); Barsabbas (surname of Judas); Baruch – Baruch (son of Zabbai); Baruch (ratifier of the covenant of Nehemiah); Baruch (son of Colhozeh); Barzillai – Barzillai (Gileadite of Rogelim); Barzillai (father of Adriel); Barzillai (husband of the daughter of Barzillai the Gileadite); Basemath – Basemath (wife of Esau); Basemath (daughter of Solomon); Bath-shua – Bath-shua (wife of Judah); Bath-shua (alternate form of Bathsheba); Bealoth – Bealoth (city of Judah); Bealoth (place in Asher); Bebai – Bebai (ancestor of returners); Bebai (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Bedan – Bedan (son of Ulam); Bedan (of 1 Samuel); Beer (place to which Jotham fled); Beeri – Beeri (father of Judith); Beeri (father of Hosea); Bela (person) – Bela (son of Boer); Bela (son of Benjamin); Bela (son of Azaz); Benaiah – Benaiah (son of Jehoiada); Benaiah (one of David's Thirty); Benaiah (Simeonite chief in 1 Chr.); Benaiah (Levite musician of David); Benaiah (trumpet blower of the ark of David); Benaiah (priest of 2 Chr.); Benaiah (four divorcing Israelites of the time of Ezra); Benaiah (father of Pelatiah); Ben-hadad – Ben-hadad I; Ben-hadad II; Benjamin – Benjamin (son of Bilhan); Beor – Beor (father of Bela); Beor (father of Balaam); Berechiah – Berechiah (son of Zerubbabel); Berechiah (father of Asaph); Berechiah (son of Asa); Berechiah (gatekeeper of the ark under David); Berechiah (son of Meshillemoth); Berechiah (son of Meshezabel); Berechiah (son of Iddo); Beriah or Beriites – Beriah or Beriites (son of Asher); Beriah or Beriites (son of Ephraim); Beriah or Beriites (son of Elpaal); Beriah or Beriites (son of Shimei); Beroea – Beroea (Macedonian city); Beroea (Hellenistic name of Aleppo); Bethany - Bethany (“Bethany beyond the Jordan” where John the Baptist baptized); Beth-dagon – Beth-dagon (town of Judah); Beth-dagon (town of Asher); Bethel - Bethel (town in the Negeb of Judah); Bethlehem – Bethlehem (town of Zebulon); Beteh-shemesh - Beth-shemesh (village South of the Sea of Galilee); Beth-shemesh (settlement of Naphtali); Beth-shemesh (alternate name for Egyptian On); Beyond the river – Beyond the river (area east of the Euphrates); Beyond the river (district of Haran); Bezalel – Bezalel (Judahite descendant of Caleb); Bezalel (returner from exile); Bezek – Bezek (town of Judges); Bezek (town of 1 Sam.); Bigvai – Bigvai (returner from Exile); Bigvai (family group returning from exile); Bilgah – Bilgah (head of priestly family at time of David); Bilgah (leader of family of returning priests); Bilhan – Bilhan (son of Ezer); Bilhan (son of Jediael); Binnui – Binnui (son of Pahath-moab); Binnui (father of 13 divorcers); Binnui (ancestor of family of returners); Binnui (Levite contemporary of Zerubbabel); Bozrah – Bozrah (city in Jer.); Bozrah (city in Gilead); Bukki – Bukki (leader of the tribe of Dan); Bukki (son of Abishua); Bunni – Bunni (Levite in Neh.); Bunni (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Bunni (ancestor of Shemaiah); Buz – Buz (son of Nahor); Buz (father of Jahdo);
  • Cabul – Cabul (town of Asher); Cabul (district in Galilee); Cainan – Cainan (son of Arphaxad); Cainan (alternate name of Kenan); Calcol – Calcol (grandson of Judah); Calcol (son of Mahol); Caleb – Caleb (son of Hezron); Caleb (son of Jephunneh); Carmi – Carmi (son of Reuben); Carmi (father of Achan); Carmi (possible alternative name of Caleb); Chelub – Chelub (father of Mehir); Chelub (father of Ezri); Chenaanah – Chenaanah (father of Zedekiah); Chenaanah (son of Bilhan); Chenaniah – Chenaniah (chief of Levites at time of David); Chenaniah (Levite of 1 Chr. and Neh.); Chinnereth – Chinnereth (lake in northern Israel); Chinnereth (city near Sea of Chinnereth); Chinnereth (territory around the city and lake); Col-hozeh – Col-hozeh (father of Shallum); Col-hozeh (father of Baruch); Conaniah – Conaniah (Levite of time of Hezekiah); Conaniah (Levite of time of Josiah); Cush (person) – Cush (son of Ham); Cush (messenger to David); Cush (opponent of David); Cushi – Cushi (father of Shelemiah); Cushi (father of Zephaniah);
  • D – D (Deuteronomist); D (symbol for Codex Bezae [D] and Codex Claromontanus [D2]); Daniel – Daniel (son of David); Daniel (priest returned from exile); Daniel (praised by Ezekiel); Darius - Darius (Darius II Ochus); Darius (Darius III Codommanus); Darius (Darius the Mede); Debir - Debir (city in Gilead); Debir (city on Judah-Benjamin border); Deborah - Deborah (nurse of Rebekah); Deborah (grandmother of Tobit); Delaiah – Delaiah (son of Elioenai); Delaiah (descendant of Aaron); Delaiah (ancestor of returning exiles); Delaiah (son of Mehetabel); Delaiah (son of Shemaiah); Demetrius - Demetrius of Phalerum; Demetrius of Ephesus; Demetrius (3 John); Dibon - Dibon (town of the Negeb in Judah); Dishon – Dishon (son of Seir); Dishon (son of Anah); Dodo – Dodo (father of Puah); Dodo (son of Ahohi); Dodo (father of Elhanan); Dumah (place) – Dumah (city of Judah); Dumah (Dumat al-Jandal); Dumah (mentioned in Isaiah);
  • Ebal (person) – Ebal (son of Shobal); Ebal (son of Joktan); Ebed – Ebed (father of Gaal); Ebed (son of Jonathan); Eber – Eber (ancestor of Hebrews); Eber (clan of the tribe of Gad); Eber (son of Elpaal); Eber (son of Shashak); Eber (postexilic priest); Eder (person) – Eder (postexilic Benjaminite); Eder (son of Mushi); Eder (place) – Eder (town in southern Judah); Eder (landmark in the vicinity of Bethlehem); Edrei – Edrei (Transjordanian city); Edrei (city in Naphtali); Ehud – Ehud (son of Bilhan); Ehud (father of Naaman); Elah – Elah (one of the 11 chiefs of Esau/Edom); Elah (4th king of Israel); Elah (father of Hoshea); Elah (son of Caleb); Elah (returning Benjaminite); Elam (person) – Elam (son of Shem); Elam (son of Shashak); Elam (son of Meshelemiah); Elam (head of returning clan of Israelites); Elam ("other Elam"); Elam (signer of covenant of Nehemiah); Elam (priest who assisted Nehemiah); Elasah – Elasah (son of Pashhur); Elasah (son of Shaphan); Eleasah – Eleasah (son of Helez); Eleasah (son of Raphah); Eleazar – Eleazar (son of Aaron); Eleazar (son of Abinadab); Eleazar (son of Dodo); Eleazar (son of Mali); Eleazar (son of Phinehas); Eleazar (priest of dedication in Neh.); Eleazar (son of Parosh); Eleazar (son of Mattathias); Eleazar (father of Jason); Eleazar (scribe of 2 Macc.); Eleazar (ancestor of Joseph); Elhanan – Elhanan (son of Jair); Elhanan (son of Dodo); Eliab – Eliab (son of Helon); Eliab (father of Dothan); Eliab (son of Jesse); Eliab (descendant of Levi); Eliab (Gadite officer of David); Eliab (Levite harpist of 1 Chr.); Eliab (ancestor of Judith); Eliada – Eliada (son of David); Eliada (father of Rezon); Eliada (Benjaminte officer of Jehoshaphat); Eliakim – Eliakim (official of Hezekiah); Eliakim (son of Josiah); Eliakim (priest of Neh.); Eliakim (grandson of Zerubbabel); Eliakim (son of Melea); Eliam – Eliam (father of Bathsheba); Eliam (son of Ahithophel); Eliasaph – Eliasaph (head of tribe of Gad); Eliasaph (son of Lael); Eliashib – Eliashib (descendant of David); Eliashib (priest of the time of David); Eliashib (father of Jehohanan); Eliashib (singer of the time of Ezra); Eliashib (descendant of Zattu); Eliashib (descendant of Bani); Eliashib (high priest of the time of Nehemiah); Eliashib (son of Joiakim); Eliashib (priest of the temple staff of Neh.); Eliehoenai – Eliehoenai (son of Meshelemiah); Eliehoenai (son of Zerahiah); Eliel – Eliel (head of Manassite household of 1 Chr.); Eliel (ancestor of Samuel); Eliel (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Eliel (Mahavite of David's Mighty Men); Eliel (Gadite who joined David); Eliel (Levite of the sons of Hebron); Eliel (Levite under Hezekiah); Eliezer – Eliezer (oldest of Abraham's servants); Eliezer (son of Moses); Eliezer (son of Becher); Eliezer (trumpet blowing priest); Eliezer (son of Zichri); Eliezer (son of Dodavahu); Eliezer (priest sent by Ezra); Eliezer (divorcing son of priest of Ezra); Eliezer (divorcing Levite); Eliezer (son of Harim); Eliezer (ancestor of Jesus); Elihu – Elihu (son of Tohu); Elihu (defecting chief at Ziklag); Elihu (gatekeeper of the lineage of Obed-edom); Elihu (brother of David); Elioenai – Elioenai (son of Neariah); Elioenai (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Elioenai (son of Becher); Elioenai (divorcing priest); Elioenai (Israelite of the Zattu clan of Ezra); Elioenai (priest of Neh.); Eliphelet – Eliphelet (son(s?) of David); Eliphelet (of David's Thirty); Eliphelet (son of Eshek); Eliphelet (returning descendant of Adonikam); Eliphelet (divorcing descendant of Hashum); Elishama – Elishama (son of Ammihud); Elishama (son of David); Elishama (father of Nethaniah); Elishama (descendant of Jerahmeel); Elishama (priest of Jehosaphat's commission); Elishama (scribe under Jehoiakim); Elizaphan – Elizaphan (son of Uzziel); Elizaphan (son of Parnach); Elkanah – Elkanah (descendant of Korah); Elkanah (ancestor of Samuel of Chr. 6:25); Elkanah (ancestor of Samuel of Chr. 6:26); Elkanah (ancestor of Berechiah); Elkanah (Korahite of David's Mighty Men); Elkanah (Davidic Levite doorkeeper of the ark); Elkanah (official of Ahaz); Elnathan – Elnathan (father of Nehushta); Elnathan (1 or 2 "leaders" and a "wise" returner from exile); Elnathan (son of Achbor); Elon (person) – Elon (father of Basemath); Elon (son of Zebulun); Elon (Zebulunite judge); Elzabad – Elzabad (Gadite of Ziklag); Elzabad (Korahite temple gatekeeper); En-gannim – En-gannim (settlement in the Judean Shephelah); En-gannim (levitical city of Issachar); Enoch – Enoch (son of Cain); Ephah (person) – Ephah (concubine of Caleb); Ephah (son of Jahdai); Epher – Epher (son of Midian); Epher (son of Ezrah); Epher (of 1 Chr. 5:24); Ephrath (place) – Ephrath (city near where Rachel died); Ephrath (place where Rachel was buried); Ephron (place) – Ephron (district on the northern border of Judah); Ephron (town taken by King Abijah of Jordan); Ephron (large town of 1 Macc.); Er – Er (son of Judah); Er (son of Shelah); Er (father of Elmadam); Eshtemoa (person) – Eshtemoa (son of Ishbah); Eshtemoa (descendant of Hodiah); Etam – Etam (place where Samson lodged); Etam (town occupied by the descendants of Simeon); Etam (town in the hill country of Judah); Ethan – Ethan (one of the sons of Mahol); Ethan (descendant of Zerah); Ethan (son of Zimmah); Ethan (son of Kishi); Ether – Ether (town of the tribal allotment of Judah); Ether (town occupied by the tribe of Simeon within the tribal allotment of Judah); Ezbon – Ezbon (son of Gad); Ezbon (son of Bela); Ezer – Ezer (son of Seir); Ezer (father of Hushah); Ezer (cattle raiding Ephraimite); Ezer (joined David at Ziklag); Ezer (son of Jeshua); Ezer (priest of Neh.); Ezra – Ezra (priest of Neh. 12:1, 13); Ezra (priest of Neh. 12:33);
  • Gabael – Gabael (ancestor of Tobit); Gabael (friend of Tobit); Gad (person) – Gad (son of Jacob); Gad (David's prophet or seer); Gaddi – Gaddi (son of Susi); Gaddi (nikname of Judas Maccabeus' brother John); Gaius – Gaius (Macedonian who traveled with Paul to Ephesus); Gaius (Paul's companion from Derbe); Gaius (Corinthian baptized by Paul); Gaius (recipient of 3 John); Galal – Galal (Levite of 1 Chr. 9:15); Galal (son of Jeduthun); Gamaliel – Gamaliel (son of Pedahur); Gamaliel (Gamaliel II); Gath-rimmon – Gath-rimmon (city allotted to Dan); Gath-rimmon (city reallotted from Manasseh to Levites); Gazez – Gazez (son of Caleb); Gazez (son of Haran); Gebal - Gebal (now Gibal territory); Gedaliah – Gedaliah (son of Ahikam); Gedaliah (musician of David's reign); Gedaliah (of the family of Jeshua); Gedaliah (son of Pashhur); Gedaliah (grandfather of Zephaniah); Gederah – Gederah (town in the Shephelah); Gederah (home town of Jozabad the Gederathite); Gedor (place) – Gedor (town in the Judean hill country); Gedor (city in Gilead and capital of Perea); Gemariah – Gemariah (son of Hilkiah); Gemariah (son of Shaphan); Gera – Gera (son of Benjamin); Gera (father of Ehud); Gera (father of Shimei); Gera (name in 1 Chr. 8:1-40); Gera (son of Ehud); Gershom – Gershom (son of Moses); Gershom (son of Levi); Gershom (descendant of Phinehas); Gibeah – Gibeah (town in the hill country of Judah); Gibeah (town in the hill country of Ephraim); Giddel – Giddel (returning temple servant); Giddel (servant of Solomon); Gihon – Gihon (river of Genesis); Gilead (person) – Gilead (son of Machir); Gilead (father of Jephthah); Gilead (ancestor of the Gadite clan); Gilgal – Gilgal (place "opposite" Mts. Gerizim and Ebal); Gilgal (place in Galilee); Gilgal (place on the northern border of Judah); Gilgal (site north of Bethel); Gilgal (iste Demetrius passed in 1 Macc.); Ginnethon – Ginnethon (priest of Neh. 10:6); Ginnethon (priest of Neh. 12:16); Goiim – Goiim (kingdom led by Tidal); Goiim (kingdom whose king was defeated by Joshua); Goiim (alt. form of goyim); Gomer – Gomer (son of Japheth); Gomer (son of Diblaim); Goshen – Goshen (region in southern Canaan); Goshen (town in the hill country assigned to Judah); Guni – Guni (son of Naphtali); Guni (father of Abdiel);
  • Hadad (person) – Hadad (son of Ishmael); Hadad (king of Edom, son of Bedad); Hadad (later king of Edom); Hadad (Edomite king, enemy of Solomon); Hanan – Hanan (son of Shashak); Hanan (son of Azel); Hanan (son of Maacah); Hanan (head of family of returners); Hanan (Levite of the time of Ezra); Hanan (Two men listed as leaders of the people in Neh.); Hanan (son of Zaccur); Hanan (guild member who occupied a chamber of the temple in Jer.); Hanani - Hanani (son of Heman); Hanani (son of the priestly family of Immer); Hanani (Nehemiah's brother); Hanani (priest and trumpeter of Neh.); Hananiah – Hananiah (son of Zerubbabel); Hananiah (postexilic member of tribe of Benjamin); Hananiah (son of Heman); Hananiah (commander under King Uzziah); Hananiah (of the family of Bebai who sent away foreign wife); Hananiah (son of Shelemiah); Hananiah (governor of the citadel/palace at time of Nehemiah); Hananiah (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Hananiah (priest and head of house of Jeremiah at time of Neh.); Hananiah (father of official under Jehoiakim); Hananiah (father of Chelemiah); Hananiah (changed name to Shadrach); Hanniel – Hanniel (son of Ephod); Hanniel (son of Ulla); Hanoch – Hanoch (son of Midian); Hanoch (son of Reuben); Hanun – Hanun (son of Nahash); Hanun (Israelite helped restore walls in Neh.); Hanun (son of Zalaph); Haran (person) – Haran (son of Terah); Haran (descendant of Judah); Haran (son of Shimei); Harim – Harim (head of a priestly family at time of David); Harim (person or place that designates a lay family of returners in Ezra); Harod – Harod (spring in Judg.); Harod (town SE of Jerusalem, exact location unknown); Hasadiah – Hasadiah (son of Zerubbabel); Hasadiah (ancestor of Baruch); Hashabiah – Hashabiah (father of Malluch); Hashabiah (father of Azrikam); Hashabiah (son of Jeduthun); Hashabiah (Hebronite official of David); Hashabiah (son of Kemuel); Hashabiah (chief officer of the Levites at time of Josiah); Hashabiah (descendant of Merari); Hashabiah (one of 12 priests set apart by Ezra); Hashabiah (divorcing descendant of Parosh); Hashabiah (ruler of half the district of Keilah at time of Neh.); Hashabiah (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Hashabiah (chief officer of the Levites at time of Neh.); Hashabiah (head of a priestly family of Hilkiah); Hashabiah (a leader of the Levites at time of Neh.); Hashabneiah – Hashabneiah (father of Hattush); Hashabneiah (Levite at time of Neh.); Hashum – Hashum (returner at time of Ezra); Hashum (representative of the family of Hashum at time of Ezra); Hasrah – Hasrah (grandfather of Shallum); Hasrah (head of family of returning exiles); Hassenuah – Hassenuah (father of Hodaviah); Hassenuah (father of Judah); Hasshub – Hasshub (Levite of the line of Merari); Hasshub (son of Pahath-moab); Hasshub (Israelite who helped rebuild the walls); Hattush – Hattush (son of Shemaiah); Hattush (son of Hashabneiah); Hattush (returning priest); Havilah (person) – Havilah (son of Cush); Havilah (son of Joktan); Hazor – Hazor (city in the Negeb); Hazor (city on the southern border of Judah); Hazor (town resettled by Benjaminites after the Restoration); Hazor (collective term for Arab kingdoms); Heber – Heber (son of Beriah); Heber (Kenite descended from Hobab); Heber (descendant of Ezrah); Heber (son of Elpaal); Hebron (person) – Hebron (son of Kohath); Hebron (son of Mareshah); Heldai – Heldai (Netophatite of David's army); Heldai (returner from exile); Helem – Helem (descendant of Asher); Helem (responsible for the crown of the high priest in Zech.); Heleph; Helez – Helez (descendadnt of Jerahmeel); Helez (Pelonite of the army of Ephraim); Heliopolis – Heliopolis (Egyptian city Om); Heliopolis (Greek name of Baalbek); Heman – Heman (descendant of Esau); Heman (son of Mahol); Heman (son of Joel); Hepher (person) – Hepher (son of Gilead); Hepher (descendant of Judah); Hepher (one of David's mighty men); Hephzibah – Hephzibah (wife of King Hezekiah); Hephzibah (symbolic name for Jerusalem); Hezekiah – Hezekiah (head of family of returners); Hezekiah (ancestor of Zephaniah); Hezir – Hezir (leader of 17th division of priests under David); Hezir (Levite who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Hezron (person) – Hezron (son of Reuben); Hezron (son of Perez); Hieronymus – Hieronymus (district governor in 2 Macc.); Hieronymus (Latin form of Jerome); Hilkiah – Hilkiah (father of Eliakim); Hilkiah (High priest at time of Josiah); Hilkiah (pre-exilic Levite, possible great-grandfather of Ezra); Hilkiah (ancestor of Merari); Hilkiah (father of postexilic priest, various names); Hilkiah (gatekeeper at the time of David); Hilkiah (one who stood beside Ezra); Hilkiah (leader of the priests at time of Neh.); Hilkiah (father of Jeremiah); Hilkiah (father of Gemariah); Hilkiah (ancestor of Judith); Hilkiah (ancestor of Baruch); Hilkiah (ancestor of Susanne); Hillel – Hillel (father of Abdon); Hodaviah – Hodaviah (son of Elioenai); Hodaviah (head of a family in the half-tribe of Manasseh); Hodaviah (son of Hassenuah); Hodaviah (Levite ancestor of returners from exile); Hodiah – Hodiah (brother-in-law of Nahum); Hodiah (Levite interpreter of the law of the time of Ezra); Hodiah (two Levites who signed the covenant of Ezra); Hodiah (an apparently non-Levite signer of the covenant of Ezra); Holon – Holon (city in the hill country of Judah); Holon (city in the tableland of Moab); Hor – Hor (mountain on which Aaron died); Hor (mountain marking the northern boundary of Israel); Horn – Horn (container for liquids); Horn (symol of power, victory, or glory); Hoshaiah – Hoshaiah (a leader of Judah in Neh.); Hoshaiah (father of Jezaniah); Hoshea – Hoshea (original name of Joshua); Hoshea (last king of northern Israel); Hoshea (chief officer David placed over Ephraim); Hoshea (levitical priest who ratified Ezra's covenant); Hoshea (prophet also called Hosea); Hotham – Hotham (son of Heber); Hotham (father of Shama); Hur – Hur (companion of Moses and Aaron); Hur (grandfather of Bezalel); Hur (one of five kings slain at Peor); Hur (father of Solomon's governor in Ephraim); Hur (father of Rephaiah); Huram – Huram (Tyrian metal-worker); Huram (alternate form of the name Hiram); Huram (son of Bela); Hushim – Hushim (son of Dan); Hushim (sons of Aher); Hushim (mother of Abitub); Hyrkanus – Hyrcanus (son of Tobias);
  • Iddo – Iddo (father of Ahinadab); Iddo (Levite descendant of Gershom); Iddo (prophet said to have authored a midrash); Iddo (grandfather of Zechariah); Iddo (tribal leader under David); Iddo (Yehudite who married a foreign woman); Iddo (Judean leader of the time of Ezra); Igal – Igal (spy from Issachar); Igal (son of Nathan); Igal (son of Shemaiah); Imnah – Imnah (son of Asher); Imnah (father of Kore); Imri – Imri (ancestor of Uthai); Imri (father of Zaccur); Ira – Ira (Manassite of the lineage of Jair); Ira (son of Ikkesh); Ira (Ithrite, one of David's Champions); Ishi – Ishi (son of Appaim); Ishi (father of Zoheth); Ishi (Simeonite whose sons or followers defeated Amalekites in 1 Chr.); Ishi (head of a father's house in the half-tribe of Manasseh); Ishmael – Ishmael (son of Azel); Ishmael (father of Zebediah); Ishmael (son of Johananan); Ishmael (son of Passhur); Ishmael (son of Nethaniah); Ishmaiah – Ismaiah (Gibeonite leader of the Thirty); Ismaiah (son of Obadiah); Ishvi – Ishvi (son of Asher); Ishvi (son of Saul); Issachar – Issachar (son of Leah); Issachar (son of Obed-orem); Isshiah – Isshiah (son of Izrahiah); Isshiah (who joined David at Ziklag); Isshiah (son of Uzziel); Isshiah (Levite of the family of Rehabiah); Ithiel – Ithiel (ancestor of Sallu); Ithiel (person addressed in Proverbs); Ithran – Ithran (son of Dishon); Ithran (son of Zophah); Ittai – Ittai (man from Gath in 2 Sam.); Ittai (son of Ribai); Izhar – Izhar (Levite father of Korah); Izhar (Judahite son of Helah);
  • Jaasiel – Jaasiel (Mezobaite, one of David's mighty men); Jaasiel (son of Abner); Jaazaniah – Jaazaniah (commander of the troops of Judah under Gedaliah); Jaazaniah (son of Jeremiah); Jaazaniah (son of Shaphan); Jaazaniah (son of Azzur); Jabin – Jabin (king of Hazor in Josh.); Jabin (king of Hazor in Judg.); Jabneel – Jabneel (town on the southern border of the tribe of Judah); Jabneel (town on the southeastern border of Naphtali); Jachin – Jachin (son of Simeon); Jachin (leader of the 21st priestly division at the time of David); Jaddua – Jaddua (a "leader of the people" who sealed the covenant in Neh.); Jaddua (son of Jonathan); Jahath – Jahath (son of Reaiah); Jahath (son of Libni); Jahath (grandson of Gershom); Jahath (son of Shelomoth); Jahath (overseer of the temple repair work force at the time of King Josiah); Jahaziel – Jahaziel (Benjaminite who came to David at Ziklag); Jahaziel (priest at the time of David); Jahaziel (Korahite Levite of 1 Chr.); Jahaziel (son of Zechariah); Jahaziel (father of Shecaniah); Jair – Jair (son of Manasseh); Jair (Jair the Gileadite); Jair (father of Elhanan); Jair (father of Mordecai); Jakim – Jakim (son of Shimei); Jakim (leader of the twelfth division of priests at the time of David); Japhia (person) – Japhia (king of Lachish); Japhia (son of David); Jarib – Jarib (son of Simeon); Jarib (sent by Ezra to Casiphia); Jarib (priest Ezra ordered to give up a foreign wife); Jarmuth – Jarmuth (city in Judah); Jarmuth (city in Issachar); Jashobeam – Jashobeam (Hachmonite leader of David's Three); Jashobeam (son of Zabdiel); Jashobeam (Korahite who defected at Ziklag); Jashub – Jashub (son of Issachar); Jashub (returned exile of Ezra); Jason – Jason (son of Eleazar); Jason (father of Antipater); Jason (Cyrenian historian); Jason (high priest 174-171 B.C.E.); Jason (Jewish Christian of Acts 17:5-9); Jason (companion of Paul in Rom 16:21); Jeconiah or Jechoniah – Jeconiah or Jechoniah (altenate name of King Jehoiachin of Judah); Jeconiah or Jechoniah (Levitical priest of time of King Josiah); Jeconiah or Jechoniah (alternate name of King Jehoahaz or Judah); Jedaiah – Jedaiah (son of Shimri); Jedaiah (eponymous ancestor of a priestly house); Jedaiah (wall builder of Neh.); Jedaiah (priest of the time of Neh.); Jedaiah (two levitical chiefs who returned at time of Neh. 12:6-7); Jedaiah (two head of family priest of Neh. 12:19, 21); Jedaiah (contemporary of the prophet Zechariah); Jediael – Jediael (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Jediael (son of Shimri); Jediael (military chief who deserted David at Ziklag); Jediael (son of Meshelemiah); Jeduthun – Jeduthun (father of Obed-edom); Jeduthun (Levitical musician of 1 and 2 Chr.); Jehallelel – Jehallelel (descendant of Judah); Jehallelel (father of Azariah); Jehdeiah – Jehdeiah (descendant of Shubael); Jehdeiah (Meronothite overseer of David's donkeys); Jehiel – Jehiel (Levite musician of the time of David); Jehiel (founder of the levitical family of Jehieli); Jehiel (son of Hachmoni); Jehiel (Gershonite of 1 Chr.); Jehiel (Levite of 2 Chr.); Jehiel (Levite official of the time of Hezekiah); Jehiel (official of the time of Josiah); Jehiel (father of Obadiah); Jehiel (father of Shechasniah); Jehiel (priest of the family of Harim); Jehiel (Israelite of the family of Elam); Jehoahaz – Jehoahaz (King of Judah son of Jehoram); Jehoahaz (King of Israel son of Jehu); Jehoahaz (17th King of Judah); Jehohanan – Jehohanan (Korahite Levite gatekeeper of 1 Chr.); Jehohanan (Judahite commander in Jehoshaphat's army in 2 Chr.); Jehohanan (father of Ishmael); Jehohanan (owner of chamber to which Ezra retreated for fasting); Jehohanan (son of Bebai); Jehohanan (son of Tobiah the Ammonite); Jehohanan (head of a priestly house in Neh.); Jehohanan (priest at dedication of the walls in Neh.); Jehoiada – Jehoiada (priest from Kabzeel); Jehoiada (son of Benaiah); Jehoiada (son of Eliashib); Jehoiada (priest replaced by Zephaniah); Jehoiakim – Jehoiakim (son of Hilkiah); Jehonathan – Jehonathan (Levite of 2 Chr.); Jehonathan (postexilic priest of Neh.); Jehoram – Jehoram (priest of Judah); Jehoshaphat – Jehoshaphat (son of Ahilud); Jehoshaphat (son of Paruah); Jehoshaphat (son of Nimshi); Jehozabad – Jehozabad (servant of Joash of Judah); Jehozabad (son of Obed-edom); Jehozabad (Benjaminite commander of 2 Chr.); Jehu – Jehu (prophet of the era of King Baasha of Israel); Jehu (son of Obed); Jehu (son of Joshibiah); Jehu (Benjaminite warrior of David at Ziklag); Jeiel – Jeiel (clan chief of 1 Chr.); Jeiel (father of Gibeon); Jeiel (son of Hotham); Jeiel (Levite harpist of 1 Chr.); Jeiel (Asaphite Levite of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (secretary of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (chief of Levites of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (descendant of Nebo); Jekamiah – Jekamiah (son of Shallum); Jekamiah (descendant of King Jeconiah); Jephunneh – Jephunneh (father of Caleb); Jephunneh (son of Jether); Jerahmeel – Jerahmeel (son of Kish); Jerahmeel (Judean officer under Jehoiakim); Jeremiah – Jeremiah (man from Libnah); Jeremiah (clan head of 1 Chr.); Jeremiah (Benjaminite warrior that joined David at Ziklag); Jeremiah (two Gadite warriors who joined David at Ziklag); Jeremiah (priest who signed the covenant of Neh.); Jeremiah (priest returner of Neh.); Jeremiah (administrative official of Judah at Neh.); Jeremiah (prophet from Anathoth); Jeremiah (father of Jaazaniah); Jeremoth – Jeremoth (of the sons of Becher); Jeremoth (son of Beriah); Jeremoth (son of Mushi); Jeremoth (son of Heman); Jeremoth (descendant of Elam); Jeremoth (descendant of Zattu); Jeremoth (descendant of Bani); Jerimoth – Jerimoth (son of Bela); Jerimoth (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Jerimoth (family head of tribe of Levi of 1 Chr.); Jerimoth (temple musician and seer of time of David); Jerimoth (commander of Naphtali at time of David); Jerimoth (son of King David); Jerimoth (temple storeroom overseer of 2 Chr.); Jeroham – Jeroham (father of Elkanah); Jeroham (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Ibneiah); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Adaiah); Jeroham (man from Gedor); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Azarel); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Azariah); Jeshaiah – Jeshaiah (grandson of Zerubbabel); Jeshaiah (son of Jeduthun); Jeshaiah (son of Rehabiah); Jeshaiah (son of Athaliah); Jeshaiah (Meraite Levite of Ezra); Jeshaiah (forebear of Sallu); Jeshimon – Jeshimon (desert region east of the Judean mountains and west of the Dead Sea); Jeshimon (desert region at northeastern end of the Dead Sea); Jeshua – Jeshua (head of ninth division of Levitical priests of 1 Chr.); Jeshua (priest of the time of Hezekiah); Jeshua (son of Jehozadak); Jeshua (name of a nonpriestly clan of Pahathmoab); Jeshua (levitical house of returnees); Jeshua (alternate form of Joshua son of Nun); Jeshua (father of Jozabad); Jeshua (father of Ezer); Jeshua (Levitical singer of Neh.); Jeshua (son of Kadmiel); Jesus – Jesus (father of Sirach); Jesus (alternate name of Joshua ben Sira); Jesus (surname of Paul's co-worker Justus); Jether – Jether (son of Gideon); Jether (father of Amasa); Jether (son of Jada); Jether (son of Ezrah); Jether (Asherite of 1 Chr.); Jeuel – Jeuel (head of a clan in 1 Chr.); Jeuel (of the sons of Elizaphan); Jeuel (son of Adonikam); Jeush – Jeush (son of Esau); Jeush (son of Bilhan); Jeush (son of Eshek); Jeush (son of Shimei); Jeush (son of Rehoboam); Jezeniah – Jezeniah (captain of Judah's army in Jer.); Jezeniah (son of Hoshaiah); Jezreel (person) – Jezreel (Judahite descent group); Jezreel (son of Hosea); Jezreel (place) – Jezreel (town in the hills of Judah); Jezreel (town on the southern border of Issachar); Joah – Joah (son of Asaph); Joah (son of Zimmah); Joah (son of Obed-edom); Joah (father of Eden); Joah (son of Joahaz); Joash – Joash (father of Gideon); Joash (son of Ahab); Joash (of the Judahite genealogy of 1 Chr.); Joash (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Joash (archer who joined David at Ziklag); Joash (overseer of David's stores of oil); Jobab – Jobab (son of Joktan); Jobab (son of Zerah); Jobab (King of Madon defeated by Joshua); Jobab (son of Shaharaim); Jobab (son of Elpaal); Joel – Joel (son of Samuel); Joel (prince of the tribe of Simeon); Joel (father of Shemaiah); Joel (chief of Gad); Joel (son of Azariah of Sam.); Joel (son of Izrahiah); Joel (brother of Nathan); Joel (cheif of the Gershomite Levites of the time of David); Joel (son of Ladan); Joel (son of Pedaiah); Joel (son of Azariah of 2 Chr.); Joel (son of Nebo); Joel (son of Zichri); Joel (prophet, son of Pethuel); Joel (archangel Joel); Joha – Joha (son of Beriah); Joha (son of Shimri); Johanan – Johanan (son of Kareah); Johanan (son of Josiah); Johanan (son of Elioenai); Johanan (son of Azariah); Johanan (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Johanan (Gadite who joined David at Ziklag); Johanan (Ephraimite chief, son of Azariah); Johanan (descendant of Azgad); Johanan (high priest of Neh.); John – John (father of Matthias); John (son of Matthias); John (father of Eupolemus); John (John Hyrcanus I); John (John Hyrcanus II); John (envoy of 2 Mac.); John (John the Baptist); John (son of Zebedee); John (father of Peter); John (friend of Annas); John (John Mark, son of Mary); John (author of Revelation); Joiada – Joiada (son of Paseah); Joiada (priest during the reign of Darius); Joiarib – Joiarib (man of insight sent by Ezra); Joiarib (son of Zechariah); Joiarib (returning priest of Neh.); Joktheel – Joktheel (town in the Shepelah); Joktheel (capital of Edomite territory); Jonadab – Jonadab (son of Shimeah); Jonadab (son of Rechab); Jonathan – Jonathan (son of Gershom); Jonathan (son of Abiathar); Jonathan (son of Shammah); Jonathan (son of Jada); Jonathan (son of Shimei); Jonathan (son of Uzziah); Jonathan (uncle of King David); Jonathan (father of Ebed); Jonathan (son of Asahel); Jonathan (son of Joiada); Jonathan (priest of Neh.); Jonathan (son of Shemaiah); Jonathan (secretary of Jer.); Jonathan (son of Kareah); Jonathan (son of Absalom); Jonathan (priest of 2 Macc.); Joram – Joram (son of King Toi of Hamath); Joram (contracted form of Jehoram); Joram (Levite descended from Eliezer); Joses – Joses (brother of Jesus); Joses (brother of James the younger); Joses – Joses (brother of Jesus); Joses (brother of James the younger); Joshua – Joshua (man of 1 Sam.); Joshua (governor of Jerusalem of 2 Kings); Joshua (high priest); Joshua (person in Luke's genealogy of Jesus); Josiah – Josiah (son of Zephaniah); Jotham – Jotham (son of Gideon); Jotham (son of Jahdai); Jozabad – Jozabad (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Jozabad (two men who joined David at Ziklag); Jozabad (a temple overseer under Hezekiah); Jozabad (Levite who contributed to Josiah's Passover); Jozabad (son of the priestly family of Passhur); Jozabad (son of Jeshua the Levite); Jozabad (Levite of Ezra); Jozabad (Levite of Neh.); Judah – Judah (son of Jacob); Judah (tribe of Judah); Judah (ancestor of a family in Ezra); Judah (Levite who had married a foreign woman); Judah (son of Hassenuah); Judah (returner from exile); Judah (leader of Judah in Neh.); Judah (priest and musician of Neh.); Judah (ancestor of Jesus); Judas – Judas (son of Chalphi); Judas (son of Simon Maccabeus); Judas (writer to Aristobulus); Judas (brother of Jesus); Judas (disciple other than Iscariot, often identified with Thaddeus); Judas (Judas of Galilee); Judas (who hosted Paul after the Damascus incident); Judas (Judas Barsabbas); Judith – Judith (wife of Esau); Judith (of the Book of Judith); Justus – Justus (surname of Joseph Barsabbas); Justus (Titius or Titus Justus); Justus (Jesus Justus);
  • Kedesh – Kedesh (city in Upper Galilee); Kedesh (town on the southern border of Judah); Kedesh (Levitical city of Issachar); Kedesh (town in southern Naphtali); Kemuel – Kemuel (son of Nahor); Kemuel (son of Shiphtan); Kemuel (father of Hasabiah); Kenaz or Kenizzite – Kenaz or Kennizite (brother of Caleb); Kenaz or Kennizite (son of Elah); Kir – Kir (city in Moab); Kir (apparently a city in southern Mesopotamia); Kiriathaim – Kiriathaim (town east of the Jordan); Kiriathaim (city in the territory of Naphtali); Kish (person) – Kish (Benjaminite from Gibeah); Kish (son or descendant of Jeiel); Kish (Levite of the Merarite clan); Kish (son of Abdi); Kish (Benjaminite ancestor of Mordecai); Kolaiah – Kolaiah (ancestor of Sallu); Kolaiah (father of Ahab); Korah – Korah (son or grandson of Esau); Korah (son of Izhar); Korah (son of Hebron); Korah (descendant of the levitical Korah); Kore – Kore (Levite of the line of Korah); Kore (son of Imnah);
  • L – L (material found only in the Gospel of Luke); L (symbol designating Codex Leningradensis B); Ladan – Ladan (ancestor of Joshua); Ladan (of the lineage of Gershon); Levi – Levi (ancestor of Jesus); Levi (disciple known as Matthew); Levi (father of Matthat); Libnah – Libnah (place in the Sinai Peninsula mentioned in Num.); Libni – Libni (son of Gershon); Libni (Levite descendant of Merari); Lucius – Lucius of Cyrene; Lucius (relative of Paul); Lucius Caecilius Metullus;
  • Maacah (person) – Maacah (child of Nahor); Maacah (mother of Absalom); Maacah (father of Achish); Maacah (wife of Rehoboam); Maacah (concubine of Caleb); Maacah (sister or wife of Machir); Maacah (wife of Jehiel); Maacah (father of Hanun); Maacah (father of Shepatiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah – Maasheiah or Asaiah (Levite of the second order of 1 Chr.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (lute player of 1 Chr., maybe identical to previous); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Adaiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (officer under Hananiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (deputy or son of Ahaz of 2 Chr.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (governor of Jerusalem); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest of the family of Jeshua); Maasheiah or Asaiah (member of the priestly family of Harim); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest of the family of Pahhur); Maasheiah or Asaiah (member of the family of Pahath-moab); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Azariah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (person who stood at Ezra's right hand as he read the Torah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (Israelite who read the Torah in Hebrew); Maasheiah or Asaiah (a chief of the people and sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Baruch); Maasheiah or Asaiah (ancestor of Sallu); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest who played the trumpet in Neh.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest who took part in the dedication in Neh.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Zephaniah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Zedekiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Shallum); Maaziah – Maaziah (founder of division of priests in 1 Chr.); Maaziah (priest who sealed the covenant in Neh.); Machir – Machir (son of Ammiel); Mahalalel or Mahalaleel – Malalalel or Mahalaleel (son of Kenan); Malalalel or Mahalaleel (Judahite of the family of Perez); Mahalath or Basemoth – Mahalath or Basemoth (daughter of Ishmael); Mahalath or Basemoth (wife of Rehoboam); Mahath – Mahath (son of Amasai of 1 Chr.); Mahath (son of Amasai of 2 Chr.); Mahlah – Mahlah (daughter of Zelophebad); Mahlah (child of Hammolecheth); Mahli – Mahli (son of Merari); Mahli (son of Mushi); Malchiah – Malchiah (father of Pashur); Malchiah (member of Judah's royal family in Jer.); Malchijah – Malchijah (Gershomite Levite of 1 Chr.); Malchijah (descendant of Aaron of 1 Chr.); Malchijah (descendant of Purosh in Ezra); Malchijah (descendant of Harim in Ezra); Malchijah (son of Harim in Neh.); Malchijah (ruler of Beth-hakkerem); Malchijah (goldsmith in Neh.); Malchijah (man who stood with Ezra when he read the Torah); Malchijah (priest and signer of Ezra's covenant); Malchijah (priest in the choir in Neh.); Malluch – Malluch (ancestor of Ethan in 1 Chr.); Malluch (of the sons of Bani); Malluch (of the sons of Harim); Malluch (priest involved in the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Malluch (one of the chiefs of the people who signed the covenant of Neh.); Malluch (priest who returned with Zerubabbel); Manasseh – Manasseh (son of Pahathmoab); Manasseh (son of Hashum); Manasseh (son of Addi); Manasseh (husband of Judith); Mareshah (person) – Mareshah (son of Caleb); Mareshah (son of Laadah); Massa – Massa (son of Ishmael); Massa (term in Proverbs); Mattan – Mattan (priest of Baal); Mattan (father of Shephatiah); Mattaniah – Mattaniah (last king of Judah); Mattaniah (of the sons of Heman); Mattaniah (ancestor of Jahaziel); Mattaniah (Levite of the time of Hezekiah); Mattaniah (of the clan of Elam); Mattaniah (of the clan of Zattu); Mattaniah (of the clan of Pahath-moab); Mattaniah (of the clan of Bani); Mattaniah (son of Mica or Micaiah); Mattaniah (grandfather of Hana ben Zaccur); Mattathias – Mattathias (priest of the order of Jehoiarib); Mattathias (son of Absalom); Mattathias (son of Simon); Mattathias (envoy sent by Judas Maccabeus); Mattathias (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:25); Mattathias (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:26); Mattenai – Mattenai (of the sons of Hashum); Mattenai (of the sons of Bani); Mattenai (of the priestly house of Joiarib); Matthat – Matthat (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:24); Matthat (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:29); Mattithiah – Mattithiah (son of Shallum); Mattithiah (Levitical gatekeeper in 1 Chr.); Mattithiah (son of Nebo); Mattithiah (Israelite who accompanied Ezra); Mehetabel – Mehetabel (wife of Hadar); Mehetabel (ancestor of Shemaiah); Meraioth or Meremoth – Meraioth or Meremoth (Levite descendant of Aaron); Meraioth or Meremoth (son of Ahitub); Meraioth or Meremoth (priestly family headed by Helkai at the time of Joiakim); Merari – Merari (father of Judith); Meremoth – Meremoth (son of Uriah); Meremoth (of the sons of Bani); Meremoth (son of Uriah, grandson of Hakkoz); Meremoth (priest who returned from exile); Mesha (person) – Mesha (son of Caleb); Mesha (son of Shaharaim); Meshech – Meshech (son of Japheth); Meshech (son of Shem); Meshillemoth or Meshillemith – Meshillemoth or Meshillemith (father of Berechiah); Meshillemoth or Meshillemith (descendant of Immer); Meshullam – Meshullam (grandfather of Shaphan); Meshullam (son of Zerubbabel); Meshullam (head of a Gadite clan in 1 Chr.); Meshullam (son of Elpaal); Meshullam (father of Sallu); Meshullam (son of Shephatiah); Meshullam (father of Hilkiah); Meshullam (father of Jahzerah); Meshullam (Kohathite appointed by Josiah in 2 Chr.); Meshullam ("leader" sent by Ezra); Meshullam (who opposed Ezra's policy of divorce); Meshullam (son of Bani); Meshullam (son of Berechiah); Meshullam (son of Besodeiah); Meshullam (who stood at Ezra's left hand during the reading of the Torah); Meshullam (priest who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Meshullam (chief of the people who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Meshullam (head of the priestly house of Ezra in Neh.); Meshullam (head of the priestly house of Ginnethon in Neh.); Meshullam (gatekeeper in Neh.); Meshullam (who was in the procession in Neh.); Mibsam – Mibsam (son of Ishmael); Mibsam (son of Shallum); Mica – Mica (son of Mephibosheth); Mica (father of Mattaniah); Mica (Levite in the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Mica (father of Mattaniah and ancestor of Uzzi); Micah – Micah (man in Judg.); Micah (son of Shimei); Micah (son of Meribbaal); Micah (son of Uzziel); Micah (father of Abdon); Micah of Moresheth; Micaiah or Maacah or Micah – Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (father of Achibor); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (wife of Rehoboam); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (official sent to teach Judah in 2 Chr.); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (ancestor of Zechariah); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (trumpeting priest in Neh.); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (son of Gemeriah); Michael – Michael (father of Sethur); Michael (Gadite in 1 Chr.); Michael (ancestor of Abihail); Michael (Levite ancestor of Asaph); Michael (descendant of Uzzi); Michael (of the sons of Beraiah); Michael (who joined David at Ziklag); Michael (father of Omri); Michael (son of Jehoshaphat); Michael (father of Zebediah); Michael (archangel); Migdol – Migdol (town on the route of the Exodus); Migdol (town in Egypt in Jer.); Migdol (place in north Egypt); Mijamin – Mijamin (leader of the sixth division of priest at the time of David); Mijamin (divorcing Israelite in Ezra); Mijamin (priest at the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Mijamin (chief of priests returning from exile in Neh.); Mikloth – Mikloth (father of Shimeah in 1 Chr.); Mikloth (chief officer under Dodai the Ahohite); Milcah – Milcah (daughter of Haran); Milcah (daughter of Zelophehad); Millo – House of the Millo; Beth-millo; Miniamin – Miniamin (Levite of 2 Chr.); Miniamin (priestly house in Neh.); Miniamin (priest and musician in Neh.); Miriam – Miriam (descendant of Ezrah in 1 Chr.); Mishael – Mishael (son of Uzziel); Mishael (who stood at Ezra's left hand at the reading of the Torah); Mishma – Mishma (son of Ishmael); Mishma (son of Mibsam); Mithredath or Mithridates – Mithredath or Mithridates (treasure of King Cyrus of Persia); Mithredath or Mithridates (Persian official who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem); Mizpah or Mizpeh – Mizpah of Gilead; Mizpah or Mizpeh (land or valley of Mizpah); Mizpeh of Judah; Mizpeh of Moab; Mordecai – Mordecai (returning Israelite); Moreh – Moreh (terebinth or oak tree near Shechem); Moreh (hill in the Jezreel Valley); Moriah – Moriah (land of Moriah); Mt. Moriah; Mortar – Mortar (of pestle); Mortar (plastic building material); Moza – Moza (son of Caleb); Moza (son of Zimri);
  • Naamah (person) – Naamah (daughter of Lamech); Naamah (wife of Solomon); Naaman – Naaman (son of Benjamin); Naaman (son of Bela); Naaman (son of Ehud); Naaman (commander of the Aramean army in 2 Kgs.); Nadab – Nadab (son of Aaron); Nadab (son of Jeroboam I); Nadab (son of Shammai); Nadab (son of Jeiel); Nadab (relative of Ahiqar); Nahash – Nahash (sister of Zeruiah); Nahath – Nahath (son of Reuel); Nahath (descendant of Levi); Nahath (assistant of Hezekiah); Nahor (person) – Nahor (son of Serug); Nahor (son of Terah); Nahum – Nahum (1 of the 12 minor prophets); Nahum (father of Amos); Nathan – Nathan (father of Igal); Nathan (father of Azariah); Nathan (son of Attai); Nathan (sent by Ezra to Iddo); Nathanael – Nathanael (ancestor of Judith); Nathanael (priest in 1 Esd.); Nathanael (Israelite in the Gospel of John); Neariah – Neariah (son of Shemaiah); Neariah (son of Ishi); Nebo (place) – Nebo (town allotted to Reuben); Nebo (town in western Palestine settled in postexilic period); Nehemiah – Nehemiah (a leader of the return); Nehemiah (son of Hacaliah); Nehemiah (son of Azbuk); Nekoda – Nekoda (head of returning family of temple servants); Nekoda (head of returning family unable to prove their Israelite ancestry); Nemuel – Nemuel (brother of Dathan); Nemuel (ancestor of the Nemuelites); Nepheg – Nepheg (son of Izhar); Nepheg (son of David); Nethanel – Nethanel (son of Zuar); Nethanel (son of Jesse); Nethanel (one of seven trumpeting priests in 1 Chr.); Nethanel (father of Shemaiah); Nethanel (son of Obed-edom); Nethanel (officer of Jehoshapahat sent to Judah to teach); Nethanel (brother of Shemaiah); Nethanel (of the family of Pashhur); Nethanel (head of the family of Jedaiah); Nethanel (Levite singer at the dedication in Neh.); Nethaniah – Nethaniah (father of Ishmael); Nethaniah (Levite of the line of Asaph in 1 Chr.); Nethaniah (Levite sent to Judah by Jehoshaphat); Nethaniah (father of Jehudi); Nicanor – Nicanor (a commander sent by Lysius to Judah Maccabeus); Nicanor (one of seven overseers of food distribution in Acts); Noadiah – Noadiah (son of Binnui); Noadiah (prophetess in Neh.); Nobah (place) – Nobah (region in Gilead); Nobah (city in eastern Gilead);
  • Obadiah – Obadiah (steward of King Ahab's household)*; Obadiah (postexilic descendant of David); Obadiah (son of Izariah); Obadiah (son of Azel); Obadiah (Levite among the first returners to Jerusalem); Obadiah (Gadite who joined David at Ziklag); Obadiah (father of Ishmaiah); Obadiah (prince commissioned to teach in Judah); Obadiah (Merarite Levite of 2 Chr.); Obadiah (head of family of returners in Ezra); Obadiah (leader who sealed covenant of Neh.); Obadiah (gatekeeper in Neh.); Obadiah (Obadiah the prophet); Obed – Obed (son of Ruth); Obed (son of Ephlal); Obed (one of David's mighty men); Obed (son of Shemaiah); Obed (father of Azariah); Obed (son of Jonathan); Obed-edom – Obed-edom (Gidite whose house David put the Ark in); Obed-edom (son of Jeduthun); Obed-edom (son of Korah); Obed-edom (custodian of temple treasures in 2 Chr.); Oded – Oded (father of Azariah); Oded (prophet of Samaria in 2 Chr.); Oholibamah – Oholibamah (wife of Esau); Oholibamah (chief of an Edomite clan); Omer – Omer (unit of dry measure); Omer (sheaf of grain); Omri – Omri (son of Becher); Omri (Jerusalemite of 1 Chr.); Omri (Issacharite tribal leader of 1 Chr.); Onam – Onam (Son of Shobal); Onam (son of Jerahmeel); Onias – Onias I; Onias II; Onias III; Onias IV; Onias V; Ophrah (place) – Ophrah (city in the tribal territory of Benjamin); Ophrah (Ophrah of Abiezer); Ozem – Ozem (son of Jesse); Ozem (son of Jerahmeel);
  • Palti or Paltiel – Palti or Paltiel (son of Raphu); Palti or Paltiel (son of Laish); Parosh – Parosh (Israelite ancestor of returners); Parosh (chief who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Paseah – Paseah (priest and son of Malchiah); Paseah (head of priestly family of returners); Paseah (postexilic priest who attached his name to the covenant of Neh.); Paseah (son of Immer); Paseah (son of Malchiah); Pedaiah – Pedaiah (maternal grandfather of Jehoiakim); Pedaiah (son of Jeconiah); Pedaiah (father of Joel); Pedaiah (son of Parosh); Pedaiah (man who stood at Ezra's left hand at the reading of the Law); Pedaiah (Benjaminite in Jerusalem in Neh.); Pedaiah (Levite appointed to administer tithes); Pelaiah – Pelaiah (son of Elioenai); Pelaiah (Levite who interpreted the Law in Neh.); Pelatiah – Pelatiah (son of Hananiah); Pelatiah (son of Jahi); Pelatiah (signer of the covenant of Neh.); Pelatiah (son of Benaiah); Pelet – Pelet (son of Jahdai); Pelet (son of Azmaveth); Penuel – Penuel (son of Hur); Penuel (son of Shashak); Pethahiah – Pethahiah (leader of the nineteenth priestly division at the time of David); Pethahiah (divorcing Levite of the time of Ezra); Pethahiah (Levite in the corporate confession of sins of Ezra); Pethahiah (son of Meshezabel); Phinehas – Phinehas (son of Eleazar); Phinehas (son of Eli); Phinehas (father of a postexilic priest in Ezra); Ptolemy – Ptolemy I Soter; Ptolemy II Philadelphus; Ptolemy III Euregetes I; Ptolemy IV Philopator; Ptolemy V Theos Epiphanes; Ptolemy VI Philometor; Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator; Ptolemy VIII Euregetes II; Ptolemy IX Soter II; Ptolemy X Alexander I; Ptolemy XI Alexander II; Ptolemy XII Neo Dionysys; Ptolemy XIII; Ptolemy XIV; Ptolemy XV Caesar; Ptolemy (son of Dositheus); Ptolemy (son of Abubus); Ptolemy Marcon; Puah – Puah (midwife of Exodus); Puah (father of Tola); Puah (descendant of Issachar);
  • Raguel – Raguel (father of Sarah); Raguel (archangel); Rahab – Rahab (mother of Salmon); Rahab (poetic name for Egypt); Ram (person) – Ram (son of Hezron); Ram (son of Jerahmeel); Ram (ancestor of Elihu); Ramah – Ramah (town allotted to Benjamin); Ramah (Ramah of the Negeb); Ramah (village near the border of Asher); Ramah (fortified city of Naphtali); Ramah (hometown of Samuel); Ramah (shortened form of name of Ramoth-gilead); Ramoth – Ramoth (Ramoth in Gilead); Ramoth (Ramoth of the Negeb); Ramoth (levitical city in the tribal territory of Issachar); Reaiah or Haroeh – Reaiah or Haroeh (son of Shobal); Reaiah or Haroeh (son of Micah); Reaiah or Haroeh (temple servant, ancestor of returners); Rechab – Rechab (son of Rimmon); Rechab (father of Jehonadab); Rechab (father of Malchijah); Rehob (person) – Rehob (father of Hadadezer); Rehob (Levite who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Rehob (place) – Rehob (place in extreme northern Canaan); Rehob (town allotted to Asher); Rehob (another town allotted to Asher); Rehob (principal city of the Beth-shean Valley); Rehoboth – Rehoboth (well dug in Gesar in Genesis); Rehoboth ha-Nahar; Rehum – Rehum (leader who accompanied Zerubbabel back to Judea); Rehum (Persian officer who wrote a letter to Xerxes); Rehum (son of Bani); Rehum (leader who signed a long petition in Neh.); Rehum (priest and Levite returner); Rekem (person) – Rekem (one of five kings of Midian); Rekem (son of Hebron); Rekem (grandson of Machir); Rephaiah or Raphah – Rephaiah or Raphah (descendant of Zerubbabel); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Ishi); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Tola); Rephaiah or Raphah (descendant of Saul); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Hur); Reu; Reuel – Reuel (son of Keturah); Reuel (son of Esau); Reuel (father of Hobab); Reuel (father of Eliasaph); Reuel (son of Ibnijah); Rezin – Rezin (family in Ezra); Rimmon (place) – Rimmon (city of En-rimmon); Rimmon (levitical city assigned to the Merarites); Rimmon (outcropping of rocks to which Benjaminites fled in Judg.); Rufus – Rufus (son of Simon the Cyrene); Rufus (greeted by Paul in Rom. 16:13);
  • Sachar – Sachar (father of Ahiham); Sachar (son of Obed-edom); Sallai – Sallai (Benjaminite returner); Sallai (priestly family at the time of Joiakim); Sallu – Sallu (Benjaminite in Jerusalem in 1 Chr.); Sallu (postexilic priestly family); Salma – Salma (father of Boaz in 1 Chr. 2:11); Salma (son of Hur); Salome – Salome (sister of Herod); Salome (daughter of Herod); Salome (follower of Jesus); Sarah – Sara (daughter of Raguel); Segub – Segub (son of Hezron); Segub (son of Hiel); Seir (place) – Seir (plateau in Edom); Seir (mountain on the northern border of Judah); Sela – Sela (site on the Amorite border); Sela (Edomite settlement conquered by Amaziah of Judah); Sela (place mentioned in Isa. 16:1); Sela (place named in Isa. 42:11); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha - Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (royal secretary under David); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (chief priest of the temple in 587/586 BCE); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Tanhumeth); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Kenaz); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Asiel); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (returner from exile); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (a priest who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (postexilic priest in Neh. 11:11); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (one of the “chiefs of the priest” in Neh. 12:1); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (official of King Jehoiakim); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Neriah); Shaaph – Shaaph (son of Jahdai); Shaaph (son of Maacah); Shabbethai – Shabbethai (of Ezra 10:15); Shabbethai (of Neh. 8:7); Shabbethai (of Neh. 11:16); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem – Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (King who overthrew Zechariah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (husband of Huldah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (descendant of Judah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Josiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (descendant of Simeon); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Zadok); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Naphtali); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (returner and gatekeeper); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (father of Jehizkiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (divorcing levitical gatekeeper); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (of the sons of Bannui); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Hallohesh); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Col-hozeh); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (father of Maaseiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (uncle of Jeremiah); Shalmaneser – Shalmaneser I; Shalmaneser II; Shalmaneser IV; Shamir (place)* – Shamir (town of Judah); Shamir (town in Ephraim); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth - Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (descendant of Esau); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (son of Jesse); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (of David's Mighty Men); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (Shammah of Harod); Shammai – Shammai (son of Onam); Shammai (son of Rekem); Shammai (son of Mered); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea – Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (son of Zaccur); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (son of David); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (father of Abda); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (head of family of Bilgah in Neh.); Shaphan – Shaphan (son of Aziliah); Shaphan (father of Jaazaniah); Shaphat – Shaphat (son of Hori); Shaphat (father of Elisha); Shaphat (son of Shemaiah); Shaphat (son of Abihail); Shaphat (son of Adlai); Sharezer – Sharezer (son of Sennacherib); Sharezer (emissaries sent to Bethel in 518); Shaul – Shaul (early Edomite king); Shaul (son of Simeon); Shaul (son of Uzziah); Sheba (person) – Sheba (son of Raamah); Sheba (son of Joktan); Sheba (son of Jokshan); Sheba (son of Bichri); Sheba (descendant of Gad); Sheba (place) – Sheba (town in Josh. 19:2-6); Sheba (country of Arabia); Shebaniah – Shebaniah (trumpet blowing priest in 1 Chr.); Shebaniah (leader in praise and confession in Neh.); Shebaniah (postexilic priestly house led by Joseph at the time of Joiakim); Shebaniah (a Levite signer of the covenant in Neh.); Shebaniah (another Levite signer of the covenant in Neh.); Shebuel or Shubael – Shebuel or Shubael (Levite of the sons of Gershom); Shebuel or Shubael (son of Heman); Shecaniah – Shecaniah (father of Shemaiah); Shecaniah (priest, head of the 10th division in 1 Chr.); Shecaniah (Levite under Hezekiah in 1 Chr.); Shecaniah (son of Jahaziel); Shecaniah (son of Jehiel); Shecaniah (father of Shmaiah, gatekeeper in Neh.); Shecaniah (son of Arah); Shecaniah (returning priest in Neh.); Shechem (person) – Shechem (son of Hamor); Shechem (descendant of Manasseh); Shechem (son of Shemida); Shelah – Shelah (son of Arpachshad or Arphaxad); Shelah (son of Judah the patriarch); Shelemiah – Shelemiah (grandson of Asaph); Shelemiah (descandant of Bahi who married a foreign woman); Shelemiah (another descendant of Bani who married a foreign woman); Shelemiah (father of Hananiah); Shelemiah (priest Nehemiah put in charge of the temple storerooms); Shelemiah (son of Cushi); Shelemiah (man sent by Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah); Shelemiah (father of Jehucal or Jucal); Shelemiah (son of Hananiah in Jer.); Shelomith – Shelomith (daughter of Dibri); Shelomith (daughter of Zerubbabel); Shelomith (son of Shimei); Shelomith (son of Izhar); Shelomith (child of Rehabeam); Shelomith (son of Josiphiah); Shelomoth - Shelomoth (son of Shimei); Shelomoth (son of Izhar); Shelomoth (sonof Zichri); Shema (person) – Shema (son of Hebron); Shema (son of Joel); Shema (son of Elpaal); Shema (lay leader who stood at Ezra's right hand at the reading of the Law); Shemaiah or Shammua – Shemaiah or Shammua (Judean prophet after the death of Solomon); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Shechaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of the tribe of Reuben); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Hasshub); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Obadiah); Shemaiah or Shammua (descendant of Elizaphan); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Nethanel); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Obed-edom); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach in Judah); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Jeduthun); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite of the time of Hezekiah who helped distribute freewill offering and gifts in 2 Chr.); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of the Levites who helped contribute 5000 sheep and goats to an offering in 2 Chr.); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Adonikam); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of those who returned from exile); Shemaiah or Shammua (priest of the family of Harim in Ezra); Shemaiah or Shammua (Israelite from the family of Harim in Ezra); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Shecaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Delaiah); Shemaiah or Shammua (a priest who signed the binding agreement with Nehemiah and the leaders of the nation); Shemaiah or Shammua (leader of Judah who participated in the dedication of the walls in Neh.); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Mattaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite musician at the dedication of the walls in Neh.); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite who accompanied Nehemiah in the procession at the dedication of the walls); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Uriah); Shemaiah or Shammua (false prophet in Jer.); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Delaiah); Shemariah – Shemariah (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Shemariah (son of Rehoboam); Shemariah (divorcing Israelite of the sons of Harim); Shemariah (divorcing son of Binnui); Shemer or Shomer – Shemer or Shomer (owner of a hill Omri purchased in 1 Kgs.); Shemer or Shomer (son of Mahli); Shemer or Shomer (Asherite in 1 Chr.); Shemiramoth – Shemiramoth (harp player in 1 Chr.); Shemiramoth (Levite sent by Jehosphaphat to Judah); Shemuel – Shemuel (representative of Simeon in the division of Canaan in Num.); Shemuel (son of Tola); Shephatiah – Shephatiah (son of David); Shephatiah (anchestor of returning Benjaminite exiles); Shephatiah (Haruphite of the tribe of Benjamin in 1 Chr.); Shephatiah (son of Maacah); Shephatiah (son of Jehosphaphat); Shephatiah (ancestor of two groups of returning exiles); Shephatiah (servant of Solomon and ancestor of returners); Shephatiah (Judahite ancestor of Jerusalemites after the Exile); Shephatiah (prince of Judah in Jer.); Sherebiah – Sherebiah (“man of discretion” in Ezra); Sherebiah (Levite interpreter of the Book in Ezra); Sherebiah (Levite who sealed the covenant in Neh.); Sherebiah (chief of returning Levites); Sheth – Sheth (Hebrew spelling of Seth); Sheth (of the “sons of Sheth”); Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha – Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha (David's secretary); Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha (son of Caleb); Shilonite – Shilonite (designation of the prophet Ahijah); Shilonite (gentilic designating a family of returnees); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei - Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (son of Jesse); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (son of David); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (Levite of the house of Merari); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (father of Berechiah); Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam – Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam (son of Jesse); Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam (son of Mikloth); Shimei – Shimei (son of Gershon); Shimei (son of Gera); Shimei (son of Jesse); Shimei (leader of David's time who did not support the usurpation of Adonijah in 1 Kgs.); Shimei (son of Ella); Shimei (brother of Zerubbabel); Shimei (descendant of Mishma); Shimei (son of Gog); Shimei (Levite descendant of Merari); Shimei (son of Jahath); Shimei (Benjaminite in 1 Chr., probably an error for Shema); Shimei (one of six sons of Jeduthun); Shimei (Ramathite appointed by David over the royal vineyards); Shimei (Levite descendant of Heman); Shimei (brother of Conaniah); Shimei (Levite who sent away his non-Israelite wife and children in Ezra); Shimei (descendant of Hashum); Shimei (descendant of Binnui); Shimei (descendant of Kish); Shimri – Shimri (son of Shemaiah); Shimri (father of Jediael); Shimri (son of Hosah); Shimri (descendant of Elizaphan); Shobab – Shobab (son of Caleb); Shobab (son of David); Shobal – Shobal (son of Seir); Shobal (son of Hur); Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth – Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth (mother of Jehozabad); Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth (of the sons of Heber); Shua – Shua (father of Judah's Canaanite wife); Shua (daughter of Heber); Shuppim – Shuppim (son of Ir); Shuppim (levitical gatekeeper in 1 Chr.); Shuthelah – Shutehelah (son of Ephraim); Shutehelah (son of Zabad); Simeon – Simeon (great-grandfather of Judas Maccabeus); Simeon (Simon Maccabeus); Simeon (ancestor of Jesus); Simeon (a prophet and teacher of the church at Antioch); Simeon (Hebrew equivalent of Simon); Simon – Simon (high priest Simon the Just); Simon (Simon II, high priest); Simon (Simon the Benjaminite); Simon (Simon Thassi); Simon (Simon Chosamaeus); Simon (Simon Peter); Simon (Simon the Zealot); Simon (Simon, half brother of Jesus); Simon (Simon the Leper); Simon (father of Judas Iscariot); Simon (Simon of Cyrene); Simon (Simon the Pharisee in Luke); Simon (Simon Magus); Simon (Simon the Tanner in Acts); Simon (Simon bar Kosiba); Sin (place) – Sin (wilderness area between Elim and Mt. Sinai); Sin (Egyptian border fortress); Sosipater – Sosipater (captain under Judas Maccabeus); Sosipater (Jewish Christian in Rom.); Sothenes – Sothenes (ruler of a synagogue in Corinth in Acts); Sothenes (called by Paul “our brother” in 1 Cor.); Succoth – Succoth (first encampment of the Israelites on leaving Egypt); Succoth (place on the east side of the Jordan Valley); Susanna – Susanna (of the apocryphal work of that name); Susanna (woman who supported the work of Jesus in Luke); Symeon – Symeon (prophet and teacher of the church of Antioch in Acts); Symeon (another name for Simon Peter);
  • Tahath (person) – Tahath (ancestor of Samuel); Tahath (son of Bered); Tahath (son of Eleadah); Talmai – Talmai (one of the Anakim); Talmai (king of Geshur); Tappuah – Tappuah (town in the northern Shephelah); Tappuah (town, also called En-tappuah, on the northern border of Ephraim); Tappuah (town in the territory of Tizrah); Tarshish (person) – Tarshish (descendant of Javan in the Table of Nations); Tarshish (son of Bilhan); Thutmose – Thutmose I; Thutmose II; Thutmose III; Thutmose IV; Timna – Timna (concubine of Eliphaz); Timna (chief of Edom); Timna (son of Eliphaz); Tiphsah – Tiphsah (city on the western shore of the Euphrates); Tiphsah (site of a brutal slaughter by King Menahem in 2 Kgs.); Tobiah - Tobiah (head of a family of returners); Tobiah (an opposer of Nehemiah's journey to Jerusalem); Tobias – Tobias (son of Tobit); Tobias (landowner of the Maccabean period); Tobijah – Tobijah (Levite sent by Jehosphaphat to Judea); Tobijah (descendant of Tobiah unable to authenticate his Israelite origin); Tobijah (repatriate from whom Zechariah was to collect gold and silver); Tola – Tola (son of Issachar); Tola (son of Puah);
  • Ulam – Ulam (son of Sheresh); Ulam (son of Eshek); Unni – Unni (levitical musician of 1 Chr.); Unni (returning Levite); Uri – Uri (father of Bezalel); Uri (father of Geber); Uri (poxtexilic gatekeeper of Ezra); Uriah – Uriah (high priest under Ahaz); Uriah (prophet of the time of Jeremiah); Uriah (father of Meremoth); Uriah (who stood with Ezra at the reading of the Law); Uriel – Uriel (chief of the Kohathite Levites in 1 Chr.); Uriel (resident of Gibeah in 2 Chr.); Uriel (archangel); Uthai – Uthai (son of Ammihud); Uthai (returning head of the family of Bigvai); Uz (person) – Uz (son of Aram); Uz (son of Milcah); Uz (son or descendant of Dishan); Uzza (person) – Uzza (son of Gera); Uzza (ancestor of returning temple servants); Uzzah – Uzzah (son of Abinadab); Uzzah (Levite of the family of Merari); Uzzi – Uzzi (son of Bukki); Uzzi (son of Tola); Uzzi (son of Bela); Uzzi (father of Elah); Uzzi (son of Bani); Uzzi (head of Jedaiah's priestly lineage at the time of Joiakim); Uzzi (priest involved in the dedication of the walls in Neh.); Uzziah – Uzziah (levitical priest in 1 Chr.); Uzziah (father of Jonathan); Uzziah (returning levitical priest, descendant of Harim); Uzziah (one of the 468 inhabitants of Perez who moved to Jerusalem); Uzziah (chief elder in the city of Bethulia); Uzziel – Uzziel (son of Kohath); Uzziel (son of Ishi); Uzziel (son of Bela); Uzziel (son of Heman); Uzziel (son of Jeduthun); Uzziel (son of Harhaiah);
  • Zabad or Jozacar – Zabad or Jozacar (son of Nathan); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Tahath); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Ahlai); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Shimeath the Ammonite); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Zattu); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Hattum); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Nebo); Zabbai – Zabbai (Israelite who had taken a foreign wife in Ezra); Zabbai (father of Baruch); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri – Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (ancestor of Achan); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (son of Shimei); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (Sphiphmite steward of David's wine cellar); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (son of Asaph); Zabdiel – Zabdiel (father of Jashobeam); Zabdiel (son of Heggedolim); Zabdiel (Arab who decapitated Alexander Balas); Zaccur – Zaccur (father of Shammua); Zaccur (son of Hammuel); Zaccur (Levite of the Merarite line); Zaccur (son of Asaph); Zaccur (descendant of Bigvai); Zaccur (son of Imri); Zaccur (Levite who placed a seal on the new covenant of Neh.); Zaccur (father of Hanan); Zadok – Zadok (father of Jerusha); Zadok (son of Baana); Zadok (son of Immer); Zadok (a “leader of the people” who placed a seal on the covenant in Neh.); Zadok (scribe appointed by Nehemiah as a treasurer); Zadok (father of Achim); Zalmon (place) – Zalmon (mountain in the vicinity of Shechem); Zalmon (mountain mentioned in Ps. 68:14); Zebediah – Zebediah (son of Beriah); Zebediah (son of Elpaal); Zebediah (son of Jeroham); Zebediah (son of Meshelemiah); Zebediah (son of Asahel); Zebediah (Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to Judah); Zebediah (son of Ishmael); Zebediah (son of Michael); Zebediah (descendant of the family of Immer); Zeboim – Zeboim (valley in Benjamin); Zeboim (town occupied by the Benjaminites); Zechariah – Zechariah (son of Jeroboam II); Zechariah (father of Abi); Zechariah (head of a family of Reubenites); Zechariah (gatekeeper of the time of David); Zechariah (brother of Ner); Zechariah (musician of the time of David); Zechariah (priestly trumpeter of 1 Chr.); Zechariah (son of Isshiah); Zechariah (son of Hosah the Merarite); Zechariah (father of Iddo); Zechariah (official of Jehoshaphat sent to teach in Judah); Zechariah (father of Jahaziel); Zechariah (son of Jehoshaphat); Zechariah (son of Jehoiada); Zechariah (instructor of Uzziah in 2 Chr.); Zechariah (levitical descendant of Asaph of 2 Chr.); Zechariah (levitical descendant of Kohath of 2 Chr.); Zechariah (priest who contributed animals for sacrifice in 2 Chr./1 Esdr.); Zechariah (head of the family of Parosh); Zechariah (head of the family of Bebai); Zechariah (leader of the Jewish exiles in Ezra); Zechariah (Judean who married a foreign wife in Ezra); Zechariah (leader who stood on the platform with Ezra during the reading of the Law); Zechariah (descendant of Perez); Zechariah (ancestor of Maaseiah); Zechariah (ancestor of Adaiah); Zechariah (priestly trumpeter in Neh.); Zechariah (son of Jeberechiah); Zechariah (prophet of the Book of Zechariah); Zechariah (father of Joseph); Zechariah (alternate name for Heman in 1 Esdr.); Zechariah (father of John the Baptist); Zedekiah – Zedekiah (false prophet at the court of Ahab); Zedekiah (son of Josiah); Zedekiah (signer of the covenant of Neh.); Zedekiah (prophet Jeremiah accused of immoral conduct); Zedekiah (son of Hananiah); Zedekiah (ancestor of Baruch); Zemaraim – Zemaraim (town in the tribal territory of Benjamin); Zemaraim (mountain in the hill country of Ephraim); Zephaniah – Zephaniah (Kohathite Levite ancestor of Heman); Zephaniah (son of Cushi); Zephaniah (son of Maaseiah); Zephaniah (father of Josiah); Zerah or Zohar – Zerah or Zohar (son of Reuel); Zerah or Zohar (father of Jobab); Zerah or Zohar (son of Judah); Zerah or Zohar (son of Simeon); Zerah or Zohar (Levite descendant of Gershom in 1 Chr.); Zerah or Zohar (Kohathite Levite of 1 Chr.); Zerahiah – Zerahiah (son of Uzzi); Zerahiah (man of the lineage of Pahath-moab); Zeredah – Zeredah (place of residence of Jeroboam); Zeredah (place in the Jordan Valley); Zibeon – Zibeon (father of Anah); Zibeon (son of Seir); Zichri or Zabdi – Zichri or Zabdi (son of Izhar); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Shimei); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Shashak); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Jeroham); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Asaph); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Shelomith); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Eliezer); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Amasiah); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Elishaphat); Zichri or Zabdi (warrior and Ephraimite of 2 Chr.); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Joel); Zichri or Zabdi (head of the priestly family of Abijah at the time of Joiakim); Ziha – Ziha (head of a line of returning temple servants); Ziha (overseer of postexilic temple servants); Zillethai – Zillethai (son of Shimei); Zillethai (Manassite leader who deserted David at Ziklag); Zimri (person) – Zimri (son of Salu); Zimri (King of Israel); Zimri (son of Zerah); Zimri (father of Moza); Ziph (person) – Ziph (descendant of Caleb); Ziph (son of Jehallel); Ziph (place) – Ziph (town in the hill country of Judah); Ziph (town in the southern Negeb); Ziza – Ziza (son of Shiphi); Ziza (son of Rehoboam); Zohar – Zohar (father of Ephron the Hittite); Zohar (alternate name for Simeon's son Zerah); Zohar (alternate reading of Izhar son of Helah); Zur – Zur (a king of Midian in Num.); Zur (son of Jeiel);

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Subarticles[edit]

A[edit]

  • Aaron – High Priest (Exodus-Numbers and Chronicles)*; Elsewhere in the Old Testament*; Negative and Nonpriestly Portrayals*; New T[stament*; Character: A Summary*;
  • Abda – Abda (father of Adoniram); Abda (son of Shammua);
  • Abdi – Abdi (grandfather of Ethan); Abdi (father of the Levite Kish); Abdi (divorcing Israelite of the time of Ezra);
  • Abdon (person) – Abdon (son of Hillel); Abdon (son of Shashak); Abdon (son of Jeiel); Abdon (son of Micah);
  • Abiel – Abiel (father of Kish); Abiel (Arbathite warrior);
  • Abiezer – Abiezer (descendant of Manasseh); Abiezer (of David's Champions);
  • Abigail – Abigail (wife of Nabal); Abigail (sister of David);
  • Abihail – Abihail (father of Zuriel); Abihail (wife of Abishur); Abihail (man of the tribe of Gad); Abihail (daughter of Eliab); Abihail (father of Esther);
  • Abijah – Abijah (son of Samuel); Abijah (son of Jeroboam I); Abijah (King of Judah); Abijah (head of the eighth division of priests); Abijah (wife of Hezron); Abijah (son of Becher); Abijah (priest who signed the covenant of Nehemiah); Abijah (head of a priestly group); Abijah (name on ostracons);
  • Abimelech – Abimelech (king of Gerar); Abimelech (son of Gideon); Abimelech (Ruler David escaped); Abimelech (son of Abiathar);
  • Abinadab – Abinadab (father of Eleazer); Abinadab (son of Jesse); Abinadab (son of Saul);
  • Abiram – Abiram (son of Eliab); Abiram (son of Hiel);
  • Abishua – Abishua (son of Phinehas); Abishua (son of Bela);
  • Absalom – Absalom (son of David); Absalom (messenger of Judas Maccabeus);
  • [[[Achbor]] – Achbor (father of Baal-hanan); Achbor (son of Micaiah);
  • Achzib – Achzib (town in the Shephelah); Achzib (city 9 miles north of Acco);
  • Adad-nirari – Adad-nirari I; Adad-nirari II; Adad-nirari III;
  • Adah – Adah (wife of Lamech); Adah (wife of Esau);
  • Adaiah – Adaiah (man from Boskath); Adaiah (Levite of the family of Gershom); Adaiah (son of Jeroham); Adaiah (descendants of Bani and Binnui); Adaiah (son of Joiarib); Adaiah (father of Maaseiah);
  • Addi – Addi (leader of returning clan of Israelites); Addi (ancestor of Jesus);
  • Adiel – Adiel (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Adiel (son of Jahzerah); Adiel (father of Azmaveth);
  • Adna – Adna (son of Pahath-moah); Adna (priest of the family of Harim);
  • Adnah – Adnah ("chief of thousands"); Adnah (officer under Jehoshaphat);
  • Adonijah – Adonijah (son of David); Adonijah (Levite of 2 Chr.); Adonijah (signer of the covenant of Nehemiah);
  • Adoption – Adoption Formulas*; Adoption and adoption imagery**;
  • Afterlife or Afterdeath – Abode of the Dead*; Inhabitants of the Netherworld**; Transformations in Late Israelite Traditions**; Summary**; Conclusion*;
  • Ahab – Ahab (king of Israel); Ahab (son of Kolaiah);
    • Ahab (king of Israel) - Biblical Account**; Historical Account*; Rabbinical Sources*;
  • Ahasuerus – Ahasuerus (possible Biblical name of Xerxes I); Ahasuerus (Ahasuerus the Mede); Ahasuerus (a destroyer of Ninezeh in Tobit);
  • Ahaz – Ahaz (King of Judah); Ahaz (descendant of Saul);
  • Ahaziah – Ahaziah (King of Judah); Ahaziah (son of Ahab);
  • Ahiezer – Ahiezer (son of Ammishaddai); Ahiezer (kinsman of Saul);
  • Ahihud – Ahihud (son of Shelomi); Ahihud (descendant of Ehud);
  • Ahijah – Ahijah (son of Ahitub); Ahijah (prophet from Shiloh); Ahijah (son of Shisha); Ahijah (father of Baasha); Ahijah (son of Jerahmeel); Ahijah (son of Ehud); Ahijah (Pelonite); Ahijah (Levite under David);
  • Ahimaaz – Ahimaaz (father of Ahinoam); Ahimaaz (son of Zadok); Ahimaaz (one of Solomon's commissary officers);
  • Ahiman – Ahiman (descendant of Anak); Ahiman (Levite of 1 Chr.);
  • Ahimelech – Ahimelech (son of Ahitub); Ahimelech (friend of David); Ahimelech (son of Abiathar);
  • Ahinoam – Ahinoam (daugher of Ahimaaz); Ahinoam (wife of David);
  • Ahio – Ahio (son of Abinadab); Ahio (son of Beriah); Ahio (brother of Kish);
  • Ahitub – Ahitub (son of Phinehas); Ahitub (son of Amariah); Ahitub (son of another Amariah); Ahitub (ancestor of Judith);
  • Ahlai – Ahlai (daughter of Sheshan); Ahlai (father of Zabad);
  • Aiah – Aiah (son of Zibeon); Aiah (father of Rizpah);
  • Aijalon – Aijalon (levitical city); Aijalon (burial place of Elon);
  • Ain – Ain (town in Numbers); Ain (city in Judah); Ain (city given to the descendants of Joshua);
  • Akkub – Akkub (son of Elioenai); Akkub (head of levitical family of gatekeepers); Akkub (chief of a family of temple servants); Akkub (Levite in Neh.);
  • Alemeth (person) – Alemeth (son of Becher); Alemeth (descendant of Saul);
  • Alexander – Alexander III of Macedon**; Alexander Balas of Smyrna*; Alexander Janneus*; Alexander (son of Simon of Cyrene); Alexander (priest who questioned Peter and John after their arrest); Alexander (Jew of Ephesus); Alexander (of 1 Tim.); Alexander (coppersmith of 2 Tim.);
  • Alexandra – Alexandra Salome*; Alexandra (daughter of Hyrcanus II)*; Alexandra (daughter of Aristobulus); Alexandra (daughter of Phasael);
  • Alphaeus – Alphaeus (father of James); Alphaeus (father of Levi);
  • Altar – Biblical Evidence**; Archaeological Evidence**;
  • Amariah – Amariah (son of Hebron); Amariah (priest descended from Eleazar); Amariah (son of Azariah); Amariah (high priest at the time of Jehoshaphat); Amariah (levitical priest of time of Hezekiah of Judah); Amariah (son of Hezekiah); Amariah (priest and son of Azariah); Amariah (man of the family of Azzur); Amariah ("son of Amariah" in Neh.); Amariah (name on seals);
  • Amasa – Amasa (kinsman of David); Amasa (son of Hadlai);
  • Amasai – Amasai (son of Elkanah); Amasai (Chief of David' Thirty); Amasai (priest of 1 Chr.); Amasai (father of Mahath);
  • Amaziah – Amaziah (father of Joshah); Amaziah (Levite of the family of Merair); Amaziah (priest of era of Jeroboam II); Amaziah (King of Judah)**;
  • Ammiel – Ammiel (son of Gemalli); Ammiel (father of Machir); Ammiel (father of Bathsheba); Ammiel (son of Obed-edom);
  • Ammihud – Ammihud (father of Elishama); Ammihud (father of Shemuel); Ammihud (father of Pedahel); Ammihud (father of King Talmai); Ammihud (returning exile of 1 Chr.);
  • Aminadab – Aminadab (son of Ram); Aminadab (son of Kohath); Aminadab (chief of levitical family of Uzziel); Aminadab (father of Esther); Aminadab (King of Beth-ammon);
  • Amnon – Amnon (son of David); Amnon (son of Shimon);
  • Amon (person) – Amon (King, son of Manasseh)*; Amon (official of Samaria); Amon (returner from exile);
  • Amos, Book of or Book of Amos – Amos the Prophet*; Historical Setting*; Contents**; Composition*;
  • Amram – Amram (grandson of Levi); Amram (son of Bani);
  • Amzi – Amzi (son of Bani); Amzi (son of Zechariah);
  • Anah – Anah (son of Zibeon); Anah (son of Seir);
  • Anaiah – Anaiah (who stood at Ezra's right hand); Anaiah (chief who sealed the covenant of Nehemiah);
  • Ananias – Ananias (husband of Sapphira); Ananias (who healed Paul's blindness); Ananias (21st Jewish high priest);
  • Andronicus – Andronicus (deputy under Antiochus IV Epiphanius); Andronicus (Commander of garrison at Gerizim); Andronicus (fellow prisoner of Paul);
  • Animals – Mammals**; Amphibians*; Reptiles**;
  • Anna – Anna (wife of Tobit); Anna (widow in Luke); Anna (Mother of Mary);
  • Antigonus – Antigonus (general of Alexander the Great); Antigonus (son of John Hyrcanus); Antigonus (Antigonus II of Judea);
  • Antioch – Antioch (city in Galatia)*; Antioch (Antioch of Syria)**;
  • Antiochus – Antiochus (Antiochus III); Antiochus (Antiochus IV Epiphanius)**; Antiochus (Antiochus V); Antiochus (Antiochus VI); Antiochus (Antiochus VII);
  • Antipas – Antipas (Herod Antipas); Antipas (martyr of Pergamum);
  • Antipater – Antipater (son of Jason); Antipater (Idumean noble); Antipater (son of Herod);
  • Aphek – Aphek (Ras el-'Ayin)**; Aphek (Afqā); Aphek (town of the tribe of Asher); Aphek (town in the Golan);
  • Apollonius – Apollonius (son of Tharseas); Apollonius (son of Menetheus); Apollonius (general under Antiochus IV Epiphanius); Apollonius (son of Gennaeus); Apollonius (governor of Coele-Syria);
  • Aquila – Aquila (husband of Priscilla); Aquila (2nd century translator);
  • Arah – Arah (son of Ulla); Arad (ancestor of returners);
  • Aram (person) – Aram (son of Shem); Aram (son of Kemuel); Aram (son of Shemer); Aram (ancestor of Jesus);
  • Aram (place) – Paddam-aram*; Aram-naharaim*; Aram-zobah*; Aram-Damascus*; Aram-maacah and Geshur*;
  • Aramaic – Old Aramaic*; Official Aramaic*; Middle Aramaic*; Late Aramaic*; Modern Aramaic*;
  • Archaeology and the Bible – Geographic Setting*; Biblical Archaeology**; Foundations: Politics, Prestige, and Power**; Beginning of Scientific Exploration*; Early National Agendas**; Honing Excavation Materials*; The Rise of Biblical City Excavations*; A Permanent American Presence*; Lawrence and Musil*; Orientalist Tradition Par Excellence**; Rise of "Biblical Archaeology"**; Towards a Secular Archaeology*; Emergence of Israeli Archaeology**; Revisionist Scholarship*; Recent Developments**;
  • Architecture – Materials and Construction**; General Survey***;
    • Architecture – General Survey – Fortifications**; Domestic Buildings*; Cultic Buildings**; Administrative Buildings**; Later Developments*;
  • Aretas – Aretas I*; Aretas II*; Aretas III*; Aretas IV*;
  • Ariel (person) – Ariel (of Ezra's delegation); Ariel (two Moabites killed by Benaiah);
  • Arioch – Arioch (king of Ellasar); Arioch (captain of Nebuchadnezzar's bodyguards); Arioch (King of the Chaldeans);
  • Aristobulus – Aristobulus I; Aristobulus II; Aristobulus (mentioned in Romans);
  • Army – Semi-nomadic Origins*; Peasant's Militia*; Professional Heavy Infantry**; Classic Ancient Near Eastern Chariot Army*;
  • Aroer – Aroer (Aroer on the Arnon); Aroer (town in Gilead); Aroer (town near Damascus); Aroer (settlement west of Jordan);
  • Arphaxad – Arphaxad (king of the Medes); Arphaxad (ancestor of Jesus);
  • Artaxerxes – Artaxerxes I Longimanus; Artaxerxes II Mnemon;
  • Asa – Asa (grandson of Rehoboam)**; Asa (father of Berechiah);
  • Asahel – Asahel (son of Zeruiah); Asahel (Levite sent into Judah in 2 Chr.); Asahel (Levite who collected tithes); Asahel (father of Jonathan); Asahel (son of Ezora);
  • Asaiah – Asaiah (servant sent to Huldah); Asaiah (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Asaiah (head of a Merarite levitical family); Asaiah (firstborn of the Shilonites returning from exile);
  • Asaph – Asaph (father of Joah); Asaph (son of Berechiah the Levite)*; Asaph ("sons of Asaph"); Asaph (Keeper of Artaxerxes' park);
  • Ascension – Extrabiblical Literature**; Jesus**; Other Ascensions in the New Testament*;
  • Asher – Asher (Akkadian god); Asher (son of Jacob); Asher (tribal territory in Galilee)**;
  • Ashnah – Ashnah (Josh 15:33); Ashnah (Josh 15:43);
  • Asiel – Asiel (father of Seraiah); Asiel (ancestor of Tobit); Asiel (scribe of Ezra);
  • Asshur (place) – Asshur (Assur of Assyria); Asshur (alternate name for Assyria);
  • Assir – Assir (son of Korah); Assir (son of Ebiasaph);
  • Ataroth – Ataroth (town in Transjordan); Ataroth (town in Josh 16:2); Ataroth (town in Josh 16:7); Ataroth (place in 1 Chr 2:54);
  • Ater – Ater (ancestor of returning family); Ater (Levite leader of a family of gatekeepers); Ater (Israelite covenant sealer in Neh.);
  • Athaliah – Athaliah (Queen of Judah)**; Athaliah (son of Jeroham); Athaliah (father of Jeshaiah);
  • Attai – Attai (son of Jarha); Attai (Gadite warrior at Ziklag); Attai (son of Rehoboam);
  • Aven – Aven (abbreviation of Beth-aven); Aven (derisive epithet for an Armenean valley); Aven (city possibly Heliopolis);
  • Avvim – Avvim (inhabitants of the Philistine Plain); Avvim (city of the tribe of Benjamin);
  • Azarel – Azarel (Korahite at Ziklag); Azarel (levitical singer of time of David); Azarel (son of Jeroham); Azarel (descendant of Binnui); Azarel (son of Ahzai); Azarel (priest of Neh.);
  • Azariah – Azariah (son of Zadok); Azariah (son of Nathan); Azariah (given name of King Uzziah); Azariah (great-grandson of Judah); Azariah (descendant of Judah); Azariah (descendant of Aaron); Azariah (priest in Solomon's temple); Azariah (father of Hilkiah); Azariah (of the Kohathite division of Levites); Azariah (priest of 1 Chr.); Azariah (son of Oded); Azariah (two sons of Jehoshaphat); Azariah (son of Jeroham and son of Oded, military officers); Azariah (priest of 2 Chr.); Azariah (murdered Ephraimite); Azariah (two men, father of Joel and son of Jehallel, who helped clean the temple); Azariah (chief priest under Hezekiah); Azariah (grandfather of Ezra); Azariah (father of Amariah); Azariah (wall repairer of Neh.); Azariah (one of the leaders of the exile returners); Azariah (interpreter of Ezra); Azariah (emigrant to Egypt in Jer.); Azariah (Hebrew name of Abednego);
  • Azaziah – Azaziah (Levite who played the lyre); Azaziah (father of Hoshea); Azaziah (overseer of the temple in 2 Chr.);
  • Azvameth (person) – Azvameth (one of David's Champions); Azvameth (Benjaminite of Ziklag); Azvameth (treasurer at the palace of David); Azvameth (son of Jehoaddah);
  • Azriel – Azriel (of the tribe of Manasseh); Azriel (father of Jerimoth); Azriel (father of Seraiah);
  • Azrikam – Azrikam (son of Neariah); Azrikam (son of Azel); Azrikam (son of Hashabiah); Azrikam (murdered by Zichri);
  • Azubah – Azubah (daughter of Shilhi); Azubah (wife of Caleb);
  • Azzur – Azzur (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Azzur (father of Hananiah); Azzur (father of Jaazaniah);

B[edit]

  • Baal (person) – Baal (descendant of Joel); Baal (son of Jeiel);
  • Baalah – Baalah (Kiriath-jearaim); Baalah (mountain on the border of Judah); Baalah (city of southern[[ Judah);
  • Baal-hanan – Baal-hanan (son of Achbor); Baal-hanan (Overseer of olives under David);
  • Baana – Baana (son of Ahilud); Baana (son of Hushai); Baana (father of Zadok);
  • Baanah – Baanah (son of Rimmon); Baanah (father of Heleb); Baanah (leader of exile returners);
  • Babylonia – Geography*; Prehistoric Settlements*; Third Millennium: Beginning of History**; Age of Hammurabi; Coming of the Indo-Europeans**; First Millennium**;
  • Bani – Bani (Gadite member of David's Thirty); Bani (Levite of the line of Ethan of the time of David); Bani (son of Perez); Bani (family of 642 returners); Bani (father of Rehum); Bani (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah);
  • Barsabbas – Barsabbas (surname of Joseph); Barsabbas (surname of Judas);
  • Baruch – Baruch (son of Zabbai); Baruch (ratifier of the covenant of Nehemiah); Baruch (son of Colhozeh); Baruch (companion of Jeremiah)**;
  • Barzillai – Barzillai (Gileadite of Rogelim); Barzillai (father of Adriel); Barzillai (husband of the daughter of Barzillai the Gileadite);
  • Basemath – Basemath (wife of Esau); Basemath (daughter of Solomon);
  • Bath-shua – Bath-shua (wife of Judah); Bath-shua (alternate form of Bathsheba);
  • Bealoth – Bealoth (city of Judah); Bealoth (place in Asher);
  • Bebai – Bebai (ancestor of returners); Bebai (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah);
  • Bedan – Bedan (son of Ulam); Bedan (of 1 Samuel);
  • Beer – Beer (well in Transjordan)*; Beer (place to which Jotham fled);
  • Beeri – Beeri (father of Judith); Beeri (father of Hosea);
  • Bela (person) – Bela (son of Boer); Bela (son of Benjamin); Bela (son of Azaz);
  • Benaiah – Benaiah (son of Jehoiada); Benaiah (one of David's Thirty); Benaiah (Simeonite chief in 1 Chr.); Benaiah (Levite musician of David); Benaiah (trumpet blower of the ark of David); Benaiah (priest of 2 Chr.); Benaiah (four divorcing Israelites of the time of Ezra); Benaiah (father of Pelatiah);
  • Ben-hadad – Ben-hadad I; Ben-hadad II; Ben-hadad III**;
  • Benjamin – Benjamin (son of Jacob)**; Benjamin (son of Bilhan);
  • Beor – Beor (father of Bela); Beor (father of Balaam);
  • Berechiah – Berechiah (son of Zerubbabel); Berechiah (father of Asaph); Berechiah (son of Asa); Berechiah (gatekeeper of the ark under David); Berechiah (son of Meshillemoth); Berechiah (son of Meshezabel); Berechiah (son of Iddo);
  • Beriah or Beriites – Beriah or Beriites (son of Asher); Beriah or Beriites (son of Ephraim); Beriah or Beriites (son of Elpaal); Beriah or Beriites (son of Shimei);
  • Beroea – Beroea (Macedonian city); Beroea (Hellenistic name of Aleppo);
  • Bethany – Bethany (home of Lazarus)**; Bethany (“Bethany beyond the Jordan” where John the Baptist baptized);
  • Beth-dagon – Beth-dagon (town of Judah); Beth-dagon (town of Asher);
  • Bethel (place) – Bethel (city 12 miles north of Jerusalem)**; Bethel (town in the Negeb of Judah);
  • Bethlehem – Bethlehem (Bethlehem of Judah)**; Bethlehem (town of Zebulon);
  • Beth-shemesh – Beth-shemesh (city of Dan)**; Beth-shemesh (village South of the Sea of Galilee); Beth-shemesh (settlement of Naphtali); Beth-shemesh (alternate name for Egyptian On);
  • Beyond the river – Beyond the river (area east of the Euphrates); Beyond the river (area west of the Euphrates)*; Beyond the river (district of Haran);
  • Bezalel – Bezalel (Judahite descendant of Caleb); Bezalel (returner from exile);
  • Bezek – Bezek (town of Judges); Bezek (town of 1 Sam.);
  • Bible – Jewish Scripture**; Christian Bible**;
  • Bible Translations – Advances in Biblical scholarship**; Linguistic change**; Confessional translations**; Specific audiences*; Individual translations*; Translation theory*;
    • Bible Translations – Advances in Biblical scholarship – Textual*; Lexicographical*; Literary*;
  • Bigvai – Bigvai (returner from Exile); Bigvai (family group returning from exile);
  • Bilgah – Bilgah (head of priestly family at time of David); Bilgah (leader of family of returning priests);
  • Bilhan – Bilhan (son of Ezer); Bilhan (son of Jediael);
  • Binnui – Binnui (son of Pahath-moab); Binnui (father of 13 divorcers); Binnui (ancestor of family of returners); Binnui (Levite contemporary of Zerubbabel);
  • Birds – Identification*; Domesticated birds*; Birds for offerings*; Birds of abomination*;
  • Boaz – Boaz (protector of Ruth)*; Boaz (pillar of Solomon's temple);
  • Book of the Twelve – Ancient Evidence*; History of the Collection*; Literary Unity**;
  • Bozrah – Bozrah (capital of Edom)*; Bozrah (city in Jer.); Bozrah (city in Gilead);
  • Bukki – Bukki (leader of the tribe of Dan); Bukki (son of Abishua);
  • Bunni – Bunni (Levite in Neh.); Bunni (sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Bunni (ancestor of Shemaiah);
  • Burial – Locations**; Rites and practices**;
  • Buz – Buz (son of Nahor); Buz (father of Jahdo);

C[edit]

  • Cabul – Cabul (town of Asher); Cabul (district in Galilee);
  • Cainan – Cainan (son of Arphaxad); Cainan (alternate name of Kenan);
  • Calcol – Calcol (grandson of Judah); Calcol (son of Mahol);
  • Caleb – Caleb (son of Hezron); Caleb (son of Jephunneh);
  • Cambyses – Cambyses I; Cambyses II;
  • Canaan or Canaanites – Name*; Land**; People**; Culture and Religion**; Language*;
  • Canon of the Old Testament – Evidence for a Fixed Canon**; Process of Canonization**; Canon and Interpretation*;
  • Canon of the New Testament – Prophetic Foundation of the Gospel*; Authorization and Message of the Apostles**; Consciousness of Apostolic Authority*; Extent of the NT Canon**;
  • Carmel – Carmel (mountain range north of Israel)*; Carmel (town in the Judean wilderness);
  • Carmi – Carmi (son of Reuben); Carmi (father of Achan); Carmi (possible alternative name of Caleb);
  • Chaldea – Land and People**; History**;
  • Chelub – Chelub (father of Mehir); Chelub (father of Ezri);
  • Chenaanah – Chenaanah (father of Zedekiah); Chenaanah (son of Bilhan);
  • Chenaniah – Chenaniah (chief of Levites at time of David); Chenaniah (Levite of 1 Chr. and Neh.);
  • Chinnereth – Chinnereth (lake in northern Israel); Chinnereth (city near Sea of Chinnereth); Chinnereth (territory around the city and lake);
  • Christ – Pauline Letters**; Gospels**; Beyond the New Testament**;
  • Chronicles, Books of or Books of Chronicles – Composition, Date, and Sources**; Structure and Major Themes**;
  • Chronology of the Old Testament – Special Issues in Biblical Chronology**; OT History**;
    • Chronology of the Old Testament – Special Issues in Biblical Chronology – Intercalation*; Spring or Fall Calendars*; Accession and Nonaccession Year Reckoning*; Coregency*; Use of the LXX*; Relative and Absolute Chronology*;
    • Chronology of the Old Testament – OT History – Persian Period*; Neo-Babylonian Period**; Later Years of Judah*; Later Years of the Divided Monarchy**; Early Years of the Divided Monarchy**; United Monarchy**; Period of the Judges**; Date of the Exodus**; Sojourn*; Patriarchs*;
  • Chronology of the New Testament – Jesus' Life**; Apostolic Period, including Paul**;
  • Church – Beginnings of the Church**; Expansion in the NT Era**; Features of the Church**;
    • Church – Expansion in the NT Era – Jerusalem and Judea*; Beyond Judea*; Mission to the Gentiles**;
    • Church – Features of the Church – Organization in Ministry**; Role of the Assembly**; The Hope of the Church*;
  • Clement, Epistles of or Epistles of Clement – 1 Clement**; 2 Clement*;
  • Col-hozeh – Col-hozeh (father of Shallum); Col-hozeh (father of Baruch);
  • Conaniah – Conaniah (Levite of time of Hezekiah); Conaniah (Levite of time of Josiah);
  • Corinth – Commerce**; Religion**; Christianity*;
  • Corinthians, First Letter to the or First Letter to the Corinthians – Author, Provenance, Date*; Corinth*; Occasion*; Parties and Opposition**; Literary and Rhetorical Analysis*; Major Issues in Corinth*; Significance*;
  • Corporate personality – Corporate responsibility*; Individualism**;
  • Covenant – Covenant and Moral Character*; Old Testament**; Later Traditions about the Sinai běrît**; Issues in Understanding the Sinai Covenant**; The New Covenant*;
    • Covenant – Old Testament – Where God Is Not a Partner*; Where God Is Under Obligation*; Where Israel Is Under Obligation to God: Sinai*;
    • Covenant – Later Traditions about the Sinai běrît – Postexilic Period*; Hellenistic Period: Sinai as diathēkē*; New Testament**;
      • Covenant - Later Traditions about the Sinai běrît – New Testament – Jesus**; Paul**;
  • Cush (person) – Cush (son of Ham); Cush (messenger to David); Cush (opponent of David);
  • Cushi – Cushi (father of Shelemiah); Cushi (father of Zephaniah);

D[edit]

  • D – D (Deuteronomist); D (symbol for Codex Bezae [D] and Codex Claromontanus [D2]);
  • Daniel – Daniel (son of David); Daniel (priest returned from exile); Daniel (praised by Ezekiel); Daniel (Hero of the Book of Daniel)**;
  • Daniel, Additions to or Additions to Daniel – Prayer of Azariah*; Song of the Three Young Men*; Susanna**; Bel and the Serpent**;
  • Daniel, Book of or Book of Daniel – Contents**; Problem of Bilingualism**; Date*; Placement in the Canon*;
  • Darius – Darius (Darius I)**; Darius (Darius II Ochus); Darius (Darius III Codommanus); Darius (Darius the Mede);
  • David – Sources**; Name*; Patronym*; Genealogy*; Location in Bethlehem*; Early Career**; Historical Relations with Saul's House**; Rise to Kingship**; Administration and Achievements**; Succession**; David's Place in Tradition*;
  • Dead Sea Scrolls – The Scrolls and the OT**; The Scrolls and Judaism**; The Scrolls and the NT**;
  • Debir (place) – Debir (city of Judah)*; Debir (city in Gilead); Debir (city on Judah-Benjamin border);
  • Deborah – Deborah (in Judges)**; Deborah (nurse of Rebekah); Deborah (grandmother of Tobit);
  • Delaiah – Delaiah (son of Elioenai); Delaiah (descendant of Aaron); Delaiah (ancestor of returning exiles); Delaiah (son of Mehetabel); Delaiah (son of Shemaiah);
  • Demetrius – Demetrius Poliorcetes*; Demetrius I Soter**; Demetrius II Nicator**; Demetrius III Eucerus*; Demetrius of Phalerum; Demetrius of Ephesus; Demetrius (3 John);
  • Desert – Physical Characteristics**; Conditions and Lessons*; Biblical Accounts**;
    • Desert – Physical Characteristics – Negeb*; Sinai*; Paran*; Zin*;
  • Dibon – Dibon (city in Transjordan)**; Dibon (town of the Negeb in Judah);
  • Dishon – Dishon (son of Seir); Dishon (son of Anah);
  • Dodo – Dodo (father of Puah); Dodo (son of Ahohi); Dodo (father of Elhanan);
  • Dumah (place) – Dumah (city of Judah); Dumah (Dumat al-Jandal); Dumah (mentioned in Isaiah);

E[edit]

  • Ebal (person) – Ebal (son of Shobal); Ebal (son of Joktan);
  • Ebed – Ebed (father of Gaal); Ebed (son of Jonathan);
  • Eber – Eber (ancestor of Hebrews); Eber (clan of the tribe of Gad); Eber (son of Elpaal); Eber (son of Shashak); Eber (postexilic priest);
  • Economics – OT Period**; NT Period**;
  • Eder (person) – Eder (postexilic Benjaminite); Eder (son of Mushi);
  • Eder (place) – Eder (town in southern Judah); Eder (landmark in the vicinity of Bethlehem);
  • Edrei – Edrei (Transjordanian city); Edrei (city in Naphtali);
  • Education – Development and History**; Teachers and Sages*; Content and Method*;
  • Egypt – Naqada I-II**; Proto-dynastic**; Old Kingdom**; Middle Kingdom*; Hyksos*; New Kingdom*; Third Intermediate Period*; Saite-Persian Period*; Hellenistic-Roman Rule**;
  • Egyptian (language) – History and Development**; Scripts*; Basic Principles of Writing**; Loanwords in the OT*;
  • Ehud – Ehud (judge)*; Ehud (son of Bilhan); Ehud (father of Naaman);
  • El – Middle and Late Bronze Age Sources**; Iron Age Sources**;
  • Elah – Elah (one of the 11 chiefs of Esau/Edom); Elah (4th king of Israel); Elah (father of Hoshea); Elah (son of Caleb); Elah (returning Benjaminite);
  • Elam (person) – Elam (son of Shem); Elam (son of Shashak); Elam (son of Meshelemiah); Elam (head of returning clan of Israelites); Elam ("other Elam"); Elam (signer of covenant of Nehemiah); Elam (priest who assisted Nehemiah);
  • Elasah – Elasah (son of Pashhur); Elasah (son of Shaphan);
  • Eleasah – Eleasah (son of Helez); Eleasah (son of Raphah);
  • Eleazar – Eleazar (son of Aaron); Eleazar (son of Abinadab); Eleazar (son of Dodo); Eleazar (son of Mali); Eleazar (son of Phinehas); Eleazar (priest of dedication in Neh.); Eleazar (son of Parosh); Eleazar (son of Mattathias); Eleazar (father of Jason); Eleazar (scribe of 2 Macc.); Eleazar (ancestor of Joseph);
  • Election – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Election – New Testament – Jesus Christ*; The Community of Faith**;
  • Elhanan – Elhanan (son of Jair); Elhanan (son of Dodo);
  • Eliab – Eliab (son of Helon); Eliab (father of Dothan); Eliab (son of Jesse); Eliab (descendant of Levi); Eliab (Gadite officer of David); Eliab (Levite harpist of 1 Chr.); Eliab (ancestor of Judith);
  • Eliada – Eliada (son of David); Eliada (father of Rezon); Eliada (Benjaminte officer of Jehoshaphat);
  • Eliakim – Eliakim (official of Hezekiah); Eliakim (son of Josiah); Eliakim (priest of Neh.); Eliakim (grandson of Zerubbabel); Eliakim (son of Melea);
  • Eliam – Eliam (father of Bathsheba); Eliam (son of Ahithophel);
  • Eliasaph – Eliasaph (head of tribe of Gad); Eliasaph (son of Lael);
  • Eliashib – Eliashib (descendant of David); Eliashib (priest of the time of David); Eliashib (father of Jehohanan); Eliashib (singer of the time of Ezra); Eliashib (descendant of Zattu); Eliashib (descendant of Bani); Eliashib (high priest of the time of Nehemiah); Eliashib (son of Joiakim); Eliashib (priest of the temple staff of Neh.);
  • Eliehoenai – Eliehoenai (son of Meshelemiah); Eliehoenai (son of Zerahiah);
  • Eliel – Eliel (head of Manassite household of 1 Chr.); Eliel (ancestor of Samuel); Eliel (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Eliel (Mahavite of David's Mighty Men); Eliel (Gadite who joined David); Eliel (Levite of the sons of Hebron); Eliel (Levite under Hezekiah);
  • Eliezer – Eliezer (oldest of Abraham's servants); Eliezer (son of Moses); Eliezer (son of Becher); Eliezer (trumpet blowing priest); Eliezer (son of Zichri); Eliezer (son of Dodavahu); Eliezer (priest sent by Ezra); Eliezer (divorcing son of priest of Ezra); Eliezer (divorcing Levite); Eliezer (son of Harim); Eliezer (ancestor of Jesus);
  • Elihu – Elihu (son of Tohu); Elihu (defecting chief at Ziklag); Elihu (gatekeeper of the lineage of Obed-edom); Elihu (brother of David); Elihu (son of Barachel)*;
  • Elijah, Apocalypse of or Apocalypse of Elijah – Apocalypse of Elijah (Jewish-Christian book ca. 150-275 CE)*; Apocalypse of Elijah (Jewish Hebrew apocalypse ca. 6th-7th century)*;
  • Elioenai – Elioenai (son of Neariah); Elioenai (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Elioenai (son of Becher); Elioenai (divorcing priest); Elioenai (Israelite of the Zattu clan of Ezra); Elioenai (priest of Neh.);
  • Eliphelet – Eliphelet (son(s?) of David); Eliphelet (of David's Thirty); Eliphelet (son of Eshek); Eliphelet (returning descendant of Adonikam); Eliphelet (divorcing descendant of Hashum);
  • Elisha – Miracle Stories**; Political Legends**; Deuteronomistic Edition*;
  • Elishama – Elishama (son of Ammihud); Elishama (son of David); Elishama (father of Nethaniah); Elishama (descendant of Jerahmeel); Elishama (priest of Jehosaphat's commission); Elishama (scribe under Jehoiakim);
  • Elizaphan – Elizaphan (son of Uzziel); Elizaphan (son of Parnach);
  • Elkanah – Elkanah (descendant of Korah); Elkanah (father of Samuel)*; Elkanah (ancestor of Samuel of Chr. 6:25); Elkanah (ancestor of Samuel of Chr. 6:26); Elkanah (ancestor of Berechiah); Elkanah (Korahite of David's Mighty Men); Elkanah (Davidic Levite doorkeeper of the ark); Elkanah (official of Ahaz);
  • Elnathan – Elnathan (father of Nehushta); Elnathan (1 or 2 "leaders" and a "wise" returner from exile); Elnathan (son of Achbor);
  • Elon (person) – Elon (father of Basemath); Elon (son of Zebulun); Elon (Zebulunite judge);
  • Elzabad – Elzabad (Gadite of Ziklag); Elzabad (Korahite temple gatekeeper);
  • En-gannim – En-gannim (settlement in the Judean Shephelah); En-gannim (levitical city of Issachar);
  • Enoch (person) – Enoch (son of Cain); Enoch (son of Jared)*;
  • Enoch, Books of or Books of Enoch – 1 (Ethiopic) Enoch**; 2 (Slavonic) Enoch*; 3 (Hebrew) Enoch*;
  • Ephah (person) – Ephah (son of Midian)*; Ephah (concubine of Caleb); Ephah (son of Jahdai);
  • Epher – Epher (son of Midian); Epher (son of Ezrah); Epher (of 1 Chr. 5:24);
  • Ephesians, Letter to the or Letter to the Ephesians – Contents*; Occasion, Purpose, and Literary Classification**; Theological Themes**; Authorship, Dating, and Related Questions**;
  • Ephraim (person) – Eponymous Figure*; Tribe*; Territory**;
  • Ephrath (place) – Ephrath (city near where Rachel died); Ephrath (place where Rachel was buried);
  • Ephron (place) – Ephron (district on the northern border of Judah); Ephron (town taken by King Abijah of Jordan); Ephron (large town of 1 Macc.);
  • Er – Er (son of Judah); Er (son of Shelah); Er (father of Elmadam);
  • Eschatology – OT Prophets*; Jewish Apocalyptic Literature*; Jesus and the Gospels**; Paul*; General Epistles and Revelation*;
  • Esdras, Books of or Books of Esdras – 1 Esdras**; 2 Esdras**;
  • Eshtemoa (person) – Eshtemoa (son of Ishbah); Eshtemoa (descendant of Hodiah);
  • Esther, Book of or Book of Esther – Synopsis**; Canonicity*; Composition**; Versions*; Genre*; Purpose**; Recent Scholarly Issues*;
  • Etam – Etam (place where Samson lodged); Etam (town occupied by the descendants of Simeon); Etam (town in the hill country of Judah);
  • Ethan – Ethan (one of the sons of Mahol); Ethan (descendant of Zerah); Ethan (son of Zimmah); Ethan (son of Kishi);
  • Ether – Ether (town of the tribal allotment of Judah); Ether (town occupied by the tribe of Simeon within the tribal allotment of Judah);
  • Eve – OT**; Intertestamental Writings and NT*; Later Traditions*;
  • Exodus, Book of or Book of Exodus – Canonical Context*; Content*; Theology and History of Composition**; Continuing Significance*;
  • Ezbon – Ezbon (son of Gad); Ezbon (son of Bela);
  • Ezekiel, Book of or Book of Ezekiel – The Prophet*; The Book**;
  • Ezer – Ezer (son of Seir); Ezer (father of Hushah); Ezer (cattle raiding Ephraimite); Ezer (joined David at Ziklag); Ezer (son of Jeshua); Ezer (priest of Neh.);
  • Ezra – Ezra (of the Book of Ezra)*; Ezra (priest of Neh. 12:1, 13); Ezra (priest of Neh. 12:33);
  • Ezra, Book of or Book of Ezra – Date, Scope, and Structure**; Content and Messages**; Historical Background*; Historical and Literary Issues*;
    • Ezra, Book of or Book of Ezra – Content and Messages – Cyrus' decree (538) to restore the house of God in Jerusalem (1:1-4)*; Implementation of the decree (Ezra 1:5-Neh. 7:73 [72])**;
      • Ezra, Book of or Book of Ezra – Content and Messages – Implementation of the decree (Ezra 1:5-Neh. 7:73 [72]) – Introduction with a list of returning exiles (Ezra 1:5-2:1-70)*; Implementation of decree in three movements (Ezra 3:1-Neh. 7:73 [72])**;
        • Ezra, Book of or Book of Ezra – Content and Messages – Implementation of the decree (Ezra 1:5-Neh. 7:73 [72]) – Implementation of the decree in three movements – First movement: Building of the temple under Zerubbabel and Joshua's leadership in 538-516/5 (Ezra 3:1-6:22)**; Second movement: Building community under Ezra's leadership in 458-457 (Ezra 7:1-10:44)**;

F[edit]

  • Flood – Terminology*; Biblical Narrative**; Literary Character*; Significance*; Other Flood Traditions*; Sceintific Issues*;

G[edit]

  • Gabael – Gabael (ancestor of Tobit); Gabael (friend of Tobit);
  • Gad (person) – Gad (son of Jacob); Gad (David's prophet or seer);
  • Gaddi – Gaddi (son of Susi); Gaddi (nikname of Judas Maccabeus' brother John);
  • Gaius – Gaius (Macedonian who traveled with Paul to Ephesus); Gaius (Paul's companion from Derbe); Gaius (Corinthian baptized by Paul); Gaius (recipient of 3 John);
  • Galal – Galal (Levite of 1 Chr. 9:15); Galal (son of Jeduthun);
  • Galatians, Letter to the or Letter to the Galatians – Backgrtound**; Content**;
    • Galatians, Letter to the or Letter to the Galatians – Content – Truth of the Gospel (1:11-2:21)**; Content – Children of the Promise (3:1-5:12)**; Content – Living by the Spirit (5:13-6:10)**; Content – Contemporary Discussion**;
  • Galilee – Israelite Period**; Hellenistic-Roman Period**; Early Church and Rabbis*;
  • Gamaliel – Gamaliel (son of Pedahur); Gamaliel (Gamaliel I)**; Gamaliel (Gamaliel II);
  • Gath-rimmon – Gath-rimmon (city allotted to Dan); Gath-rimmon (city reallotted from Manasseh to Levites);
  • Gazez – Gazez (son of Caleb); Gazez (son of Haran);
  • Gebal – Gebal (city 30 km north of Beirut)**; Gebal (now Gibal territory);
  • Gedaliah – Gedaliah (son of Ahikam); Gedaliah (musician of David's reign); Gedaliah (of the family of Jeshua); Gedaliah (son of Pashhur); Gedaliah (grandfather of Zephaniah);
  • Gederah – Gederah (town in the Shephelah); Gederah (home town of Jozabad the Gederathite);
  • Gedor (place) – Gedor (town in the Judean hill country); Gedor (city in Gilead and capital of Perea);
  • Gemariah – Gemariah (son of Hilkiah); Gemariah (son of Shaphan);
  • Genesis, Book of or Book of Genesis – Name and Early Interpretation*; Structure and Contents**; Formation**; History*;
  • Gera – Gera (son of Benjamin); Gera (father of Ehud); Gera (father of Shimei); Gera (name in 1 Chr. 8:1-40); Gera (son of Ehud);
  • Gershom – Gershom (son of Moses); Gershom (son of Levi); Gershom (descendant of Phinehas);
  • Geshur – Geshur (Aramean kingdom)*; Geshur (people or region south of the Philistine pentapolis);
  • Gestures – Illustrations**;
    • Gestures – Illustrations – Head*; Face Alone**; Limbs**;
  • Gibeah – Gibeah (town in the hill country of Judah); Gibeah (town in the hill country of Ephraim); Gibeah (Benjaminite city)**;
  • Giddel – Giddel (returning temple servant); Giddel (servant of Solomon);
  • Gihon – Gihon (river of Genesis); Gihon (spring in the Kidron Valley)*;
  • Gilead (person) – Gilead (son of Machir); Gilead (father of Jephthah); Gilead (ancestor of the Gadite clan);
  • Gilgal – Gilgal (place "opposite" Mts. Gerizim and Ebal); Gilgal (place east of Jericho)**; Gilgal (place in Galilee); Gilgal (place on the northern border of Judah); Gilgal (site north of Bethel); Gilgal (iste Demetrius passed in 1 Macc.);
  • Ginnethon – Ginnethon (priest of Neh. 10:6); Ginnethon (priest of Neh. 12:16);
  • Glory – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • God – Issues of Genre**; The Knowledge of God**; Basic Claims about God***;
    • God – Basic Claims about God – Living and eternal*; Unity*; Unique, incomparable*; Present**; Active*; Relational**; Intentional*; Interactive*; Situational*; Effective*; Vulnerable*; Use of agents**; Mighty acts*; Extraordinary events*;
  • God in the Old Testament, Names of or Names of God in the Old Testament – Adon*; Baal*; El*; El Elyon*; El Shaddai*; Eloah*; Fear of Isaac*; Holy One*; Mighty One of Jacob*;
  • Goiim – Goiim (kingdom led by Tidal); Goiim (kingdom whose king was defeated by Joshua); Goiim (alt. form of goyim);
  • Gomer – Gomer (son of Japheth); Gomer (son of Diblaim);
  • Goshen – Goshen (territory in Egypt settled by Hebrews)**; Goshen (region in southern Canaan); Goshen (town in the hill country assigned to Judah);
  • Gospel or Good News – Origin of usage*; Matthew and Luke**; Mark*; Paul**; Other NT Usages*;
  • Greece – Bronze Age and Archaic Period (Beginnings to 450 B.C.E.)**; Classical Period (450-323 B.C.E.)**; Hellenistic Period (323-31 B.C.E.)**; Roman Period (31 B.C.E.-476 C.E.)*;
  • Greek (language) – History*; Greek in the Near East**;
  • Guni – Guni (son of Naphtali); Guni (father of Abdiel);

H[edit]

  • Habakkuk, Book of or Book of Habakkuk – Text*; Form*; Historical Context and Central Message**;
  • Hadad (person) – Hadad (son of Ishmael); Hadad (king of Edom, son of Bedad); Hadad (later king of Edom); Hadad (Edomite king, enemy of Solomon);
  • Hadadezer – Hadadezer (king of Zobah); Hadadezer (king of Damascus);
  • Hadoram – Hadoram (descendant of Joktan); Hadoram (son of King Tou or Hamath); Hadoram (official of King Rehoboam);
  • Haggai, Book of or Book of Haggai – Prophetic Call to Work on the Temple (1:1-11)*; Response of Leaders and People (1:12-15a)*; Assurance of God's Presence (1:15b-2:9)*; Priestly Ruling with Interpretation (2:10-19)*; Future Hope (2:20-23)*;
  • Hakkoz – Hakkoz (head of the seventh division of priests under David); Hakkoz (family returning from exile);
  • Hamites or Hamitic – Hamites or Hamitic (descendants of Ham)*; Hamites or Hamitic (Hamito-Semitic earlier designation of languages and cultures)*;
  • Hammon – Hammon (city in the territory assigned to Asher); Hammon (city in the territory of Naphtali);
  • Hanan – Hanan (son of Shashak); Hanan (son of Azel); Hanan (son of Maacah); Hanan (head of family of returners); Hanan (Levite of the time of Ezra); Hanan (Two men listed as leaders of the people in Neh.); Hanan (son of Zaccur); Hanan (guild member who occupied a chamber of the temple in Jer.);
  • Hanani – Hanani (father of Jehu)*; Hanani (son of Heman); Hanani (son of the priestly family of Immer); Hanani (Nehemiah's brother); Hanani (priest and trumpeter of Neh.);
  • Hananiah – Hananiah (son of Zerubbabel); Hananiah (postexilic member of tribe of Benjamin); Hananiah (son of Heman); Hananiah (commander under King Uzziah); Hananiah (of the family of Bebai who sent away foreign wife); Hananiah (son of Shelemiah); Hananiah (governor of the citadel/palace at time of Nehemiah); Hananiah (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Hananiah (priest and head of house of Jeremiah at time of Neh.); Hananiah (son of Azzur)*; Hananiah (father of official under Jehoiakim); Hananiah (father of Chelemiah); Hananiah (changed name to Shadrach);
  • Hanniel – Hanniel (son of Ephod); Hanniel (son of Ulla);
  • Hanoch – Hanoch (son of Midian); Hanoch (son of Reuben);
  • Hanun – Hanun (son of Nahash); Hanun (Israelite helped restore walls in Neh.); Hanun (son of Zalaph);
  • Haran (person) – Haran (son of Terah); Haran (descendant of Judah); Haran (son of Shimei);
  • Harim – Harim (head of a priestly family at time of David); Harim (person or place that designates a lay family of returners in Ezra);
  • Harod – Harod (spring in Judg.); Harod (town SE of Jerusalem, exact location unknown);
  • Hasadiah – Hasadiah (son of Zerubbabel); Hasadiah (ancestor of Baruch);
  • Hashabiah – Hashabiah (father of Malluch); Hashabiah (father of Azrikam); Hashabiah (son of Jeduthun); Hashabiah (Hebronite official of David); Hashabiah (son of Kemuel); Hashabiah (chief officer of the Levites at time of Josiah); Hashabiah (descendant of Merari); Hashabiah (one of 12 priests set apart by Ezra); Hashabiah (divorcing descendant of Parosh); Hashabiah (ruler of half the district of Keilah at time of Neh.); Hashabiah (sealer of covenant of Neh.); Hashabiah (chief officer of the Levites at time of Neh.); Hashabiah (head of a priestly family of Hilkiah); Hashabiah (a leader of the Levites at time of Neh.);
  • Hashabneiah – Hashabneiah (father of Hattush); Hashabneiah (Levite at time of Neh.);
  • Hashum – Hashum (returner at time of Ezra); Hashum (representative of the family of Hashum at time of Ezra);
  • Hasrah – Hasrah (grandfather of Shallum); Hasrah (head of family of returning exiles);
  • Hassenuah – Hassenuah (father of Hodaviah); Hassenuah (father of Judah);
  • Hasshub – Hasshub (Levite of the line of Merari); Hasshub (son of Pahath-moab); Hasshub (Israelite who helped rebuild the walls);
  • Hattush – Hattush (son of Shemaiah); Hattush (son of Hashabneiah); Hattush (returning priest);
  • Havilah (person) – Havilah (son of Cush); Havilah (son of Joktan);
  • Hazor – Hazor (city at the corner of the Huleh Plain)**; Hazor (city in the Negeb); Hazor (city on the southern border of Judah); Hazor (town resettled by Benjaminites after the Restoration); Hazor (collective term for Arab kingdoms);
    • Hazor (city at the corner of the Huleh Plain) – Textual References**; Archaeological Investigations**;
      • Hazor (city at the corner of the Huleh Plain) – Archaeological Investigations – Bronze Age**; Iron Age**;
  • Heber – Heber (son of Beriah); Heber (Kenite descended from Hobab); Heber (descendant of Ezrah); Heber (son of Elpaal);
  • Hebrew, Biblical or Biblical Hebrew – History**; Grammar**; Verbal System*;
    • Hebrew, Biblical or Biblical Hebrew – Verbal System – Diachronic vs. Synchronic Approaches*; Tense vs. Aspect*;
  • Hebrews, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Hebrews – Literary Genre*; Content**; Authorship*; Intended Audience**;
  • Hebron (person) – Hebron (son of Kohath); Hebron (son of Mareshah);
  • Heldai – Heldai (Netophatite of David's army); Heldai (returner from exile);
  • Helem – Helem (descendant of Asher); Helem (responsible for the crown of the high priest in Zech.);
  • Helez – Helez (descendadnt of Jerahmeel); Helez (Pelonite of the army of Ephraim);
  • Heliopolis – Heliopolis (Egyptian city Om); Heliopolis (Greek name of Baalbek);
  • Heman – Heman (descendant of Esau); Heman (son of Mahol); Heman (son of Joel);
  • Hepher (person) – Hepher (son of Gilead); Hepher (descendant of Judah); Hepher (one of David's mighty men);
  • Hephzibah – Hephzibah (wife of King Hezekiah); Hephzibah (symbolic name for Jerusalem);
  • Herod (family) – Herod Antipater (father of Herod the Great)**; Herod the Great**; Mariamme I**; Mariamme II*; Salome (sister of Herod)*; Herod Antipater (son of Herod the Great)*; Alexander and Aristobulus*; Mariamme (granddaughter of Herod)*; Archelaus*; Mariamme (wife of Archelaus)*; Antipas (son of Herod the Great)*; Salome (daughter of Herod)*; Philip the Tetrarch**; Herod (son of Herod)*; Mariamme (married Herod IV)*; Agrippa I*; Mariamme (daughter of Agrippa I)*; Agrippa II*;
    • Herod (family) Herod the Great – King Herod**; Middle Years**; Herod's Buildings*; Final Years*; Evaluation*;
  • Hezekiah – Hezekiah (king of Judah)**; Hezekiah (head of family of returners); Hezekiah (ancestor of Zephaniah);
  • Hezir – Hezir (leaderof 17th division of priests under David); Hezir (Levite who sealed the covenant of Neh.);
  • Hezron (person) – Hezron (son of Reuben); Hezron (son of Perez);
  • Hieronymus – Hieronymus (district governor in 2 Macc.); Hieronymus (Latin form of Jerome);
  • Hilkiah – Hilkiah (father of Eliakim); Hilkiah (High priest at time of Josiah); Hilkiah (pre-exilic Levite, possible great-grandfather of Ezra); Hilkiah (ancestor of Merari); Hilkiah (father of postexilic priest, various names); Hilkiah (gatekeeper at the time of David); Hilkiah (one who stood beside Ezra); Hilkiah (leader of the priests at time of Neh.); Hilkiah (father of Jeremiah); Hilkiah (father of Gemariah); Hilkiah (ancestor of Judith); Hilkiah (ancestor of Baruch); Hilkiah (ancestor of Susanne);
  • Hillel – Hillel (father of Abdon); Hillel (Hillel the Elder)**;
  • Hiram – Hiram I*; Hiram the metalworker*; Hiram II*; Hiram III*; Hiram IV*;
  • Historiography, Biblical or Biblical historiography – Definition of History*; Survey of Research**; Biblical Historical Writings*;
  • Hittites – History**; Myths of Origin*; Identity**;
  • Hodaviah – Hodaviah (son of Elioenai); Hodaviah (head of a family in the half-tribe of Manasseh); Hodaviah (son of Hassenuah); Hodaviah (Levite ancestor of returners from exile);
  • Hodiah – Hodiah (brother-in-law of Nahum); Hodiah (Levite interpreter of the law of the time of Ezra); Hodiah (two Levites who signed the covenant of Ezra); Hodiah (an apparently non-Levite signer of the covenant of Ezra);
  • Holon – Holon (city in the hill country of Judah); Holon (city in the tableland of Moab);
  • Holy Spirit – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Holy Spirit – New Testament – Gospels**; Paul**; John**;
  • Homosexuality – Male-male rape*; Same-sex intercourse as violation of purity*; Same-sex commitments*;
  • Hor – Hor (mountain on which Aaron died); Hor (mountain marking the northern boundary of Israel);
  • Hori – Hori (son of Lotan); Hori (father of Shaphat);
  • Horites – Horites (seminomadic people living in Seir-Edom)*; Horites (Hivites translated in the LXX as Horites)*;
  • Horn – Horn (container for liquids); Horn (symol of power, victory, or glory);
  • Hosea, Book of or Book of Hosea – Text*; Literary Structure*; Compositional History**; Hosea, His Wife, and Social Location**; Message**;
  • Hoshaiah – Hoshaiah (a leader of Judah in Neh.); Hoshaiah (father of Jezaniah);
  • Hoshea – Hoshea (original name of Joshua); Hoshea (last king of northern Israel); Hoshea (chief officer David placed over Ephraim); Hoshea (levitical priest who ratified Ezra's covenant); Hoshea (prophet also called Hosea);
  • Hotham – Hotham (son of Heber); Hotham (father of Shama);
  • House – Textual Usage**; Archaeological Contexts**;
  • Hur – Hur (companion of Moses and Aaron); Hur (grandfather of Bezalel); Hur (one of five kings slain at Peor); Hur (father of Solomon's governor in Ephraim); Hur (father of Rephaiah);
  • Huram – Huram (Tyrian metal-worker); Huram (alternate form of the name Hiram); Huram (son of Bela);
  • Hurrians – History**; Language and Literature**;
  • Hushim – Hushim (son of Dan); Hushim (sons of Aher); Hushim (mother of Abitub);
  • Hyksos – Ethnic Identification**; Rise to Power**; End of Rule*; Impact*;
  • Hyrkanus – Hyrcanus (son of Tobias); John Hyrcanus**; Hyrcanus II**;

I[edit]

  • Iddo – Iddo (father of Ahinadab); Iddo (Levite descendant of Gershom); Iddo (prophet said to have authored a midrash); Iddo (grandfather of Zechariah); Iddo (tribal leader under David); Iddo (Yehudite who married a foreign woman); Iddo (Judean leader of the time of Ezra);
  • Igal – Igal (spy from Issachar); Igal (son of Nathan); Igal (son of Shemaiah);
  • Illness and Health Care – Prehistoric and Early Periods**; Preexilic Israel**; Postexilic Israel**; Early Christianity**; Conclusion**;
  • Imnah – Imnah (son of Asher); Imnah (father of Kore);
  • Imri – Imri (ancestor of Uthai); Imri (father of Zaccur);
  • Inscriptions, Semitic or Semitic inscriptions – Hebrew**; Moabite*; Old Aramaic*; Phoenician*; Conclusion*;
  • Interpretation, Biblical or Biblical interpretation – OT and Judaism**; Early Church and Medieval Interpretation**; The Reformation and Modern Interpretation**; Contemporary Approaches**;
  • Ira – Ira (Manassite of the lineage of Jair); Ira (son of Ikkesh); Ira (Ithrite, one of David's Champions);
  • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – The Prophetic Scroll**; Message**;
    • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – The Prophetic Scroll – Historical Questions**; Canonical Criticism**; Primary Historical Setting**;
    • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – Message – Memories of Isaiah's Vision (Chs. 1-39)**; The Basis for Hope (Chs. 40-55)**; Maintaining the Vision (Chs. 56-66)**;
      • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – Message – Memories of Isaiah's Vision (Chs. 1-39) – A People in Revolt (Ch. 1)*; Judgment for Judah and Jerusalem (Chs. 2-12)**; Judgment for Babylon and the Nations (Chs. 13-35)*; Isaiah and Hezekiah (Chs. 36-39)*;
  • Ishi – Ishi (son of Appaim); Ishi (father of Zoheth); Ishi (Simeonite whose sons or followers defeated Amalekites in 1 Chr.); Ishi (head of a father's house in the half-tribe of Manasseh);
  • Ishmael – Ishmael (son of Abraham)**; Ishmael (son of Azel); Ishmael (father of Zebediah); Ishmael (son of Johananan); Ishmael (son of Passhur); Ishmael (son of Nethaniah);
  • Ishmaiah – Ismaiah (Gibeonite leader of the Thirty); Ismaiah (son of Obadiah);
  • Ishvi – Ishvi (son of Asher); Ishvi (son of Saul);
  • Israel – Name**; Biblical Account**; Biblical Account of History**; Extrabiblical Evidence and Theories**;
    • Israel – Biblical Account of History – Wilderness to United Monarchy**; Kingdom of Israel**;
  • Issachar – Issachar (son of Leah); Issachar (son of Obed-orem);
  • Isshiah – Isshiah (son of Izrahiah); Isshiah (who joined David at Ziklag); Isshiah (son of Uzziel); Isshiah (Levite of the family of Rehabiah);
  • Ithiel – Ithiel (ancestor of Sallu); Ithiel (person addressed in Proverbs);
  • Ithran – Ithran (son of Dishon); Ithran (son of Zophah);
  • Ittai – Ittai (man from Gath in 2 Sam.); Ittai (son of Ribai);
  • Izhar – Izhar (Levite father of Korah); Izhar (Judahite son of Helah);

J[edit]

  • Jaasiel – Jaasiel (Mezobaite, one of David's mighty men); Jaasiel (son of Abner);
  • Jaazaniah – Jaazaniah (commander of the troops of Judah under Gedaliah); Jaazaniah (son of Jeremiah); Jaazaniah (son of Shaphan); Jaazaniah (son of Azzur);
  • Jabin – Jabin (king of Hazor in Josh.); Jabin (king of Hazor in Judg.);
  • Jabneel – Jabneel (town on the southern border of the tribe of Judah); Jabneel (town on the southeastern border of Naphtali);
  • Jachin – Jachin (son of Simeon); Jachin (leader of the 21st priestly division at the time of David);
  • Jaddua – Jaddua (a "leader of the people" who sealed the covenant in Neh.); Jaddua (son of Jonathan);
  • Jahath – Jahath (son of Reaiah); Jahath (son of Libni); Jahath (grandson of Gershom); Jahath (son of Shelomoth); Jahath (overseer of the temple repair work force at the time of King Josiah);
  • Jahaziel – Jahaziel (Benjaminite who came to David at Ziklag); Jahaziel (priest at the time of David); Jahaziel (Korahite Levite of 1 Chr.); Jahaziel (son of Zechariah); Jahaziel (father of Shecaniah);
  • Jair – Jair (son of Manasseh); Jair (Jair the Gileadite); Jair (father of Elhanan); Jair (father of Mordecai);
  • Jakim – Jakim (son of Shimei); Jakim (leader of the twelfth division of priests at the time of David);
  • James – James the son of Zebedee**; James the son of Alphaeus*; James the son of Mary*; James the father of Judas*; James the brother of Jesus**;
  • James, Letter of or Letter of James – Theological Emphases**;
    • James, Letter of or Letter of James – Theological Emphases – Wisdom*; Love, Faith, and Works*; Perfection*; Eschatology*;
  • Jamin – Jamin (son of Simeon); Jamin (son of Ram); Jamin (Levite of the time of Neh.);
  • Janoah – Janoah (town on the eastern border of Ephraim)*; Janoah (city in the northern region of Naphtali)*;
  • Japheth – Japheth (son of Noah)**; Japheth (region north of Arabia);
  • Japhia (person) – Japhia (king of Lachish); Japhia (son of David);
  • Jarib – Jarib (son of Simeon); Jarib (sent by Ezra to Casiphia); Jarib (priest Ezra ordered to give up a foreign wife);
  • Jarmuth – Jarmuth (city in Judah); Jarmuth (city in Issachar);
  • Jashobeam – Jashobeam (Hachmonite leader of David's Three); Jashobeam (son of Zabdiel); Jashobeam (Korahite who defected at Ziklag);
  • Jashub – Jashub (son of Issachar); Jashub (returned exile of Ezra);
  • Jason – Jason (son of Eleazar); Jason (father of Antipater); Jason (Cyrenian historian); Jason (high priest 174-171 B.C.E.); Jason (Jewish Christian of Acts 17:5-9); Jason (companion of Paul in Rom 16:21);
  • Jeconiah or Jechoniah – Jeconiah or Jechoniah (altenate name of King Jehoiachin of Judah); Jeconiah or Jechoniah (Levitical priest of time of King Josiah); Jeconiah or Jechoniah (alternate name of King Jehoahaz or Judah);
  • Jedaiah – Jedaiah (son of Shimri); Jedaiah (eponymous ancestor of a priestly house); Jedaiah (wall builder of Neh.); Jedaiah (priest of the time of Neh.); Jedaiah (two levitical chiefs who returned at time of Neh. 12:6-7); Jedaiah (two head of family priest of Neh. 12:19, 21); Jedaiah (contemporary of the prophet Zechariah);
  • Jediael – Jediael (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Jediael (son of Shimri); Jediael (military chief who deserted David at Ziklag); Jediael (son of Meshelemiah);
  • Jeduthun – Jeduthun (father of Obed-edom); Jeduthun (Levitical musician of 1 and 2 Chr.);
  • Jehallelel – Jehallelel (descendant of Judah); Jehallelel (father of Azariah);
  • Jehdeiah – Jehdeiah (descendant of Shubael); Jehdeiah (Meronothite overseer of David's donkeys);
  • Jehiel – Jehiel (Levite musician of the time of David); Jehiel (founder of the levitical family of Jehieli); Jehiel (son of Hachmoni); Jehiel (Gershonite of 1 Chr.); Jehiel (Levite of 2 Chr.); Jehiel (Levite official of the time of Hezekiah); Jehiel (official of the time of Josiah); Jehiel (father of Obadiah); Jehiel (father of Shechasniah); Jehiel (priest of the family of Harim); Jehiel (Israelite of the family of Elam);
  • Jehoahaz – Jehoahaz (King of Judah son of Jehoram); Jehoahaz (King of Israel son of Jehu); Jehoahaz (17th King of Judah);
  • Jehohanan – Jehohanan (Korahite Levite gatekeeper of 1 Chr.); Jehohanan (Judahite commander in Jehoshaphat's army in 2 Chr.); Jehohanan (father of Ishmael); Jehohanan (owner of chamber to which Ezra retreated for fasting); Jehohanan (son of Bebai); Jehohanan (son of Tobiah the Ammonite); Jehohanan (head of a priestly house in Neh.); Jehohanan (priest at dedication of the walls in Neh.);
  • Jehoiada – Jehoiada (priest from Kabzeel); Jehoiada (priest in coup against Athaliah)**; Jehoiada (son of Benaiah); Jehoiada (son of Eliashib); Jehoiada (priest replaced by Zephaniah);
  • Jehoiakim – Jehoiakim (King of Judah 609-598 B.C.E.)**; Jehoiakim (son of Hilkiah);
  • Jehonathan – Jehonathan (Levite of 2 Chr.); Jehonathan (postexilic priest of Neh.);
  • Jehoram – Jehoram (son of Ahab)**; Jehoram (son and successor or Jehoshaphat)*; Jehoram (priest of Judah);
  • Jehoshaphat – Jehoshaphat (son of Ahilud); Jehoshaphat (son of Paruah); Jehoshaphat (King of Judah)**; Jehoshaphat (son of Nimshi);
  • Jehozabad – Jehozabad (servant of Joash of Judah); Jehozabad (son of Obed-edom); Jehozabad (Benjaminite commander of 2 Chr.);
  • Jehu – Jehu (prophet of the era of King Baasha of Israel); Jehu (King of Israel ca. 843-816 B.C.E.)**; Jehu (son of Obed); Jehu (son of Joshibiah); Jehu (Benjaminite warrior of David at Ziklag);
  • Jeiel – Jeiel (clan chief of 1 Chr.); Jeiel (father of Gibeon); Jeiel (son of Hotham); Jeiel (Levite harpist of 1 Chr.); Jeiel (Asaphite Levite of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (secretary of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (chief of Levites of 2 Chr.); Jeiel (descendant of Nebo);
  • Jekamiah – Jekamiah (son of Shallum); Jekamiah (descendant of King Jeconiah);
  • Jephunneh – Jephunneh (father of Caleb); Jephunneh (son of Jether);
  • Jerahmeel – Jerahmeel (brother of Ram and Caleb)*; Jerahmeel (son of Kish); Jerahmeel (Judean officer under Jehoiakim);
  • Jeremiah – Jeremiah (man from Libnah); Jeremiah (clan head of 1 Chr.); Jeremiah (Benjaminite warrior that joined David at Ziklag); Jeremiah (two Gadite warriors who joined David at Ziklag); Jeremiah (priest who signed the covenant of Neh.); Jeremiah (priest returner of Neh.); Jeremiah (administrative official of Judah at Neh.); Jeremiah (prophet from Anathoth); Jeremiah (father of Jaazaniah);
  • Jeremoth – Jeremoth (of the sons of Becher); Jeremoth (son of Beriah); Jeremoth (son of Mushi); Jeremoth (son of Heman); Jeremoth (descendant of Elam); Jeremoth (descendant of Zattu); Jeremoth (descendant of Bani);
  • Jericho – Old Testament and Apocrypha*; New Testament*; Tell es-Sultân**; Tulûl Abū el-‘Alayiq*;
  • Jerimoth – Jerimoth (son of Bela); Jerimoth (Benjaminite who joined David at ZIklag); Jerimoth (family head of tribe of Levi of 1 Chr.); Jerimoth (temple musician and seer of time of David); Jerimoth (commander of Naphtali at time of David); Jerimoth (son of King David); Jerimoth (temple storeroom overseer of 2 Chr.);
  • Jeroboam – Jeroboam (first king of Israel)**; Jeroboam (King of Israel 785-745)**;
  • Jeroham – Jeroham (father of Elkanah); Jeroham (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Ibneiah); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Adaiah); Jeroham (man from Gedor); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Azarel); Jeroham (father or ancestor of Azariah);
  • Jerusalem – Name*; Setting**; Ancient Sources*; Archaeological Evidence*; History***;
  • Jerusalem, Gates of or Gates of Jerusalem – Preexilic Period*; Restoration Period**; New Testament Period**;
  • Jeshaiah – Jeshaiah (grandson of Zerubbabel); Jeshaiah (son of Jeduthun); Jeshaiah (son of Rehabiah); Jeshaiah (son of Athaliah); Jeshaiah (Meraite Levite of Ezra); Jeshaiah (forebear of Sallu);
  • Jeshimon – Jeshimon (desert region east of the Judean mountains and west of the Dead Sea); Jeshimon (desert region at northeastern end of the Dead Sea);
  • Jeshua – Jeshua (head of ninth division of Levitical priests of 1 Chr.); Jeshua (priest of the time of Hezekiah); Jeshua (son of Jehozadak); Jeshua (name of a nonpriestly clan of Pahathmoab); Jeshua (levitical house of returnees); Jeshua (alternate form of Joshua son of Nun); Jeshua (father of Jozabad); Jeshua (father of Ezer); Jeshua (Levitical singer of Neh.); Jeshua (son of Kadmiel);
  • Jesus – Jesus (father of Sirach); Jesus (alternate name of Joshua ben Sira); Jesus (surname of Paul's co-worker Justus);
  • Jesus Christ – Life**; Sources**; Public Career*; Teaching**; Miracles*; Controversy and Danger**; Jesus's Last Week**; The Resurrection**;
    • Jesus Christ – Teaching – The Nature of the Kingdom*; Its Time and Place*; Preparation and Discipleship*; The Poor and Sinners*; Self-Conception*; Jewish Law**; Ethics*;
    • Jesus Christ – Controversy and Danger – Crowds and Autonomy*; Scribes and Pharisees**;
  • Jether – Jether (son of Gideon); Jether (father of Amasa); Jether (son of Jada); Jether (son of Ezrah); Jether (Asherite of 1 Chr.);
  • Jeuel – Jeuel (head of a clan in 1 Chr.); Jeuel (of the sons of Elizaphan); Jeuel (son of Adonikam);
  • Jeush – Jeush (son of Esau); Jeush (son of Bilhan); Jeush (son of Eshek); Jeush (son of Shimei); Jeush (son of Rehoboam);
  • Jewish Christians – Sources*; History*;
  • Jezeniah – Jezeniah (captain of Judah's army in Jer.); Jezeniah (son of Hoshaiah);
  • Jezreel (person) – Jezreel (Judahite descent group); Jezreel (son of Hosea);
  • Jezreel (place) – Jezreel (town in the hills of Judah); Jezreel (valley of Jezreel)**; Jezreel (town on the southern border of Issachar);
  • Joah – Joah (son of Asaph); Joah (son of Zimmah); Joah (son of Obed-edom); Joah (father of Eden); Joah (son of Joahaz);
  • Joash – Joash (father of Gideon); Joash (son of Ahab); Joash (King of Judah 837-800 B.C.E.)**; Joash (King of Israel 800-785)**; Joash (of the Judahite genealogy of 1 Chr.); Joash (Benjaminite of 1 Chr.); Joash (archer who joined David at Ziklag); Joash (overseer of David's stores of oil);
  • Job, Book of or Book of Job – Composition and Structure*; Content and Movement**;
  • Jobab – Jobab (son of Joktan); Jobab (son of Zerah); Jobab (King of Madon defeated by Joshua); Jobab (son of Shaharaim); Jobab (son of Elpaal);
  • Joel – Joel (son of Samuel); Joel (prince of the tribe of Simeon); Joel (father of Shemaiah); Joel (chief of Gad); Joel (son of Azariah of Sam.); Joel (son of Izrahiah); Joel (brother of Nathan); Joel (cheif of the Gershomite Levites of the time of David); Joel (son of Ladan); Joel (son of Pedaiah); Joel (son of Azariah of 2 Chr.); Joel (son of Nebo); Joel (son of Zichri); Joel (prophet, son of Pethuel); Joel (archangel Joel);
  • Joha – Joha (son of Beriah); Joha (son of Shimri);
  • Johanan – Johanan (son of Kareah); Johanan (son of Josiah); Johanan (son of Elioenai); Johanan (son of Azariah); Johanan (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Johanan (Gadite who joined David at Ziklag); Johanan (Ephraimite chief, son of Azariah); Johanan (descendant of Azgad); Johanan (high priest of Neh.);
  • John – John (father of Matthias); John (son of Matthias); John (father of Eupolemus); John (John Hyrcanus I); John (John Hyrcanus II); John (envoy of 2 Mac.); John (John the Baptist); John (son of Zebedee); John (father of Peter); John (friend of Annas); John (John Mark, son of Mary); John (author of Revelation);
  • John, Gospel of or Gospel of John – Contents*; Authorship and Composition*; Date*; Readers*; Relationship to Other NT Books**; Theological Emphasis*;
    • John, Gospel of or Gospel of John – Relationship to Other NT Books – Synoptic Gospels*; Johannine Epistles*; Revelation*;
  • John, Letters of or Letters of John – 1 John**; 2 John*; 3 John*; Date and Location*;
  • John the Baptist – Sources*; Name*; Activity and Location**; Religious Message**; Followers*;
  • Joiada – Joiada (son of Paseah); Joiada (priest during the reign of Darius);
  • Joiarib – Joiarib (man of insight sent by Ezra); Joiarib (son of Zechariah); Joiarib (returning priest of Neh.);
  • Joktheel – Joktheel (town in the Shepelah); Joktheel (capital of Edomite territory);
  • Jonadab – Jonadab (son of Shimeah); Jonadab (son of Rechab);
  • Jonah, Book of or Book of Jonah – Jonah Called (1:1-3)*; Jonah Pursued (1:4-16)*; Jonah's Response to God's Deliverance (1:17-2:10 [MT 2:1-11])*; Nineveh and God Repent (3:1-10)*; A Theological Debate (4:1-11)*;
  • Jonathan – Jonathan (son of Gershom); Jonathan (son of Saul)**; Jonathan (son of Abiathar); Jonathan (son of Shammah); Jonathan (son of Jada); Jonathan (son of Shimei); Jonathan (son of Uzziah); Jonathan (uncle of King David); Jonathan (father of Ebed); Jonathan (son of Asahel); Jonathan (son of Joiada); Jonathan (priest of Neh.); Jonathan (son of Shemaiah); Jonathan (secretary of Jer.); Jonathan (son of Kareah); Jonathan (son of Mattathias)**; Jonathan (son of Absalom); Jonathan (priest of 2 Macc.);
  • Joram – Joram (son of King Toi of Hamath); Joram (contracted form of Jehoram); Joram (Levite descended from Eliezer);
  • Joseph – Joseph (son of Jacob)**; Joseph (father of Igal); Joseph (of the sons of Asaph); Joseph (descendant of Binnui); Joseph (returner of Neh.); Joseph (son of Oziel); Joseph (son of Zechariah); Joseph (brother of Judas Maccabeus); Joseph (husband of Mary)**; Joseph (brother of Jesus); Joseph (brother of James, son of Mary); Joseph of Arimathea**; Joseph (father of Jannai); Joseph (father of Judah); Joseph (disciple of Jesus called Barsabbas); Joseph (became Barnabas);
  • Joses – Joses (brother of Jesus); Joses (brother of James the younger);
  • Josaphat – Josaphat (of David's Thirty); Josaphat (trumpet blowing priest of 1 Chr.);
  • Joshua – Joshua (son of Nun)**; Joshua (man of 1 Sam.); Joshua (governor of Jerusalem of 2 Kings); Joshua (high priest); Joshua (person in Luke's genealogy of Jesus);
  • Joshua, Book of or Book of Joshua – Literary Characteristics**; Historical Features**;
  • Josiah – Josiah (son of Amon)**; Josiah (son of Zephaniah);
  • Jotham – Jotham (son of Gideon); Jotham (king of Judah)**; Jotham (son of Jahdai);
  • Jozabad – Jozabad (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Jozabad (two men who joined David at Ziklag); Jozabad (a temple overseer under Hezekiah); Jozabad (Levite who contributed to Josiah's Passover); Jozabad (son of the priestly family of Passhur); Jozabad (son of Jeshua the Levite); Jozabad (Levite of Ezra); Jozabad (Levite of Neh.);
  • Judah – Judah (son of Jacob); Judah (tribe of Judah); Judah (ancestor of a family in Ezra); Judah (Levite who had married a foreign woman); Judah (son of Hassenuah); Judah (returner from exile); Judah (leader of Judah in Neh.); Judah (priest and musician of Neh.); Judah (ancestor of Jesus);
  • Judah, Kingdom of or Kingdom of Judah – History***;
    • Judah, Kingdom of or Kingdom of Judah – History – Sources*; David and Solomon**; Divided Kingdom*; Omride Dynasty*; Aramean Domination*; Assyrian Domination**; Egyptian and Babylonian Domination**;
  • Judas – Judas (son of Chalphi); Judas (son of Simon Maccabeus); Judas (writer to Aristobulus); Judas (brother of Jesus); Judas (disciple other than Iscariot, often identified with Thaddeus); Judas (Judas of Galilee); Judas (who hosted Paul after the Damascus incident); Judas (Judas Barsabbas);
  • Jude, Letter of or Letter of Jude – Literary Structure*; Sources*; The Opponents*; Date*; Authorship**; Destination*; Message*;
  • Judges, Book of or Book of Judges – Formation*; The Judges*; Contents**; Themes*; New Directions*;
    • Judges, Book of or Book of Judges – Contents – The Conquest (1:1-2:5)*; Exploits of the Judges (2:6-16:31)*; Appendices (17:1-21:25)*;
  • Judith – Judith (wife of Esau); Judith (of the Book of Judith);
  • Justus – Justus (surname of Joseph Barsabbas); Justus (Titius or Titus Justus); Justus (Jesus Justus);

K[edit]

  • Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea – Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea (site in the northern Sinai)**; Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea (modern Tell Nebi Mind)*;
  • Kanah – Kanah (stream between Ephraim and Manasseh)*; Kanah (town in the territory of Asher)*;
  • Kedesh – Kedesh (city in Upper Galilee); Kedesh (town on the southern border of Judah); Kedesh (Levitical city of Issachar); Kedesh (town in southern Naphtali);
  • Kemuel – Kemuel (son of Nahor); Kemuel (son of Shiphtan); Kemuel (father of Hasabiah);
  • Kenaz or Kennizite – Kenaz or Kennizite (son of Eliphaz)*; Kenaz or Kennizite (brother of Caleb); Kenaz or Kennizite (son of Elah);
  • Kingdom of God or Kingdom of Heaven – Old Testament*; Apocalyptic and Intertestamental Literature*; New Testament**; Conclusion*;
  • Kings, Books of or Books of Kings – Organization*; Contents*; History of Composition*; Ideology*; Issues in Recent study**;
  • Kir – Kir (place to which Tilgath-pileser III deported Aramaeans)*; Kir (city in Moab); Kir (apparently a city in southern Mesopotamia);
  • Kiriathaim – Kiriathaim (town east of the Jordan); Kiriathaim (city in the territory of Naphtali);
  • Kish (Person) – Kish (Benjaminite from Gibeah); Kish (son or descendant of Jeiel); Kish (Levite of the Merarite clan); Kish (son of Abdi); Kish (Benjaminite ancestor of Mordecai);
  • Kolaiah – Kolaiah (ancestor of Sallu); Kolaiah (father of Ahab);
  • Korah – Korah (son or grandson of Esau); Korah (son of Izhar); Korah (son of Hebron); Korah (descendant of the levitical Korah);
  • Kore – Kore (Levite of the line of Korah); Kore (son of Imnah);

L[edit]

  • L – L (material found only in the Gospel of Luke); L (symbol designating Codex Leningradensis B);
  • Lachish – Old Testament**; Other Sources*; Tel Lachish/Tell ed-Duweir**;
  • Ladan – Ladan (ancestor of Joshua); Ladan (of the lineage of Gershon);
  • Lamentations, Book of or Book of Lamentations – Genre*; Lyric and Lyric Structure*; Contents**;
  • Land – Agriculture**; Nationhood**; Worship**;
  • Last Supper – Form of the Accounts**; Meaning**;
  • Law – Law Codes**; Judicial System**; Police Power**;
  • Levi – Levi (ancestor of the Levites)*; Levi (ancestor of Jesus); Levi (disciple known as Matthew); Levi (father of Matthat);
  • Leviticus, Book of or Book of Leviticus – Dating and Provenance**; Anthropological Perspectives*; Animal Sacrifice**; Holiness and Purity**; Historical Note*;
  • Libnah – Libnah (place in the Sinai Peninsula mentioned in Num.); Libnah (city conquered by Joshua)*;
  • Libni – Libni (son of Gershon); Libni (Levite descendant of Merari);
  • Literature, New Testament as or New Testament as literature – Sayings of Jesus**; Narratives**; Letters*;
  • Lord's Supper – Paul**; Matthew and Mark**; Luke**; Other Traditions*; Conclusion*;
    • Lord's Supper – Paul – 1 Cor. 11:17-34**; 1 Cor. 10:14-22**;
  • Love – Secular Human Relations**; Divine-Human Relationships**;
    • Love – Divine-Human Relationships – Torah**; Prophets**; Synoptic Gospels**; Johannine Writings*; Pauline Letters**;
  • Lucius – Lucius of Cyrene; Lucius (relative of Paul); Lucius Caecilius Metullus;
  • Luz – Luz (site of Jacob's ladder dream)*; Luz (in Judges)*;
  • Lysimachus – Lysimachus (general of Alexander the Great)*; Lysimachus (brother of Simon and Menelaus)*; Lysimachus (son of Ptolemy of Jerusalem)*; Lysimachus (author of an anti-Semitic history)*;

M[edit]

  • Maacah (person) – Maacah (child of Nahor); Maacah (mother of Absalom); Maacah (father of Achish); Maacah (wife of Rehoboam); Maacah (concubine of Caleb); Maacah (sister or wife of Machir); Maacah (wife of Jehiel); Maacah (father of Hanun); Maacah (father of Shepatiah);
  • Maasheiah or Asaiah – Maasheiah or Asaiah (Levite of the second order of 1 Chr.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (lute player of 1 Chr., maybe identical to previous); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Adaiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (officer under Hananiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (deputy or son of Ahaz of 2 Chr.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (governor of Jerusalem); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest of the family of Jeshua); Maasheiah or Asaiah (member of the priestly family of Harim); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest of the family of Pahhur); Maasheiah or Asaiah (member of the family of Pahath-moab); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Azariah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (person who stood at Ezra's right hand as he read the Torah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (Israelite who read the Torah in Hebrew); Maasheiah or Asaiah (a chief of the people and sealer of the covenant of Nehemiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Baruch); Maasheiah or Asaiah (ancestor of Sallu); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest who played the trumpet in Neh.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (priest who took part in the dedication in Neh.); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Zephaniah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (father of Zedekiah); Maasheiah or Asaiah (son of Shallum);
  • MaaziahMaaziah (founder of division of priests in 1 Chr.); Maaziah (priest who sealed the covenant in Neh.);
  • Maccabees, First and Second Books of or First and Second Books of Maccabees – Historical Background**; 1 Maccabees**; 2 Maccabees**;
  • Maccabees, Third and Fourth Books of or Third and Fourth Books of Maccabees – 3 Maccabees**; 4 Maccabees**;
  • Machir – Machir (son of Manasseh)**; Machir (son of Ammiel);
  • Magic – Ancient Mediterranean and Near East*; Old Testament**; New Testament and Early Christian Texts**;
  • Mahalalel or Mahalaleel – Malalalel or Mahalaleel (son of Kenan); Malalalel or Mahalaleel (Judahite of the family of Perez);
  • Mahalath or Basemoth – Mahalath or Basemoth (daughter of Ishmael); Mahalath or Basemoth (wife of Rehoboam); Mahalath or Basemoth (cryptic term in Psalms)*;
  • Mahath – Mahath (son of Amasai of 1 Chr.); Mahath (son of Amasai of 2 Chr.);
  • Mahlah – Mahlah (daughter of Zelophebad); Mahlah (child of Hammolecheth);
  • Mahli – Mahli (son of Merari); Mahli (son of Mushi);
  • Malachi, Book of or Book of Malachi – Date*; Historical Background*; Authorship**; Genre*; Outline and Message**;
    • Malachi, Book of or Book of Malachi – Outline and Message – 1:2-5 God's Love for Israel*; 1:6-2:9 Pollution by the Priests*; 2:10-16 Unfaithfulness within the Community*; 2:17-3:5 – Cleansing of the Community*; 3:6-12 Paying for Cultic Services*; 3:13-4:3 (3:21) Hope for the Community*; 4:4-6 (3:22-24) Living in the Community*;
  • Malchiah – Malchiah (father of Pashur); Malchiah (member of Judah's royal family in Jer.);
  • Malchijah – Malchijah (Gershomite Levite of 1 Chr.); Malchijah (descendant of Aaron of 1 Chr.); Malchijah (descendant of Purosh in Ezra); Malchijah (descendant of Harim in Ezra); Malchijah (son of Harim in Neh.); Malchijah (ruler of Beth-hakkerem); Malchijah (goldsmith in Neh.); Malchijah (man who stood with Ezra when he read the Torah); Malchijah (priest and signer of Ezra's covenant); Malchijah (priest in the choir in Neh.);
  • Malluch – Malluch (ancestor of Ethan in 1 Chr.); Malluch (of the sons of Bani); Malluch (of the sons of Harim); Malluch (priest involved in the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Malluch (one of the chiefs of the people who signed the covenant of Neh.); Malluch (priest who returned with Zerubabbel);
  • Manasseh – Manasseh (son of Joseph and Asenath)**; Manasseh (king of Judah)**; Manasseh (son of Pahathmoab); Manasseh (son of Hashum); Manasseh (son of Addi); Manasseh (husband of Judith);
  • Maon (place) – Maon (town in the hill country of Judah)**; Maon (now Khirbet el-Ma'in)*;
  • Mareshah (person) – Mareshah (son of Caleb); Mareshah (son of Laadah);
  • Mari – History**; Texts**; Relationship to the Bible**;
  • Mary – Mary (mother of Jesus)**; Mary Magdalene**; Mary of Bethany*; Mary the mother of James and Joseph*; Mary wife of Cleopas*; Mary the mother of John Mark*; Mary of Rome*;
  • Massa – Massa (son of Ishmael); Massa (term in Proverbs);
  • Matriarchs – Sarah**; Rebekah**; Leah and Rachel**;
  • Mattan – Mattan (priest of Baal); Mattan (father of Shephatiah);
  • Mattaniah – Mattaniah (last king of Judah); Mattaniah (of the sons of Heman); Mattaniah (ancestor of Jahaziel); Mattaniah (Levite of the time of Hezekiah); Mattaniah (of the clan of Elam); Mattaniah (of the clan of Zattu); Mattaniah (of the clan of Pahath-moab); Mattaniah (of the clan of Bani); Mattaniah (son of Mica or Micaiah); Mattaniah (grandfather of Hana ben Zaccur);
  • Mattathias – Mattathias (priest of the order of Jehoiarib); Mattathias (son of Absalom); Mattathias (son of Simon); Mattathias (envoy sent by Judas Maccabeus); Mattathias (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:25); Mattathias (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:26);
  • Mattenai – Mattenai (of the sons of Hashum); Mattenai (of the sons of Bani); Mattenai (of the priestly house of Joiarib);
  • Matthat – Matthat (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:24); Matthat (ancestor of Jesus in Luke 3:29);
  • Mattithiah – Mattithiah (son of Shallum); Mattithiah (Levitical gatekeeper in 1 Chr.); Mattithiah (son of Nebo); Mattithiah (Israelite who accompanied Ezra);
  • Mehetabel – Mehetabel (wife of Hadar); Mehetabel (ancestor of Shemaiah);
  • Melchizedek – Genesis 14*; Psalm 110*;
  • Mephibosheth – Mephibosheth (son of Saul)*; Mephibosheth (grandson of Saul)*;
  • Meraioth or Meremoth – Meraioth or Meremoth (Levite descendant of Aaron); Meraioth or Meremoth (son of Ahitub); Meraioth or Meremoth (priestly family headed by Helkai at the time of Joiakim);
  • Merari – Merari (son of Levi)**; Merari (father of Judith);
  • Meremoth – Meremoth (son of Uriah); Meremoth (of the sons of Bani); Meremoth (son of Uriah, grandson of Hakkoz); Meremoth (priest who returned from exile);
  • Mesha (person) – Mesha (king of Moab)**; Mesha (son of Caleb); Mesha (son of Shaharaim);
  • Meshech – Meshech (son of Japheth); Meshech (son of Shem);
  • Meshillemoth or Meshillemith – Meshillemoth or Meshillemith (father of Berechiah); Meshillemoth or Meshillemith (descendant of Immer);
  • Meshullam – Meshullam (grandfather of Shaphan); Meshullam (son of Zerubbabel); Meshullam (head of a Gadite clan in 1 Chr.); Meshullam (son of Elpaal); Meshullam (father of Sallu); Meshullam (son of Shephatiah); Meshullam (father of Hilkiah); Meshullam (father of Jahzerah); Meshullam (Kohathite appointed by Josiah in 2 Chr.); Meshullam ("leader" sent by Ezra); Meshullam (who opposed Ezra's policy of divorce); Meshullam (son of Bani); Meshullam (son of Berechiah); Meshullam (son of Besodeiah); Meshullam (who stood at Ezra's left hand during the reading of the Torah); Meshullam (priest who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Meshullam (chief of the people who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Meshullam (head of the priestly house of Ezra in Neh.); Meshullam (head of the priestly house of Ginnethon in Neh.); Meshullam (gatekeeper in Neh.); Meshullam (who was in the procession in Neh.);
  • Messiah – Eschatological Variety**; Common Themes**;
  • Mibsam – Mibsam (son of Ishmael); Mibsam (son of Shallum);
  • Mica – Mica (son of Mephibosheth); Mica (father of Mattaniah); Mica (Levite in the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Mica (father of Mattaniah and ancestor of Uzzi);
  • Micah – Micah (man in Judg.); Micah (son of Shimei); Micah (son of Meribbaal); Micah (son of Uzziel); Micah (father of Abdon); Micah of Moresheth;
  • Micah, Book of or Book of Micah – Content**; Criticial Considerations**;
  • Micaiah or Maacah or Micah – Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (son of Imlah)**; Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (father of Achibor); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (wife of Rehoboam); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (official sent to teach Judah in 2 Chr.); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (ancestor of Zechariah)*; Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (trumpeting priest in Neh.); Micaiah or Maacah or Micah (son of Gemeriah);
  • Michael – Michael (father of Sethur); Michael (Gadite in 1 Chr.); Michael (ancestor of Abihail); Michael (Levite ancestor of Asaph); Michael (descendant of Uzzi); Michael (of the sons of Beraiah); Michael (who joined David at Ziklag); Michael (father of Omri); Michael (son of Jehoshaphat); Michael (father of Zebediah); Michael (archangel);
  • Migdol – Migdol (town on the route of the Exodus); Migdol (town in Egypt in Jer.); Migdol (place in north Egypt);
  • Mijamin – Mijamin (leader of the sixth division of priest at the time of David); Mijamin (divorcing Israelite in Ezra); Mijamin (priest at the sealing of the covenant in Neh.); Mijamin (chief of priests returning from exile in Neh.);
  • Mikloth – Mikloth (father of Shimeah in 1 Chr.); Mikloth (chief officer under Dodai the Ahohite);
  • Milcah – Milcah (daughter of Haran); Milcah (daughter of Zelophehad);
  • Millo – Millo (fortification or construction in Jerusalem at an unknown location)*; Millo (construction of Solomon)*; House of the Millo; Beth-millo;
  • Miniamin – Miniamin (Levite of 2 Chr.); Miniamin (priestly house in Neh.); Miniamin (priest and musician in Neh.);
  • Miriam – Miriam (prophetess of Exodus)**; Miriam (descendant of Ezrah in 1 Chr.);
  • Mishael – Mishael (son of Uzziel); Mishael (who stood at Ezra's left hand at the reading of the Torah); Mishael (alternate name of Meshach, companion of Daniel)*;
  • Mishma – Mishma (son of Ishmael); Mishma (son of Mibsam);
  • Mithredath or Mithridates – Mithredath or Mithridates (treasure of King Cyrus of Persia); Mithredath or Mithridates (Persian official who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem);
  • Mizpah or Mizpeh – Mizpah of Gilead; Mizpah or Mizpeh (land or valley of Mizpah); Mizpeh of Judah; Mizpeh of Moab; Mizpah of Benjamin**;
  • Monotheism – Ancient Near East**; Ancient Israel*; New Testament*;
  • Mordecai – Mordecai (character in the Book of Esther)*; Mordecai (returning Israelite);
  • Moreh – Moreh (terebinth or oak tree near Shechem); Moreh (hill in the Jezreel Valley);
  • Moriah – Moriah (land of Moriah); Mt. Moriah;
  • Mortar – Mortar (of pestle); Mortar (plastic building material);
  • Moses – Biblical Accounts**; History**;
  • Moza – Moza (son of Caleb); Moza (son of Zimri);
  • Mughara, Wadi el- or Wadi el-Mughara – Mughara, Wadi el- or Wadi el-Mughara (on the western side of Mt. Carmel)*; Mughara, Wadi el- or Wadi el-Mughara (in the southwestern Sinai)*;
  • Music or Musical instruments – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Music or Musical instruments – Old Testament - bĕkōl ‘ăsê bĕrôšîm*; hālîl*; hăsōsĕrâ*; kinnôr*; mĕna‘an‘îm*; mĕsiltayim or selsĕlim*; nēbel or nēbel ‘āśôr*; pa‘ămôn*; šôpār*; qeren hayyôbēl*; tōp*; ‘ûgāb*; Daniel*; Collective terms*; Superscriptions to the Psalms*;

N[edit]

  • Naamah (person) – Naamah (daughter of Lamech); Naamah (wife of Solomon);
  • Naaman – Naaman (son of Benjamin); Naaman (son of Bela); Naaman (son of Ehud); Naaman (commander of the Aramean army in 2 Kgs.);
  • Nadab – Nadab (son of Aaron); Nadab (son of Jeroboam I); Nadab (son of Shammai); Nadab (son of Jeiel); Nadab (relative of Ahiqar);
  • Nag Hammadi – Discovery of the Codices*; Contents**; Significance for Ancient Religion and Philosophy**; Significance for the NT and Early Christian Literature**;
  • Nahash – Nahash (king of Ammon)*; Nahash (sister of Zeruiah);
  • Nahath – Nahath (son of Reuel); Nahath (descendant of Levi); Nahath (assistant of Hezekiah);
  • Nahor (person) – Nahor (son of Serug); Nahor (son of Terah);
  • Nahum – Nahum (1 of the 12 minor prophets); Nahum (father of Amos);
  • Names and Naming – Types of Names*; Name-givers**;
  • Nathan – Nathan (son of David)*; Nathan (prophet at the time of David)**; Nathan (father of Igal); Nathan (father of Azariah); Nathan (son of Attai); Nathan (sent by Ezra to Iddo);
  • Nathanael – Nathanael (ancestor of Judith); Nathanael (priest in 1 Esd.); Nathanael (Israelite in the Gospel of John);
  • Neariah – Neariah (sonof Shemaiah); Neariah (son of Ishi);
  • Nebo (place) – Nebo (town allotted to Reuben); Nebo (town in western Palestine settled in postexilic period);
  • Nehemiah – Nehemiah (a leader of the return); Nehemiah (son of Hacaliah); Nehemiah (son of Azbuk);
  • Nehemiah, Book of or Book of Nehemiah – Name and Canonical Setting*; Authorship*; Date and Place of Composition*; Sources**; The Order of the Reformers**; Nehemiah, the Person**;
  • Nekoda – Nekoda (head of returning family of temple servants); Nekoda (head of returning family unable to prove their Israelite ancestry);
  • Nemuel – Nemuel (brother of Dathan); Nemuel (ancestor of the Nemuelites);
  • Nepheg – Nepheg (son of Izhar); Nepheg (son of David);
  • Nethanel – Nethanel (son of Zuar); Nethanel (son of Jesse); Nethanel (one of seven trumpeting priests in 1 Chr.); Nethanel (father of Shemaiah); Nethanel (son of Obed-edom); Nethanel (officer of Jehoshaphat sent to Judah to teach); Nethanel (brother of Shemaiah); Nethanel (of the family of Pashhur); Nethanel (head of the family of Jedaiah); Nethanel (Levite singer at the dedication in Neh.);
  • Nethaniah – Nethaniah (father of Ishmael); Nethaniah (Levite of the line of Asaph in 1 Chr.); Nethaniah (Levite sent to Judah by Jehoshaphat); Nethaniah (father of Jehudi);
  • Nicanor – Nicanor (a commander sent by Lysius to Judah Maccabeus); Nicanor (one of seven overseers of food distribution in Acts);
  • Noadiah – Noadiah (son of Binnui); Noadiah (prophetess in Neh.);
  • Noah – Name*; Genealogy*; The Story of Noah**; Significance*; Later References*;
  • Nobah (place) – Nobah (region in Gilead); Nobah (city in eastern Gilead);
  • Numbers – Symbolic numbers**;
  • Numbers, Book of or Book of Numbers – Name*; Structure*; Composition**; Historical Value*; Theological Themes**;

O[edit]

  • Obadiah – Obadiah (steward of King Ahab's household)*; Obadiah (postexilic descendant of David); Obadiah (son of Izariah); Obadiah (son of Azel); Obadiah (Levite among the first returners to Jerusalem); Obadiah (Gadite who joined David at Ziklag); Obadiah (father of Ishmaiah); Obadiah (prince commissioned to teach in Judah); Obadiah (Merarite Levite of 2 Chr.); Obadiah (head of family of returners in Ezra); Obadiah (leader who sealed covenant of Neh.); Obadiah (gatekeeper in Neh.); Obadiah (Obadiah the prophet);
  • Obadiah, Book of or Book of Obadiah – Text*; Style*; Composition*; Biblical Parallels*; Date and Historical Setting*; Structure and Genre*; Contents*;
  • Obed – Obed (son of Ruth); Obed (son of Ephlal); Obed (one of David's mighty men); Obed (son of Shemaiah); Obed (father of Azariah); Obed (son of Jonathan);
  • Obed-edom – Obed-edom (Gidite whose house David put the Ark in); Obed-edom (son of Jeduthun); Obed-edom (son of Korah); Obed-edom (custodian of temple treasures in 2 Chr.);
  • Oded – Oded (father of Azariah); Oded (prophet of Samaria in 2 Chr.);
  • Oholibamah – Oholibamah (wife of Esau); Oholibamah (chief of an Edomite clan);
  • Omer – Omer (unit of dry measure); Omer (sheaf of grain);
  • Omri – Omri (founder of Omride dynasty)**; Omri (son of Becher); Omri (Jerusalemite of 1 Chr.); Omri (Issacharite tribal leader of 1 Chr.);
  • Onam – Onam (Son of Shobal); Onam (son of Jerahmeel);
  • Onias – Onias I; Onias II; Onias III; Onias IV; Onias V;
  • Ophrah (place) – Ophrah (city in the tribal territory of Benjamin); Ophrah (Ophrah of Abiezer);
  • Ozem – Ozem (son of Jesse); Ozem (son of Jerahmeel);

P[edit]

  • Palestine, Land of or Land of Palestine – Name and Definition**; Physical Description***; Climate**;
    • Palestine, Land or or Land of Palestine – Physical Description – Coastal Plain**; Central Range**; “Rift” Valley**; Transjordan**;
      • Palestine, Land of or Land of Palestine – Physical Description – Coastal Plain – Pheonicia**; Sharon Plain**; Philistia**;
      • Palestine, Land of or Land of Palestine – Physical Description – Central Range – Lebanon*; Galilee*; Jezreel*; Samaria**; Jerusalem*; Mt. Judah*; Shephelah*; Wilderness of Judah*; Negeb**;
      • Palestine, Land of or Land of Palestine – Physical Description - “Rift” Valley – Beqa‘*; Mt. Hermon*; Hûleh Valley**; Sea of Galilee*; Jordan River*; Dead Sea*; Southern Arabah*; Reed Sea*;
      • Palestine, Land of or Land of Palestine – Physical Description – Transjordan – Bashan*; Gilead*; Ammon*; Moab*; Edom*;
  • Palti or Paltiel – Palti or Paltiel (son of Raphu); Palti or Paltiel (son of Laish);
  • Parosh – Parosh (Israelite ancestor of returners); Parosh (chief who sealed the covenant of Neh.);
  • Paseah – Paseah (priest and son of Malchiah); Paseah (head of priestly family of returners); Paseah (postexilic priest who attached his name to the covenant of Neh.); Paseah (son of Immer); Paseah (son of Malchiah);
  • Patriarchs – History and Genre*; Literary Considerations*; Theological Significance*;
  • Paul – Sources*; “Pre-Christian” Period**; Apostleship**; Later Writer**; Chronology*; Theologizer**;
  • Pedaiah – Pedaiah (maternal grandfather of Jehoiakim); Pedaiah (son of Jeconiah); Pedaiah (father of Joel); Pedaiah (son of Parosh); Pedaiah (man who stood at Ezra's left hand at the reading of the Law); Pedaiah (Benjaminite in Jerusalem in Neh.); Pedaiah (Levite appointed to administer tithes);
  • Pelaiah – Pelaiah (son of Elioenai); Pelaiah (Levite who interpreted the Law in Neh.);
  • Pelatiah – Pelatiah (son of Hananiah); Pelatiah (son of Jahi); Pelatiah (signer of the covenant of Neh.); Pelatiah (son of Benaiah);
  • Pelet – Pelet (son of Jahdai); Pelet (son of Azmaveth);
  • Pentateuch – Textual Transmission**; Literary Sources**; Unity and Diversity*;
  • Penuel – Penuel (son of Hur); Penuel (son of Shashak);
  • Persia – Geography*; History***; Religion**;
    • Persia – History – Early period**; Persian Empire**; Post-Achaemenid Persia**;
  • Peter, First Letter of or First Letter of Peter – Recipients*; Author*; Purpose*; Form and Structure**; Theology*;
  • Peter, Second Letter of or Second Letter of Peter – Literary Structure**; Literary Relationships**; The Opponents**; Theological Character*; Date*; Authorship and Pseudonymity**;
  • Pethahiah – Pethahiah (leader of the nineteenth priestly division at the time of David); Pethahiah (divorcing Levite of the time of Ezra); Pethahiah (Levite in the corporate confession of sins of Ezra); Pethahiah (son of Meshezabel);
  • Philadelphia – Philadelphia (city in the Roman province of Asia)**; Philadelphia (of the Decapolis, now Amman);
  • Philemon, Letter to or Letter to Philemon – Structure*; Contents**; Purpose*;
  • Philip – Philip II of Macedon; Philip V of Macedon; Philip the Phrygian (governor of Jerusalem); Philip the Tetrarch; Herod (Philip?), son of Herod and Mariamme II; Philip the Apostle**;
  • Phinehas – Phinehas (son of Eleazar); Phinehas (son of Eli); Phinehas (father of a postexilic priest in Ezra);
  • Phoenicia – People and Language*; Religion**; Society and Its Values*;
    • Phoenicia – Religion – Gods**; Temple**; Temple Personnel*; Daily Sacred Liturgy*; Sacrifice*; Child Sacrifice**; Death and the Underworld*;
  • Plague – Plagues of Egypt**;
  • Plants – Field Crops and Garden Plants**; Waterway Plants*; Wilderness Plants*; Thorns and Thistles*; Flowers of the Field*;
  • Pottery – Stylistic Characteristics**; Ceramic Types**;
    • Pottery – Ceramic Types – Pottery Neolithic Period (ca. 6000-4000 B.C.E.)*; Chalcolithic Period (ca. 4000-3300)*; Early Bronze Age (ca. 3300-2000)*; Middle Bronze Age (ca. 2000-1500)*; Late Bronze Age (ca. 1500-1200)*; Iron Age (ca. 1200-586)*; Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Periods (ca. 586 B.C.E.-640 C.E.)*;
  • Priesthood, Israelite or Israelite Priesthood – Duties**; History and Development**;
  • Prophet or Prophecy – Social Role**; Conceptual World*; Historicity**; Literary Considerations**; The “End” of Prophecy*;
  • Proverbs, Book of or Book of Proverbs – Date*; The Individual Sections**; Theological Themes**;
    • Proverbs, Book of or Book of Proverbs – The Individual Sections – 1:1-7*; 1:8-9:18*; 10:1-22:16*; 22:17-24:22*; 24:23-24*; 25:1-29:27*; 30:1-31:31*;
  • Ptolemy – Ptolemy I Soter; Ptolemy II Philadelphus; Ptolemy III Euregetes I; Ptolemy IV Philopator; Ptolemy V Theos Epiphanes; Ptolemy VI Philometor; Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator; Ptolemy VIII Euregetes II; Ptolemy IX Soter II; Ptolemy X Alexander I; Ptolemy XI Alexander II; Ptolemy XII Neo Dionysys; Ptolemy XIII; Ptolemy XIV; Ptolemy XV Caesar; Ptolemy (son of Dositheus); Ptolemy (son of Abubus); Ptolemy Marcon;
  • Puah – Puah (midwife of Exodus); Puah (father of Tola); Puah (descendant of Issachar);

R[edit]

  • Rabbah – Rabbah (city of Judah); Rabbah (modern Amman)**;
  • Raguel – Raguel (father of Sarah); Raguel (archangel);
  • Rahab – Rahab (prostitute in Josh.)*; Rahab (mother of Salmon); Rahab (dragon defeated by Yahweh in Job)*; Rahab (poetic name for Egypt);
  • Ram (person) – Ram (son of Hezron); Ram (son of Jerahmeel); Ram (ancestor of Elihu);
  • Ramah – Ramah (town allotted to Benjamin); Ramah (Ramah of the Negeb); Ramah (village near the border of Asher); Ramah (fortified city of Naphtali); Ramah (hometown of Samuel); Ramah (shortened form of name of Ramoth-gilead);
  • Rameses (person) – Rameses I*; Rameses II*; Rameses III*; Rameses IV; Rameses V; Rameses VI; Rameses VII; Rameses VIII; Rameses IX; Rameses X; Rameses XI;
  • Ramoth – Ramoth (Ramoth in Gilead); Ramoth (Ramoth of the Negeb); Ramoth (levitical city in the tribal territory of Issachar);
  • Reaiah or Haroeh – Reaiah or Haroeh (son of Shobal); Reaiah or Haroeh (son of Micah); Reaiah or Haroeh (temple servant, ancestor of returners);
  • Rechab – Rechab (son of Rimmon); Rechab (father of Jehonadab); Rechab (father of Malchijah);
  • Rehob (person) – Rehob (father of Hadadezer); Rehob (Levite who sealed the covenant of Neh.);
  • Rehob (place) – Rehob (place in extreme northern Canaan); Rehob (town allotted to Asher); Rehob (another town allotted to Asher); Rehob (principal city of the Beth-shean Valley);
  • Rehoboth – Rehoboth (well dug in Gesar in Genesis); Rehoboth ha-Nahar;
  • Rehum – Rehum (leader who accompanied Zerubbabel back to Judea); Rehum (Persian officer who wrote a letter to Xerxes); Rehum (son of Bani); Rehum (leader who signed a long petition in Neh.); Rehum (priest and Levite returner);
  • Rekem (person) – Rekem (one of five kings of Midian); Rekem (son of Hebron); Rekem (grandson of Machir);
  • Rephaiah or Raphah – Rephaiah or Raphah (descendant of Zerubbabel); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Ishi); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Tola); Rephaiah or Raphah (descendant of Saul); Rephaiah or Raphah (son of Hur);
  • Rephaim – Old Testament*; Ugaritic Texts**;
  • Resurrection – Old Testament*; Intertestamental Literature*; New Testament**;
  • Reuel – Reuel (son of Keturah); Reuel (son of Esau); Reuel (father of Hobab); Reuel (father of Eliasaph); Reuel (son of Ibnijah);
  • Revelation – Old Testament*; Postbiblical Jewish literature**; New Testament*;
  • Revelation, Book of or Book of Revelation – Genre*; Authorship**; Date*; Purpose and Setting*; Sources and Integrity*; Structure**;
  • Rezin – Rezin (last king of Aram before the fall to the Assyrians)*; Rezin (family in Ezra);
  • Rimmon (place) – Rimmon (city of En-rimmon); Rimmon (levitical city assigned to the Merarites); Rimmon (outcropping of rocks to which Benjaminites fled in Judg.);
  • Romans, Letter to the or Letter to the Romans – Author, Date, Place*; Text*; Circumstances and Purposes**; Genre and Other Proposals*; Outline**; Reading Romans*;
  • Rome – Environment*; Origins to the End of the Monarchy (753-509 B.C.E.)**; Republic (509-27 B.C.E.)**; Empire (27 B.C.E.-476 C.E.)**;
  • Rufus – Rufus (son of Simon the Cyrene); Rufus (greeted by Paul in Rom. 16:13);

S[edit]

  • Sachar – Sachar (father of Ahiham); Sachar (son of Obed-edom);
  • Sacrifices and Offerings – Priestly Source**; Prophetic Critique**;
    • Sacrifices and Offerings – Priestly Source – Sinai Narrative*; Laws for Sacrifice*; Basic Types of Animal Sacrifice**;
      • Sacrifices and Offerings – Priestly Source – Basic Types of Animal Sacrifice – Burnt offering*; Peace offering (Lev. 3)*; Purification offering (Lev. 4)*; Atonement and Sacrifice*;
  • Sallai – Sallai (Benjaminite returner); Sallai (priestly family at the time of Joiakim);
  • Sallu – Sallu (Benjaminite in Jerusalem in 1 Chr.); Sallu (postexilic priestly family);
  • Salma – Salma (father of Boaz in 1 Chr. 2;11); Salma (son of Hur);
  • Salome – Salome (sister of Herod); Salome (daughter of Herod); Salome (follower of Jesus);
  • Samaria – Region**; City**; History**;
  • Samuel, Books of or Books of Samuel – Contents and Plot*; Text*; Authorship*; Succession Narrative*; Historical Reliability and Genre**; New Literary Criticism*; Canonical Shaping*; Post-Colonial Interpretation; Feminist, Racialist, Sexual Orientation Criticism*; Message**;
  • Sarah – Sarah (wife of Abram)**; Sara (daughter of Raguel);
  • Segub – Segub (son of Hezron); Segub (son of Hiel);
  • Seir (place) – Seir (plateau in Edom); Seir (mountain on the northern border of Judah);
  • Sela – Sela (site on the Amorite border); Sela (Edomite settlement conquered by Amaziah of Judah); Sela (place mentioned in Isa. 16:1); Sela (place named in Isa. 42:11);
  • Seleucus – Seleucus I Nicator*; Seleucus II Callinicus*; Seleucus III*; Seleucus IV Philopator*;
  • Semites or Semitic Languages – Semitic Languages**; New Testament*;
  • Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha - Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (royal secretary under David); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (chief priest of the temple in 587/586 BCE); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Tanhumeth); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Kenaz); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Asiel); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (returner from exile); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (a priest who sealed the covenant of Neh.); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (postexilic priest in Neh. 11:11); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (one of the “chiefs of the priest” in Neh. 12:1); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (official of King Jehoiakim); Seraiah or Azariah or Shavsha or Sheva or Shisha (son of Neriah);
  • Servant of the Lord – Second Isaiah**; Second Temple Judaism*; New Testament*;
  • Settlement: Archaeology – Conventional Models**; New Models**; Toward a Theological Rationalization?*;
  • Shaaph – Shaaph (son of Jahdai); Shaaph (son of Maacah);
  • Shaaraim – Shaaraim (town in the Shephelah lowland)*; Shaaraim (Negeb town in the allotment of Simeon)*;
  • Shabbethai – Shabbethai (of Ezra 10:15); Shabbethai (of Neh. 8:7); Shabbethai (of Neh. 11:16);
  • Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem – Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (King who overthrew Zechariah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (husband of Huldah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (descendant of Judah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Josiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (descendant of Simeon); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Zadok); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Naphtali); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (returner and gatekeeper); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (father of Jehizkiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (divorcing levitical gatekeeper); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (of the sons of Bannui); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Hallohesh); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (son of Col-hozeh); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (father of Maaseiah); Shallum or Meshullam or Shillem (uncle of Jeremiah);
  • Shalmaneser – Shalmaneser I; Shalmaneser II; Shalmaneser III**; Shalmaneser IV; Shalmaneser V*;
  • Shamir (place) – Shamir (town of Judah); Shamir (town in Ephraim);
  • Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth - Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (descendant of Esau); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (son of Jesse); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (of David's Mighty Men); Shammah or Shimea or Shimeah or Shimel or Shammoth (Shammah of Harod);
  • Shammai – Shammai (son of Onam); Shammai (son of Rekem); Shammai (son of Mered);
  • Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea – Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (son of Zaccur); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (son of David); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (father of Abda); Shammua or Shemaiah or Shimea (head of family of Bilgah in Neh.);
  • Shaphan – Shaphan (son of Aziliah); Shaphan (father of Jaazaniah);
  • Shaphat – Shaphat (son of Hori); Shaphat (father of Elisha); Shaphat (son of Shemaiah); Shaphat (son of Abihail); Shaphat (son of Adlai);
  • Sharezer – Sharezer (son of Sennacherib); Sharezer (emissaries sent to Bethel in 518);
  • Shaul – Shaul (early Edomite king); Shaul (son of Simeon); Shaul (son of Uzziah);
  • Sheba (person) – Sheba (son of Raamah); Sheba (son of Joktan); Sheba (son of Jokshan); Sheba (son of Bichri); Sheba (descendant of Gad);
  • Sheba (place) – Sheba (town in Josh. 19:2-6); Sheba (country of Arabia);
  • Shebaniah – Shebaniah (trumpet blowing priest in 1 Chr.); Shebaniah (leader in praise and confession in Neh.); Shebaniah (postexilic priestly house led by Joseph at the time of Joiakim); Shebaniah (a Levite signer of the covenant in Neh.); Shebaniah (another Levite signer of the covenant in Neh.);
  • Shebuel or Shubael – Shebuel or Shubael (Levite of the sons of Gershom); Shebuel or Shubael (son of Heman);
  • Shecaniah – Shecaniah (father of Shemaiah); Shecaniah (priest, head of the 10th division in 1 Chr.); Shecaniah (Levite under Hezekiah in 1 Chr.); Shecaniah (son of Jahaziel); Shecaniah (son of Jehiel); Shecaniah (father of Shmaiah, gatekeeper in Neh.); Shecaniah (son of Arah); Shecaniah (returning priest in Neh.);
  • Shechem (person) – Shechem (son of Hamor); Shechem (descendant of Manasseh); Shechem (son of Shemida);
  • Shechem (place) – Excavation*; Settlement History**;
  • Shelah – Shelah (son of Arpachshad or Arphaxad); Shelah (son of Judah the patriarch);
  • Shelemiah – Shelemiah (grandson of Asaph): Shelemiah (descandant of Bahi who married a foreign woman): Shelemiah (another descendant of Bani who married a foreign woman): Shelemiah (father of Hananiah): Shelemiah (priest Nehemiah put in charge of the temple storerooms): Shelemiah (son of Cushi): Shelemiah (man sent by Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah): Shelemiah (father of Jehucal or Jucal): Shelemiah (son of Hananiah in Jer.):
  • Shelomith – Shelomith (daughter of Dibri); Shelomith (daughter of Zerubbabel); Shelomith (son of Shimei); Shelomith (son of Izhar); Shelomith (child of Rehabeam); Shelomith (son of Josiphiah);
  • Shelomoth – Shelomoth (son of Shimei); Shelomoth (son of Izhar); Shelomoth (sonof Zichri);
  • Shema (person) – Shema (son of Hebron); Shema (son of Joel); Shema (son of Elpaal); Shema (lay leader who stood at Ezra's right hand at the reading of the Law);
  • Shemaiah or Shammua – Shemaiah or Shammua (Judean prophet after the death of Solomon); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Shechaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (leader of the tribe of Simeon); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of the tribe of Reuben); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Hasshub); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Obadiah); Shemaiah or Shammua (descendant of Elizaphan); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Nethanel); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Obed-edom); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach in Judah); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Jeduthun); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite of the time of Hezekiah who helped distribute freewill offering and gifts in 2 Chr.); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of the Levites who helped contribute 5000 sheep and goats to an offering in 2 Chr.); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Adonikam); Shemaiah or Shammua (a leader of those who returned from exile); Shemaiah or Shammua (priest of the family of Harim in Ezra); Shemaiah or Shammua (Israelite from the family of Harim in Ezra); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Shecaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Delaiah); Shemaiah or Shammua (a priest who signed the binding agreement with Nehemiah and the leaders of the nation); Shemaiah or Shammua (leader of Judah who participated in the dedication of the walls in Neh.); Shemaiah or Shammua (son of Mattaniah); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite musician at the dedication of the walls in Neh.); Shemaiah or Shammua (Levite who accompanied Nehemiah in the procession at the dedication of the walls); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Uriah); Shemaiah or Shammua (false prophet in Jer.); Shemaiah or Shammua (father of Delaiah);
  • Shemariah – Shemariah (Benjaminite who joined David at Ziklag); Shemariah (son of Rehoboam); Shemariah (divorcing Israelite of the sons of Harim); Shemariah (divorcing son of Binnui);
  • Shemer or Shomer – Shemer or Shomer (owner of a hill Omri purchased in 1 Kgs.); Shemer or Shomer (son of Mahli); Shemer or Shomer (Asherite in 1 Chr.);
  • Shemiramoth – Shemiramoth (harp player in 1 Chr.); Shemiramoth (Levite sent by Jehosphaphat to Judah);
  • Shemuel – Shemuel (representative of Simeon in the division of Canaan in Num.); Shemuel (son of Tola);
  • Shephatiah – Shephatiah (son of David); Shephatiah (anchestor of returning Benjaminite exiles); Shephatiah (Haruphite of the tribe of Benjamin in 1 Chr.); Shephatiah (son of Maacah); Shephatiah (son of Jehosphaphat); Shephatiah (ancestor of two groups of returning exiles); Shephatiah (servant of Solomon and ancestor of returners); Shephatiah (Judahite ancestor of Jerusalemites after the Exile); Shephatiah (prince of Judah in Jer.);
  • Sherebiah – Sherebiah (“man of discretion” in Ezra); Sherebiah (Levite interpreter of the Book in Ezra); Sherebiah (Levite who sealed the covenant in Neh.); Sherebiah (chief of returning Levites);
  • Sheth – Sheth (Hebrew spelling of Seth); Sheth (“sons of Sheth”);
  • Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha – Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha (David's secretary); Sheva or Seraiah or Shavsha or Shisha (son of Caleb);
  • Shilonite – Shilonite (designation of the prophet Ahijah); Shilonite (gentilic designating a family of returnees);
  • Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei - Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (son of Jesse); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (son of David); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (Levite of the house of Merari); Shimea or Shammah or Shammua or Shimeah or Shimei (father of Berechiah);
  • Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam – Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam (son of Jesse); Shimeah or Shimea or Shimeam (son of Mikloth);
  • Shimei – Shimei (son of Gershon); Shimei (son of Gera); Shimei (son of Jesse); Shimei (leader of David's time who did not support the usurpation of Adonijah in 1 Kgs.); Shimei (son of Ella); Shimei (brother of Zerubbabel); Shimei (descendant of Mishma); Shimei (son of Gog); Shimei (Levite descendant of Merari); Shimei (son of Jahath); Shimei (Benjaminite in 1 Chr., probably an error for Shema); Shimei (one of six sons of Jeduthun); Shimei (Ramathite appointed by David over the royal vineyards); Shimei (Levite descendant of Heman); Shimei (brother of Conaniah); Shimei (Levite who sent away his non-Israelite wife and children in Ezra); Shimei (descendant of Hashum); Shimei (descendant of Binnui); Shimei (descendant of Kish);
  • Shimri – Shimri (son of Shemaiah); Shimri (father of Jediael); Shimri (son of Hosah); Shimri (descendant of Elizaphan);
  • Shittim - Shittim (last campsite of the Israelites before crossing the Jordan); Shittim (valley of Shittim);
  • Shobab – Shobab (son of Caleb); Shobab (son of David);
  • Shobal – Shobal (son of Seir); Shobal (son of Hur);
  • Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth – Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth (mother of Jehozabad); Shomer or Shemer or Shimruth (of the sons of Heber);
  • Shua – Shua (father of Judah's Canaanite wife); Shua (daughter of Heber);
  • Shuppim – Shuppim (son of Ir); Shuppim (levitical gatekeeper in 1 Chr.);
  • Shuthelah – Shutehelah (son of Ephraim); Shutehelah (son of Zabad);
  • Simeon – Simeon (son of Jacob)*; Simeon (great-grandfather of Judas Maccabeus); Simeon (Simon Maccabeus); Simeon (who prayed Nunc Dimittis in Luke)*; Simeon (ancestor of Jesus); Simeon (a prophet and teacher of the church at Antioch); Simeon (Hebrew equivalent of Simon);
  • Simon – Simon (high priest Simon the Just); Simon (Simon II, high priest); Simon (Simon the Benjaminite); Simon (Simon Thassi); Simon (Simon Chosamaeus); Simon (Simon Peter); Simon (Simon the Zealot); Simon (Simon, half brother of Jesus); Simon (Simon the Leper); Simon (father of Judas Iscariot); Simon (Simon of Cyrene); Simon (Simon the Pharisee in Luke); Simon (Simon Magus); Simon (Simon the Tanner in Acts); Simon (Simon bar Kosiba);
  • Sin – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • Sin (place) – Sin (wilderness area between Elim and Mt. Sinai); Sin (Egyptian border fortress);
  • Sinai – Sinai Peninsula**; Wilderness and Mt. Sinai**; Biblical Traditions**;
  • Sirach, Wisdom of Jesus the Son of or Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach – Contents**;
  • Sisera – Sisera (commander of Canaanite forces in Judgs.)*; Sisera (of the “sons of Sisera”);
  • Soco or Socoh (place) – Soco or Socoh (city of the Shephaleh)*; Soco or Socoh (town of the hill country of Judah)*; Soco or Socoh (town listed as the center of Solomon's third administrative district)*;
  • Solomon – Kings**; Chronicles**; Early Interpreters*; History**;
  • Sosipater – Sosipater (captain under Judas Maccabeus); Sosipater (Jewish Christian in Rom.);
  • Sothenes – Sothenes (ruler of a synagogue in Corinth in Acts); Sothenes (called by Paul “our brother” in 1 Cor.);
  • Succoth – Succoth (first encampment of the Israelites on leaving Egypt); Succoth (place on the east side of the Jordan Valley);
  • Sur – Sur (an inner gate of Solomon's temple in 2 Kgs.)*; Sur (town on the Mediterranean coast in Jdt.);
  • Susanna – Susanna (of the apocryphal work of that name); Susanna (woman who supported the work of Jesus in Luke);
  • Symeon – Symeon (prophet and teacher of the church of Antioch in Acts); Symeon (another name for Simon Peter);

T[edit]

  • Tabeel – Tabeel (Samaritan official in Ezra); Tabeel (father of person whom the Syro-Ephraimite coalition planned to place on the throne of Judah)*;
  • Tabor – Tabor (Mount Tabor)**; Tabor (Oak of Tabor); Tabor (levitical city assigned to the Merarites);
  • Tahath (person) – Tahath (ancestor of Samuel); Tahath (son of Bered); Tahath (son of Eleadah);
  • Talmai – Talmai (one of the Anakim); Talmai (king of Geshur);
  • Tamar (person) – Tamar (daugher-in-law of Judah)*; Tamar (daughter of David); Tamar (daughter of Absalom)*;
  • Tamar (place) – Tamar (city “in the wilderness” in 1 Kgs.); Tamar (site marking the southeastern border of the restored, ideal Israel in Ezek.)*;
  • Tappuah – Tappuah (town in the northern Shephelah); Tappuah (town, also called En-tappuah, on the northern border of Ephraim); Tappuah (town in the territory of Tizrah);
  • Tarshish (person) – Tarshish (descendant of Javan in the Table of Nations); Tarshish (son of Bilhan); Tarshish (official of Persia or Media in Esth.)*;
  • Temple – Symbolism**; Jerusalem Temple**;
  • Text of the Old Testament – Copying and Transmission**; Ancient Manuscripts**; Printed Bibles**; Ancient Versions**; Textual Criticism**;
  • Text of the New Testament – History of the Discipline**; The State of the Text**; Methods of Textual Criticism**; The Text at the End of the Twentieth Century*;
    • Text of the New Testament – Methods of Textual Criticism – External Evidence**; Internal Evidence**; Intrinsic Probabilities*;
      • Text of the New Testament – Methods of Textual Criticism – External Evidence – Number of Supporting Witnesses*; Age of Supporting Witnesses*; Geographical Diversity of the Witnesses*; “Quality” of the Supporting Witnesses*;
      • Text of the New Testament – Methods of Textual Criticism – Internal Evidence – Transcriptional Probabilities*;
  • Thessalonians, First Letter to the or First Letter to the Thessalonians – Historical Context*; Epistolatory Structure and Function*; Significant Features**;
  • Thessalonians, Second Letter to the or Second Letter to the Thessalonians – Structure and Purpose*; Significant Features*;
  • Thutmose – Thutmose I*; Thutmose II*; Thutmose III*; Thutmose IV*;
  • Tilgath-pileser or Tilgath-pilneser – Tilgath-peleser I; Tilgath-pileser II; Tilgath-pileser III**;
  • Tikvah – Tikvah (father of Shallum); Tikvah (father of Jahzeiah);
  • Time – Vocabulary**; Measures of Time**; The Days to Come*; New Testament**;
  • Timna – Timna (concubine of Eliphaz); Timna (chief of Edom); Timna (son of Eliphaz);
  • Timnah – Timnah (city on the northern border of Judah)*; Timnah (town of the hill country of Judah);
  • Timothy – Timothy (commander of the Ammonite forces in 1 & 2 Macc.); Timothy (emissary of Paul)**;
  • Tiphsah – Tiphsah (city on the western shore of the Euphrates); Tiphsah (site of a brutal slaughter by King Menahem in 2 Kgs.);
  • Titus – Titus Manius; Titus (coworker of Paul)**;
  • Tobiah - Tobiah (head of a family of returners); Tobiah (an opposer of Nehemiah's journey to Jerusalem);
  • Tobias – Tobias (son of Tobit); Tobias (landowner of the Maccabean period);
  • Tobijah – Tobijah (Levite sent by Jehosphaphat to Judea); Tobijah (descendant of Tobiah unable to authenticate his Israelite origin); Tobijah (repatriate from whom Zechariah was to collect gold and silver);
  • Tobit, Book of or Book of Tobit – Story**; Literary Antecedents**; Date, Language, and Versions*; Themes**; Later Use of Tobit*;
  • Tola – Tola (son of Issachar); Tola (son of Puah);
  • Trade and commerce – Antiquity and Varieties of Trade**; Commercilization**;
  • Travel or Transportation – Modes of Travel**; Rate of Travel**; Traveling Conditions*; Transportation**;
  • Trees – List of trees in the Bible**;

U[edit]

  • Ulam – Ulam (son of Sheresh); Ulam (son of Eshek);
  • Unni – Unni (levitical musician of 1 Chr.); Unni (returning Levite);
  • Uri – Uri (father of Bezalel); Uri (father of Geber); Uri (poxtexilic gatekeeper of Ezra);
  • Uriah – Uriah the Hittite*; Uriah (high priest under Ahaz); Uriah (prophet of the time of Jeremiah); Uriah (father of Meremoth); Uriah (who stood with Ezra at the reading of the Law);
  • Uriel – Uriel (chief of the Kohathite Levites in 1 Chr.); Uriel (resident of Gibeah in 2 Chr.); Uriel (archangel);
  • Uthai – Uthai (son of Ammihud); Uthai (returning head of the family of Bigvai);
  • Uz (person) – Uz (son of Aram); Uz (son of Milcah); Uz (son or descendant of Dishan);
  • Uzza (person) – Uzza (son of Gera); Uzza (ancestor of returning temple servants);
  • Uzzah – Uzzah (son of Abinadab); Uzzah (Levite of the family of Merari);
  • Uzzi – Uzzi (son of Bukki); Uzzi (son of Tola); Uzzi (son of Bela); Uzzi (father of Elah); Uzzi (son of Bani); Uzzi (head of Jedaiah's priestly lineage at the time of Joiakim); Uzzi (priest involved in the dedication of the walls in Neh.);
  • Uzziah – Uzziah (King of Judah)**; Uzziah (levitical priest in 1 Chr.); Uzziah (father of Jonathan); Uzziah (returning levitical priest, descendant of Harim); Uzziah (one of the 468 inhabitants of Perez who moved to Jerusalem); Uzziah (chief elder in the city of Bethulia);
  • Uzziel – Uzziel (son of Kohath); Uzziel (son of Ishi); Uzziel (son of Bela); Uzziel (son of Heman); Uzziel (son of Jeduthun); Uzziel (son of Harhaiah);

W[edit]

  • Walls – Wall types**; Evolution of City Walls**; Biblical References*;
  • Water – Physical Aspects**; Theological Importance**;
    • Water – Theological Importance – Cosmology*; Ritual**; Holy Spirit**;
  • Weights and measures – Linear**; Weights**; Area*; Dry capacity*; Liquid capacity*; Weights and measures in the Bible**;
  • Wisdom and Wisdom literature – Wisdom Books*; Characteristics*; Ancient Setting**; Religious Values**;
  • Wisdom of Solomon – Literary Genre*; Contents**;
  • Works – Works of God**; Human works**;
  • Worship, Israelite or Israelite Worship – Seasonal Festivals**; Other Seasonal Celebrations**; Foundational Moments**;
  • Worship, New Testament or New Testament Worship – Origins*; Description**; Theology**;
  • Writing – Biblical Scripts**; List of Scripts of the Bible, the ancient versions and their antecedents**; Postbiblical scripts**; Prebiblical writing**;
    • Writing – Biblical Scripts – Hebrew**; Greek*;

Z[edit]

  • Zabad or Jozacar – Zabad or Jozacar (son of Nathan); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Tahath); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Ahlai); Zabad or Jozacar (son of Shimeath the Ammonite); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Zattu); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Hattum); Zabad or Jozacar (of the sons of Nebo);
  • Zabbai – Zabbai (Israelite who had taken a foreign wife in Ezra); Zabbai (father of Baruch);
  • Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri – Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (ancestor of Achan); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (son of Shimei); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (Sphiphmite steward of David's wine cellar); Zabdi or Zichri or Zimri (son of Asaph);
  • Zabdiel – Zabdiel (father of Jashobeam); Zabdiel (son of Heggedolim); Zabdiel (Arab who decapitated Alexander Balas);
  • Zacchaeus – Zacchaeus (officer in the Maccabean army); Zacchaeus (tax official who climbed a tree to get a glimpse of Jesus)*;
  • Zaccur – Zaccur (father of Shammua); Zaccur (son of Hammuel); Zaccur (Levite of the Merarite line); Zaccur (son of Asaph); Zaccur (descendant of Bigvai); Zaccur (son of Imri); Zaccur (Levite who placed a seal on the new covenant of Neh.); Zaccur (father of Hanan);
  • Zadok – Zadok (high priest under David)**; Zadok (father of Jerusha); Zadok (son of Baana); Zadok (son of Immer); Zadok (a “leader of the people” who placed a seal on the covenant in Neh.); Zadok (scribe appointed by Nehemiah as a treasurer); Zadok (father of Achim);
  • Zalmon (place) – Zalmon (mountain in the vicinity of Shechem); Zalmon (mountain mentioned in Ps. 68:14);
  • Zanoah (place) – Zanoah (town in the northeastern Shephelah)*; Zanoah (town in the eastern hill country of Judah)*;
  • Zebediah – Zebediah (son of Beriah); Zebediah (son of Elpaal); Zebediah (son of Jeroham); Zebediah (son of Meshelemiah); Zebediah (son of Asahel); Zebediah (Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to Judah); Zebediah (son of Ishmael); Zebediah (son of Michael); Zebediah (descendant of the family of Immer);
  • Zeboim – Zeboim (valley in Benjamin); Zeboim (town occupied by the Benjaminites);
  • Zechariah – Zechariah (son of Jeroboam II); Zechariah (father of Abi); Zechariah (head of a family of Reubenites); Zechariah (gatekeeper of the time of David); Zechariah (brother of Ner); Zechariah (musician of the time of David); Zechariah (priestly trumpeter of 1 Chr.); Zechariah (son of Isshiah); Zechariah (son of Hosah the Merarite); Zechariah (father of Iddo); Zechariah (official of Jehoshaphat sent to teach in Judah); Zechariah (father of Jahaziel); Zechariah (son of Jehoshaphat); Zechariah (son of Jehoiada); Zechariah (instructor of Uzziah in 2 Chr.); Zechariah (levitical descendant of Asaph of 2 Chr.); Zechariah (levitical descendant of Kohath of 2 Chr.); Zechariah (priest who contributed animals for sacrifice in 2 Chr./1 Esdr.); Zechariah (head of the family of Parosh); Zechariah (head of the family of Bebai); Zechariah (leader of the Jewish exiles in Ezra); Zechariah (Judean who married a foreign wife in Ezra); Zechariah (leader who stood on the platform with Ezra during the reading of the Law); Zechariah (descendant of Perez); Zechariah (ancestor of Maaseiah); Zechariah (ancestor of Adaiah); Zechariah (priestly trumpeter in Neh.); Zechariah (son of Jeberechiah); Zechariah (prophet of the Book of Zechariah); Zechariah (father of Joseph); Zechariah (alternate name for Heman in 1 Esdr.); Zechariah (father of John the Baptist);
  • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 1-8**; Zechariah 9-14**;
    • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 1-8 – Author and Date*; Historical Setting*; Message**;
      • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 1-8 - Message – 1:1-6*; 1:7-6:15**; 7:1-8:23*;
        • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 1-8 - Message – 1:7-6:15 – 1:7-17*; 1:18-21 (MT 2:1-4)*; 2:1-5 (2:5-9)*; 2:6-13 (2:10-17)*; 3:1-10*; 4:1-14*; 5:1-4*; 5:5-11*; 6:1-8*; 6:9-15*;
    • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 9-14 – Date and Historical Setting**; Author*; Message**;
      • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Zechariah 9-14 – Message – 9:1-17*; 10:1-12*; 11:1-17*; 12:1-9*; 12:10-13:9*; 14:1-21*;
  • Zedekiah – Zedekiah (false prophet at the court of Ahab); Zedekiah (last king of Judah)**; Zedekiah (son of Josiah); Zedekiah (signer of the covenant of Neh.); Zedekiah (prophet Jeremiah accused of immoral conduct); Zedekiah (son of Hananiah); Zedekiah (ancestor of Baruch);
  • Zemaraim – Zemaraim (town in the tribal territory of Benjamin); Zemaraim (mountain in the hill country of Ephraim);
  • Zephaniah – Zephaniah (Kohathite Levite ancestor of Heman); Zephaniah (son of Cushi); Zephaniah (son of Maaseiah); Zephaniah (father of Josiah);
  • Zephaniah, Book of or Book of Zephaniah – Historical Background*; Unity*; Contents and Message**;
  • Zerah or Zohar – Zerah or Zohar (son of Reuel); Zerah or Zohar (father of Jobab); Zerah or Zohar (son of Judah); Zerah or Zohar (son of Simeon); Zerah or Zohar (Levite descendant of Gershom in 1 Chr.); Zerah or Zohar (Kohathite Levite of 1 Chr.); Zerah or Zohar (Zerah the Cushite)*;
  • Zerahiah – Zerahiah (son of Uzzi); Zerahiah (man of the lineage of Pahath-moab);
  • Zeredah – Zeredah (place of residence of Jeroboam); Zeredah (place in the Jordan Valley);
  • Zibeon – Zibeon (father of Anah); Zibeon (son of Seir);
  • Zichri or Zabdi – Zichri or Zabdi (son of Izhar); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Shimei); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Shashak); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Jeroham); Zichri or Zabdi (son of Asaph); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Shelomith); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Eliezer); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Amasiah); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Elishaphat); Zichri or Zabdi (warrior and Ephraimite of 2 Chr.); Zichri or Zabdi (father of Joel); Zichri or Zabdi (head of the priestly family of Abijah at the time of Joiakim);
  • Ziha – Ziha (head of a line of returning temple servants); Ziha (overseer of postexilic temple servants);
  • Zillethai – Zillethai (son of Shimei); Zillethai (Manassite leader who deserted David at Ziklag);
  • Zimri (person) – Zimri (son of Salu); Zimri (King of Israel); Zimri (son of Zerah); Zimri (father of Moza);
  • Ziph (person) – Ziph (descendant of Caleb); Ziph (son of Jehallel);
  • Ziph (place) – Ziph (town in the hill country of Judah); Ziph (town in the southern Negeb);
  • Ziza – Ziza (son of Shiphi); Ziza (son of Rehoboam);
  • Zohar – Zohar (father of Ephron the Hittite); Zohar (alternate name for Simeon's son Zerah); Zohar (alternate reading of Izhar son of Helah);
  • Zur – Zur (a king of Midian in Num.); Zur (son of Jeiel);

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible[edit]

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible, Michael D. Coogan, editor in chief, Oxford University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-537737-8.

Major articles[edit]

2 pages or more

  • Acts*; Acts of the Apostles* – Interpretation; Amos* – Interpretation; Andrew, Acts of or Acts of Andrew*; Apocalypses* – First Enoch; The First Christian Apocalypses; Cultural Contexts for the Apocalypses; Apocrypha* – Old Testament; New Testament; New Testament – Extant Gospels;
  • Baruch*; Bible* – Evolution of Bibles;
  • Canon* - Hebrew Bible; Hebrew Bible – Process of Canonization; Old Testament; Old Testament – Religious History; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship; New Testament; New Testament – Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings; New Testament – Important Canonical Lists; 1 and 2 Chronicles* - Literary History; Literary Genre and Interpretation; Clement, Letters of or Letters of Clement*; Colossians*; 1 Corinthians* – Interpretation; Interpretation – 7:1-16:12 Paul's Response to a letter from the Corinthian Church; 2 Corinthians* - Literary History; Interpretation;
  • Daniel and Additions to Daniel* – Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Dead Sea Scrolls* - Description of Important Texts; Brief History of the Qumran Community; Significance; Significance – Early Christianity; Deuteronomy* - Structure and Contents; Structure and Contents – Deuteronomy and the Covenant Code; Didache*;
  • Ecclesiastes* – Structure and Contents; 1 Enoch* – The “Book of the Watchers” (1 Enoch 1-36); The History of Traditions about 1 Enoch; Ephesians* – Authorship; 1 Esdras*; 2 Esdras* – Form and Function; Esther and Additions to Esther*; Exodus* - Canonical Status and Location in the Canon; Authorship, Date, and Literary History; Historical Context; Interpretation; Ezekiel* – Structure and Contents; Structure and Contents – II. Prophecies of Judgment; Interpretation; Ezra and Nehemiah* - Content and Structure; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”?;
  • Galatians*; Genesis* – Structure and Contents; Dates of Composition, Historical Contexts, Literary History, and History in Genesis; History of Interpretation; Gospels* - The Diversity of Gospels; The Literary Character of Gospels; The Literary Character of Gospels – Narrative Gospels; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels;
  • Habakkuk*; Haggai*; Hebrews*; Hosea* – Interpretation; Interpretation – Interpretation of Hosea 1-3;
  • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius*; Isaiah* - Chapters 1-39; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 13-23: Oracles Against the Nations; Chapters 40-66; The Formation of the Book (with Special Reference to Chapters 1-2 and 32-29); Major Theological Themes; Reception History;
  • James*; Jeremiah* - Structure and Contents; Interpretation – 21:1-29:32 Against the Jerusalem Leadership; Job* - Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception; Joel* – Structure and Contents; John, Gospel according to or Gospel according to John* - Interpretation; 1, 2, and 3 John or 1 John and 2 John and 3 John*; Jonah*; Joseph and Aseneth*; Joshua* – Structure and Content; Jubilees* - Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text; Jude*; Judges* – Dates of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Structure and Contents – B. The Heroic Anthology (Judg. 2:6-16:31);
  • 1 and 2 Kings* - Authorship; Contents and Structure; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17); Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel – Contents; Contents and Structure – Chronology;
  • Lamentations* - Structure, Contents, and Interpretation; Letter*; Leviticus*; Lost Books* - Lost Books; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible; Luke, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Luke* – Interpretation;
  • 1 Maccabees* – Structure and Contents; Reception History; 2 Maccabees*; 3 Maccabees*; 4 Maccabees*; Malachi*; Mark, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Mark* – Date of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Mary, Gospel of or Gospel of Mary*; Matthew, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Matthew* – Structure and Contents; Micah* – Interpretation;
  • Nag Hammadi Library* - Discoveries; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts – Sethian Gnostic Thought; Nahum*; Numbers* – Dates of Composition and Historical Contexts;
  • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul* - The Authentic Letters; The Disputed Letters; Paul and Thecla, Acts of or Acts of Paul and Thecla*; Pesharim*; Peshitta and Other Syriac Versions*; 1 Peter*; 2 Peter*; Philemon*; Philip, Gospel of or Gospel of Philip*; Philippians*; Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate*; Prayers and Hymns* - Prayers and Hymns in Narrative Contexts in the Hebrew Bible; Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians; Proverbs*; Psalms* - Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book; Literary History; Literary History – Gunkel's Basic Categories; Literary History – Post-Gunkel Approaches; Interpretation; Pseudepigrapha* - Survey of Pseudepigrapha; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Revisions and Expansions of Biblical Material; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Apocalypses; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Testamentary Literature;
  • Rabbinic Literature* - Introduction; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture; New Testament; New Testament – Methodology; Revelation* - Date of Composition and Historical Context; Interpretation; Reception History; Romans*; Ruth*;
  • Samaritan Pentateuch* – The Character of the SP; The Character of the SP – Variants; 1 and 2 Samuel* – Literary History; Structure and Contents; Reception History; Septaugint and Other Ancient Greek Translations*; Shepherd of Hermas*; Sirach* – Date and Historical Context; Song of Solomon*;
  • Targumim* - Texts; Texts – The Pentateuch; Testaments* – The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs; The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs – Date, Provenance, and Authorship; The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs – Form, Content, and Function; Text Criticism* - Hebrew Bible; Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text; Hebrew Bible – The Septaugint and Its Versions; Hebrew Bible – The Septaugint and Its Versions – The Septaugint (LXX); Hebrew Bible – Other Versions of the Hebrew Text; Apocrypha; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals; New Testament; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts; New Testament – History of Editions; 1 Thessalonians*; 2 Thessalonians*; Thomas, Gospel of or Gospel of Thomas*; 1 Timothy*; 2 Timothy; [{Titus]]; Tobit*; Translations, English or [{English Translations]]* -

Versions before 1611; Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions; An Overview of Modern Versions;

Significant articles[edit]

3 or more paragraphs or over 1 column to 2 pages

  • Acts – Acts as a Genre; Acts and Hagiography; Dating and Intertextuality; The Acts of Andrew; The Acts of John; The Acts of Paul; The Acts of Peter; The Acts of Thomas; Relevance of the Acts for the History of early Christianity; The History of Interpretation and Reception History; Acts of the Apostles – Name of the Book; Authorship; Date and Historical Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Reception History; Amos – Authorship and Composition; Historical Context; Structure and Stylistic Features; Reception History; Andrew, Acts of or Acts of Andrew – The Primitive Acts of Andrew, Later Versions, and Textual Transmission; Plot of the Fragment; Provenance of Acts of Andrew 's Thought; Apocalypses – Daniel; Jewish Apocalypses of the First and Second Centuries C.E.; Related Literature; Reception and Influence; Apocrypha – Old Testament – Genres; Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization; Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization – Reformation Era; Old Testament – Significance for Understanding Early Judaism and Early Christianity; New Testament – Extant Gospels - Marian Gospels; New Testament – Apocryphal Acts; New Testament – Apocryphal Acts – Historical Value; New Testament – Apocryphal Epistles; New Testament – Apocryphal Apocalypses; New Testament – Reception History;
  • Baruch – Content and Interpretation; Bible – Origin of the Term Bible; Evolution of Bibles – Israelite Literature; Evolution of Bibles – The Example of Jeremiah; Evolution of Bibles – Jewish Textual Flourishing and Plurality; Evolution of Bibles – Ends and Beginnings; Evolution of Bibles – Technological Shift I: The Codex;
  • Canon - An Overview; Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon; Hebrew Bible – Different Canons; Hebrew Bible – History of Scholarship; Old Testament – Religious History – Jewish Tradition; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Early Christian Bibles; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Three-Stage Theory; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Criticism of the Three-Stage Theory; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – The Sadducees; Old Testament – Terms and Criteria; Old Testament – Terms and Criteria - Scripture, Bible, Canon; New Testament – Definition of Canon; New Testament – Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings – Gospels; New Testament – Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings – Paul's letters; New Testament – Disputed Texts; New Testament – Rationale for Inclusion and Exclusion of New Testament Books; New Testament – Later Discussions of Canon and “Canon within the Canon”; 1 and 2 Chronicles - Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Literary History – The Relationship between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah; Literary History – The Original Extent of Chronicles; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Content; Literary Genre and Interpretation – The Chroniclers Agenda and His Essential Tendency; Literary Genre and Interpretation – History of Interpretation; Reception History; Clement, Letters of or Letters of Clement – Authorship and Context; Literary Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Colossians – Authorship; Historical Context and Date of Composition; 1 Corinthians – Date and Historical Context; Paul in Corinth; Interpretation – 1:10-6:20 Paul's Response to Reports of Problems in the Corinthian Church; Reception History; 2 Corinthians - Structure and Content; Literary History – Reasons for Questioning the Literary Integrity; Literary History – Partition Theories; Literary History – Partition Theories – Mitchell; Literary History – Historical Reconstruction of the Relationship between Paul and the Corinthian Congregation; Interpretation - The Proem: Leitmotifs of the Letter (1:3-11); Interpretation - Pauls' Defense of His Apostolic Ministry; Interpretation - The Collection as a Symbol of the Unity of Jewish and Gentile Believers (2 Cor. 8-9); Interpretation - Paul's Attack on the Intruding Missionaries and His Preparation for a Third Visit (2 Cor. 10-13);
  • Daniel and Additions to Daniel – Authorship, Dates of Composition, and Historical Contexts; Dead Sea Scrolls - Brief History of the Discoveries; Description of the Finds; Description of the Finds – Provenance; Description of Important Texts – Biblical Texts; Description of Important Texts – Parabiblical Literature; Description of Important Texts – Commentaries; Description of Important Texts – Rules; Description of Important Texts – Texts Used in Worship; Brief History of the Qumran Community – Allusions to Historical Texts; Brief History of the Qumran Community – Physical Evidence; Brief History of the Qumran Community – The Essenes; Brief History of the Qumran Community – Early Reconstruction of the History; Brief History of the Qumran Community – Connecting the Essenes with the Site and the Scrolls; Significance – Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible; Significance – Early Judaism; Significance – Early Christianity – Sectarianism and Differentiation; Deuteronomy - Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Dates of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Deuteronomy and Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty; Structure and Contents – The Decalogue; Structure and Contents – Deuteronomy and the Status of Women; Interpretation; Reception History;
  • Ecclesiastes – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Authorship: Traditional and Modern Views; Interpretation; Reception History; 1 Enoch – The Text of 1 Enoch and the Dead Sea Scrolls; Authorship and the Figure of Enoch; The “Book of Parables” (1 Enoch 37-71); The “Book of the Luminaries” (1 Enoch 72-82); The “Dream Visions” (1 Enoch 83-90); The “Epistle of Enoch” (1 Enoch 92-105); Ephesians – Structure and Contents; Setting and Purpose; Theology; 1 Esdras – Interpolation of the Story of the Youths in the Narrative of the Return; Reordering the Narrative of the Return: Zerubbabel's Return History (Ezra 2:1-4:5//1 Esd 5:7-45) and the Complaint to Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7-24//1 Esd. 2:15-25); The Reading of the Torah (Neh. 8:1-13//1 Esd. 9:36-55) and the Omission of Nehemiah's Memoirs; Esther and Additions to Esther – Canonical Status; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s); Literary History; Structure and Contents; Outline; Interpretation; Greek Additions to Esther: Structure and Contents; Greek Additions to Esther: Structure and Contents – Discussion of the Greek Additions; Exodus – Canonical Status and Location in the Canon – Exodus and the Former Prophets; Canonical Status and Location in the Canon – Exodus and Genesis; Authorship, Date, and Literary History – The Identification of the J Source; Authorship, Date, and Literary History – The P Literature; Structure and Contents; Interpretation – The Setting; Interpretation – The Characters; Interpretation – The Conflict; Interpretation – The Revelation; Reception History; Ezekiel – Name of Book and Meaning; Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s); Literary History; Structure and Contents – III.. Prophecies Against Foreign Nations; Structure and Contents – IV. Prophecies of Salvation; Reception History; Ezra and Nehemiah - Versions, Place in the Canons, and Date; Content and Structure – The Textualization of the Tradition; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – What Was the Conflict with the People of the Land and the Crisis of “Mixed Marriages”?; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – What Was Ezra's “Torah”?; Scholarly Reception of Ezra-Nehemiah;
  • Galatians – Date of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Interpretation History; Interpretation History – 2. The Purpose and End of the Law; Interpretation History – 3. New Creation; Genesis – Canonical Status and Location; Authorship of Genesis; Reception History; Gospels - Euaggelion as a Literary Designation; Gospels by Analogy; Gospels by Analogy – Sayings Gospels; The Literary Character of Gospels – Sayings Gospels; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels – The Synoptic Problem; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels – John and the Synoptics; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels – The Gospel of Thomas;
  • Habakkuk – Date; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Hebrews – Authorship; Date and Historical Context; Structure; Interpretation; Reception History; Hosea – Authorship; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s); Interpretation – Interpretations of the Book of Hosea; Interpretation – Hosea as Literature; Reception History;
  • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius – Manuscripts and Authenticity; Major Themes of the Letters; Major Themes of the Letters – Discipleship and Martyrdom; Major Themes of the Letters – Unity and Schism; Major Scholarly Debates; Isaiah - Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 3-5 and the Social Background; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 6-8 and Isaiah's Prophetic Biography; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 10, 28-31 and the Siege of Sennacherib; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah (;1-6 and Isaiah 11-12: Royal Announcements; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 24-27; Chapters 40-66 – Isaiah 40-48: Between Babylon and Persia; Chapters 40-66 – The Servant and the Servants; Chapters 40-66 – Isaiah 56-66: New Grace and New Judgment; Literary Features;
  • James – Authorship; Date and Historical Context; Interpretation; Jeremiah - Background Information; Literary History; Interpretation; Interpretation – 1:4-19 Jeremiah's Commission and Inaugural Visions; Interpretation – 2:1-10:25 Oracles of Warning to Jerusalem; Interpretation – 11:1-20:18 Prophetic Laments and Sign-Acts; Interpretation – 30:1-31:40 The Book of Consolation; Interpretation – 32:1 -45:5 Struggles for Political Authority; Interpretation – 46:1-51:64 The Routing of Judah's Enemies; Reception History; Jeremiah, Letter of or Letter of Jeremiah* – Genre, Contents, and Interpretation; Job - Authorship, Date, and Context; Structure and Contents – The Prologue; Structure and Contents – The Wisdom Dialogue; Structure and Contents – Job's Final Defense; Structure and Contents – The Divine Speeches; Interpretation – The Prologue: A Critique of Fear; Interpretation – The Wisdom Dialogue: The Clash of Incommensurable Perspectives; Interpretation – The Divine Speeches; Joel – Interpretative Questions; John, Gospel according to or Gospel according to John - Authorship; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Contexts(s); Literary History; Outline; Interpretation – The Prologue as Conclusion (1:1-18); Interpretation – The Wedding Motif from Cana to Cana (2:1-4:54); Interpretation – Claiming Moses and Fulfilling Feasts (5:1-10:21); Interpretation – From Bethany to Bethany: The Temple Resolved (10:22-12:11); Interpretation – The Passion Week: The New Community as the Beloved Spouse (12:12-20:31); Reception History; 1, 2, and 3 John or 1 John and 2 John and 3 John – Dating and Sequence; Historical Context; Audience and Authorship; Jonah – Structure and Contents; Interpretation and Reception; Interpretation and Reception – Theology and Justice; Joseph and Aseneth – Contents; History of Scholarship; Joshua – Authorship and Literary Affiliation; Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Interpretation; Historical Context; Reception History; Jubilees - Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Alterations to Biblical Scenes and Characterizations; Jubilee's Responses to the Hellenistic-[Jewish] Context; Jubilean Halakah; Unity of the Book; Author and Date; Author and Date – The Argument for Qumranic Provenance; Text History; Text History – Literary Echoes; Text History – Status at Qumran and Elsewhere; Jude – Interpretation; Judges – Literary History; Structure and Contents – C. The Concluding Section (Judg. 17:1-21:25); Interpretation History; Reception History;
  • 1 and 2 Kings - Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11); Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel – Perspective; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Judah; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Judah – Contents; Contents and Structure – The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 Kgs 18-25); Contents and Structure – The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 Kgs 18-25) – Contents; Contents and Structure – Language and Style; Contents and Structure – Reception and History;
  • Lamentations - Authorship; Dates of Composition and Historical Context; Letters - Epigraphic Letters; Epigraphic Letters – Postbiblical Letters; Writing and Delivering a Letter; Writing and Delivering a Letter – Papyrus; Dictation, Transport, and Delivery; Terminology; Form; Form – B. Initial Greeting; Letters in the Hebrew Bible; Greco-Roman Letters; Greco-Roman Letters – Form; Letters in the New Testament; Letters in the New Testament – Greco-Roman Rhetoric and the New Testament Letters; Letters in the New Testament – Greco-Roman and Near Eastern Letters; Letters in the New Testament – Pseudonymity; Letters in the Apocrypha; Leviticus – Authorship, Date, and Literary History; Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Interpretation – Sacrifice; Interpretation – Holiness and Commonness; Interpretation – Purity and Impurity; Interpretation – Priestly Outlook; Reception History; Lost Books - Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament – Letters Attributed to Paul; Assessment; Luke, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Luke – Manuscript Evidence and Earliest Attestation; Authorship; Sources; Structure and Genre; Interpretation – Salvation History; Interpretation – Rich and Poor in Luke; Interpretation – Women in Luke; Interpretation – Luke and Judaism; Reception History;
  • 1 Maccabees – The Name of 1 Maccabees; The Canonical Status of 1 Maccabees; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents – Section 2 (chs. 3:1-9:22); Structure and Contents – Section 3 (chs. 9:23-16:24); Interpretation; 2 Maccabees – Canonical Status; Date and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Literary History; Interpretation; Jewish and Christian Reinterpretations; Later Reception History; 3 Maccabees – Authorship, Origins, and Date; Historicizing Fiction; Religious and Cultural Significance; 4 Maccabees – Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Malachi – Canonical Status and Location; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Manasseh, Prayer of or Prayer of Manasseh; Mark, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Mark – Authorship; Literary History; Structure and Contents – 2. Jesus's Christological Identity; Reception History; Mary, Gospel of or Gospel of Mary – Attestation, Date, and Authorship; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation; Matthew, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Matthew – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents – Narrative Section: Healings and Miracles (8:1-9:38); Structure and Contents – Second Discourse: On the Mission of the Twelve (10:1-42); Structure and Contents – Narrative Section: Growing Tensions and Conflicts (11:1-12:50); Structure and Contents – Third Discourse: Parables About the Kingdom of Heaven (13:1-52); Structure and Contents – Narrative Section: Messianic Claims and the Demands of Discipleship (13:53-17:27); Structure and Contents – Fourth Discourse: Rules for the Members of the Ekklēsia (18:1-35); Structure and Contents – Narrative Section: Teaching, Healing, and Conflict in Judea and Jerusalem (19:1-24:2); Structure and Contents – Fifth Discourse: The End of Time and the Final Judgment (24:3-25:46); Structure and Contents – The Passion and Resurrection: Narrative (26:1-28:20); Interpretation; Reception History; Micah – Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation – Micah 1; Interpretation – Micah 2; Reception History;
  • Nag Hammadi Library - Discoveries – The Nag Hammadi Discovery According to James M. Robinson; Nag Hammadi Archaeology; Nag Hammadi Archaeology – Archaeology at the Jabal al-Tarif and Pbow; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts – Thomas Christianity; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts – Texts of Hermetic Religion and Other Texts; The Impact of the Nag Hammadi Library and Other Codices; Nahum – Date; Literary Issues; Literary Issues – Nahum in the Wider Literary Context; Interpretation; Reception History; Numbers – Authorship; Interpretation;
  • Obadiah* – Content and Interpretation;
  • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul - Authorship and Pseudonymity; History of Modern Research – Trends and Developments; The Authentic Letters – Romans; The Authentic Letters – First Corinthians; The Authentic Letters – Second Corinthians; The Authentic Letters – Galatians; The Authentic Letters – Philippians; The Authentic Letters – First Thessalonians; The Authentic Letters – Philemon; The Disputed Letters – Ephesians; The Disputed Letters – Colossians; The Disputed Letters – Second Thessalonians; The Pseudonymous Letters; The Pseudonmyous Letters – The Pastoral Letters (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus); Paul and Thecla, Acts of or Acts of Paul and Thecla – Relation to Canonical Books; Literary History; Contents; Pesharim* - “Continuous Pesharim”; “Thematic” Pesharim; Peshitta and Other Syriac Versions – Origin and Dating of the Old Testament Peshitta; Scholarly Significance of the Old Testament Peshitta; Editions and Translations of the Old Testament Peshitta; 1 Peter – Interpretation; 2 Peter – Interpretation; Philemon – The Traditional Interpretation Challenged: Reassessing Onesimus; Philip, Gospel of or Gospel of Philip – Location in Early Christianity; Theological Ideas; Key Figures; Philippians – Date(s) of Composition and Historical Contexts; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate – The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate; The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – Contents; The Middle Ages; Prayers and Hymns - Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians – Prayers and Hymns from the Dead Sea Scrolls; Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians – Prayers and Hymns from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha; Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians – Prayers and Hymns in Early Christian Writings; Proverbs – Dates of Composition and Historical Context(s); Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Psalms - Authorship; Structure and Compilation of the Book; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Genre Headings; Literary History – A Puzzling Problem; Pseudepigrapha – The Term and the Collection; Jewish or Christian Origin?; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Apologetic, Wisdom, and Philosophical Texts; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Edifying Tales and Romances; Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Liturgical Texts; The Significance of the Pseudepigrapha;
  • Rabbinic Literature - Introduction – The Documents of Rabbinic Literature; Introduction – The Mishnah; Introduction – The Post-Mithnaic Legal Literature: The Tosefta and Talmuds; Introduction – Scripture and the Exegetical Tradition of the Written Torah; Introduction – The Rabbinic Literature as Oral Torah; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – The Rabbinic “Canon” of the Bible; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – The Form “Midrash”; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – The Origins and Many Purposes of Midrash; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – Midrash Halakah and Midrash Haggadah; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – Rabbinic and Patristic Interpretations of Scripture: Schools, Common Features, and the Question of Interaction; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Hermeneutics and Hellenistic Parallels; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Hermeneutics and Hellenistic Parallels – The Seven Rules of Hillel and the Thirteen Rules of Rabbi Ishmael; New Testament – Methodology – Recent Developments; New Testament – Jewish Law before the Halakah; New Testament – Exegetical Principles; New Testament – Midrashic Parallels; New Testament – Anti-Christian Polemic; Revelation - Interpretation – Vision of the Heavenly Throne Room and the Seven Seals (4:1-8:5); Interpretation – The Seven Trumpets (8:6-11:19); Interpretation – Unnumbered Visions of Conflict, Deliverance, and Judgment (12:1-15:4); Interpretation – Vision of the Fall of Babylon (17:1-19:10); Interpretation – Unnumbered Visions Cataloging God's Defeat of His Enemies (19:11-21:8); Interpretation – Epilogue and Epistolary Closing (22:8-21); Romans – Historical Context; Occasion and Purpose; Structure of the Letter; Interpretation; Reception; Ruth – Names; Author; Historical Context and Date of Composition; Structure and Contents; Reception History;
  • 1 and 2 Samuel – Canonical Status; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Structure and Contents – Samuel; Structure and Contents – Saul; Structure and Contents – David; Structure and Contents – Women; Interpretation; Septaugint and Other Ancient Greek Translations – Sequence of the Books; Original Form, Jewish Background, Place, and Date; Evidence; Evidence – Direct Witnesses; Exegesis; Hebrew Source of the LXX; Greek and Hebrew Scrolls from the Judean Desert; Revisions of the Septaugint; The Greek Versions and Christianity; The Greek Versions and Christianity – Quotations of the LXX in the NT; Shepherd of Hermas – Authorship and Date; Genre, Structure, and Contents; Interpretation; Sirach – Canonical Status; Textual and Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Song of Solomon – Authorship, Date of Composition, and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Song of Solomon – Authorship, Date of Composition, and Historical Context; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History;
  • Targumim - Early Written Targumim; Texts – The Pentateuch – Onkelos; Texts – The Pentateuch – Pseudo-Jonathan; Texts – The Pentateuch – The Cairo Genizah Fragments of the Palestinian Targum; Texts – The Pentateuch – The Fragment Targums of the Pentateuch; Texts – The Pentateuch – Codex Neofiti 1; Texts – The Prophets; Texts – The Writings; Texts – The Writings – Lamentations; Texts – The Writings – Canticles; Chief Targumic Themes; Genres; Connections of Targums with Other Topics; Testaments – The Testament of Moses; The Vision of Amram; The Testament of Job; Other “Testamentary” Literature; Text Criticism - Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text – The Masoretic Text (MT); Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text – The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP); Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text – The Qumran Scrolls; Hebrew Bible – The Septaugint and Its Versions – The Old Latin (OL); Hebrew Bible – The Septaugint and Its Versions – The Syro-Hexapla; Hebrew Bible – Other Versions of the Hebrew Text – The Targumim; Hebrew Bible – Other Versions of the Hebrew Text – Peshitta; Hebrew Bible – Other Versions of the Hebrew Text – The Vulgate; Apocrypha – Modern Study; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Sirach; Apocrypha – Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain; Apocrypha – Reception History; New Testament – Witnesses; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127); New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321); New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions; New Testament – Witnesses – Patristic Citations; New Testament – Principles of Criticism; New Testament - Principles of Criticism – Internal; New Testament – Illustrative Variants; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – First Timothy 3:16; 1 Thessalonians – Interpretation; Reception; 2 Thessalonians – Content and Structure; Literary Relationship Between 1 and 2 Thessalonians; Authorship and Date of Composition; Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity; Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity – Contradictory Eschatological Discourses; Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Authenticity; Thomas, Gospel of or Gospel of Thomas – The Gospel of Thomas in Early Christianity; Authorship and Place of Origin; Structure and Organization; Sources of the Gospel; Difficulties of Interpretation; The Dependence or Independence Debate; The Thomasine Community; 1 Timothy – Authorship and Genre; Audience, Contents, and Interpretation; Tobit – Text; Literary Character; Literary Character – Tobit and Reader Engagement; Reception History; Translations, English or English Translations - Versions before 1611 – The Wycliffe Bible; Versions before 1611 – Tyndale's Version (New Testament; 1526-1534); Versions before 1611 – The Rheims-Douay Bible, or Douay-Rheims Bible (1582-1609); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The Authorized (King James) Version (1611); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The Revised Version (1885); Modern Pioneers; Translation Theory and Bible Translation;
  • Vulgate and Other Ancient Latin Translations – The Vetus Latina (Old Latin) Tradition;
  • Wisdom of Solomon – Contents and Structure; Language, Provenance, and Date; Genre and Purpose; Theology; Formative Influences; Reception and Canonical Status;
  • Zechariah – Date of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Zephaniah – Historical Context;

Minor articles[edit]

1 or 2 paragraphs under 1 column

  • Acts – The Acts of Philip; Acts of the Apostles – Canonical Status; Andrew, Acts of or Acts of Andrew – The Apostle Andrew; Reconstruction of the Primitive Acts of Andrew; Acts of Andrew Fragment in the Vatican Museum; Message of the Fragment; Date and Place of Composition; Apocalypses – Earliest Apocalypses; Apocrypha – Old Testament – Genres – Histories; Old Testament – Genres – Poetic Books; Old Testament – Genres – Prophetic Books; Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization – Jewish Community; Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization – Early Christians; Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization – Orthodox; New Testament – Agrapha; New Testament – Lost Gospels; New Testament – Extant Gospels - The Gospel of Thomas; New Testament – Extant Gospels - Stories about Jesus' Birth; New Testament – Extant Gospels - Gospels of Jesus' Childhood; New Testament – Extant Gospels - Passion Gospels; New Testament – Extant Gospels - The Descent to the Underworld; New Testament – Extant Gospels - Pilate; New Testament – Assumption of Mary;
  • Baruch – Authorship and Literary History; Bible – Origin of the Term Bible – Plural to Singular, and Sacred; Origin of the Term Bible – Related Terms; Evolution of Bibles – Technological Shift II:Printing; A Ongoing Evolution and Legacy;
  • Canon – Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon – Torah; Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon – Prophets; Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon – Writings; Hebrew Bible – Process of Canonization – Septaugint or LXX; Hebrew Bible – Process of Canonization – Qumran; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Catholic Tradition; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Protestant Tradition; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Protestants and the Apocrypha; Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Significance; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791); Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – An Alternative Approach; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Dead Sea Scrolls; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – A First Century C.E. Canon; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Alexandrian Canon Hypothesis; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – “Council” of Jamnia Myth; Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Assessment; Old Testament – Terms and Criteria - “Canon 1” and “Canon 2”; New Testament – Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings – Remaining Writings; 1 and 2 Chronicles – Authorship; Literary Genre and Interpretation – Is Chronicles Intended to Replace Samuel-Kings?; Clement, Letters of or Letters of Clement – Literary Structure and Contents – Contents of 1 Clement; Literary Structure and Contents – Contents of 2 Clement; Interpretation – Keys to 1 Clement; Interpretation – Keys to 2 Clement; Reception History; Colossians – Canonical Status; Structure and Content; Interpretation; Reception History; 1 Corinthians – Authorship; Structure and Outline of 1 Corinthians; Interpretation – 1:1-9 Opening Greeting and Thanksgiving; Interpretation – 16:5-24 Conclusion: Travel Plans, Exhortation, and Final Greetings; 2 Corinthians – Literary History – Partition Theories – The Semler-Windisch- and the Hausrath-Kennedy-Hypothesis; Literary History – Partition Theories – The Weiss-Bultmann Hypothesis; Literary History – Partition Theories – The Bornkamm-Schmithals-Hypothesis; Interpretation - Paul and His Congregation 1: Events Ensuring from the Intermediate Visit (1:12-2:13); Interpretation – Paul's Defense of His Apostolic Ministry – Paul's Ministry of a New Covenant (2:14-4:6); Interpretation – Paul's Defense of His Apostolic Ministry – Apostolic Afflictions, Divine Preservation, and the Hope for Resurrection (4:7-5:10); Interpretation – Paul's Defense of His Apostolic Ministry – Paul's Ministry of Reconciliation (5:11-6:10) and His Appeal for Reconciliation (6:11-7:4); Interpretation - Paul and His Congregation II: Paul's Joy at the Repentance of the Corinthians (7:5-16); Assessment;
  • Dead Sea Scrolls – Brief History of the Discoveries – Notable Caves; Brief History of the Discoveries – Publication Process; Description of the Finds – Nomenclature for Scrolls; Description of the Finds – Genres; Description of Important Texts – 4QMMT; Description of Important Texts – Wisdom Texts; Description of Important Texts – Eschatological Texts; Description of Important Texts – Non-literary Texts; Brief History of the Qumran Community – Written Evidence; Description of the Sect; Significance – Early Christianity – Attitude to Scripture; Significance – Early Christianity – The Law; Significance – Early Christianity – Immersion for Purification; Significance – Early Christianity – Eschatology; Significance – Early Christianity – Son of Man; Significance – Early Christianity – Kingdom of God; Significance – Early Christianity – Miracles; Significance – Early Christianity – Mystery; Significance – Early Christianity – Dualism; Significance – Early Christianity – Devotion; Significance – Early Christianity – Leadership; Significance – Early Christianity – Community Property; Significance – Early Christianity – Women; Significance – Early Christianity – Melchizedek; Significance – Early Christianity – Calendar; Significance – Early Christianity – Ritual Meal; Deuteronomy – Name of the Book and Its Meaning; Authorship; Deuteronomy and Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty – Other Literary Influences; Didache – Name; Canonical and/or Noncanonical Status; Authorship and Date; Edition, Translations, and Commentaries; Structure and Contents; Interpretations and Open Questions; New Required Research;
  • Ephesians – Contribution; 1 Esdras – The Abrupt Opening and Ending; A Mixture of Genres; Juxtaposition of Alternative Narratives and Chronological Confusion; First Esdras as a Whole – Title, Structure, and Concept; 2 Esdras – Canonicity; Language, Date, and Provenance; Reception History; Fifth Ezra and 6 Ezra; Esther and Additions to Esther – Authorship; Greek Additions to Esther: Structure and Contents – Outline of the Greek Additions to Esther; Reception History; Exodus – Canonical Status and Location in the Canon – Exodus and Deuteronomy; Authorship, Date, and Literary History – The Identification of the E Source; Interpretation – The Journey; Interpretation – The Sanctuary; Ezekiel – Authorship: Traditional and Modern; Structure and Contents – I. Prophetic Call Narrative; Ezra and Nehemiah – Content and Structure – The Community as the Chief Protagonist of the Reconstruction; Content and Structure – The Expansion of the “House of God” to Encompass the People and City, Not Only the Temple; Content and Structure – Structure; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”? - Royal Edicts and Correspondence; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”? - Nehemiah Memoir; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”? - Ezra Memoir and Ezra “Source”; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”? - The Lists; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – What Is the Compositional History of Ezra-Nehemiah?; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – What Was the Relationship between Samaria and Yehud/Judah?; The Impact of Ezra/Nehemiah;
  • Galatians – Interpretation History – 1. The Antioch Incident; Genesis – Name of Book; Gospels – The Diversity of Gospels – Narrative Gospels; The Diversity of Gospels – Passion Gospels; The Diversity of Gospels – Sayings Gospels; The Diversity of Gospels – Post-Resurrection Dialogues; The Diversity of Gospels – Theological Tractates; The Diversity of Gospels – Other Gospels; Gospels by Analogy – Narrative Gospels; Gospels by Analogy – Passion and Infancy Gospels; Gospels by Analogy – Dialogue/Discourse Gospels; The Literary Character of Gospels – Dialogue Gospels; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels – Jewish-Christian gospels; Prospects;
  • Habakkuk – Canonical Status; Authorship; Haggai – Name; Canonical Status and Location; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Interpretation; Reception History; Hebrews – Name; Canonical Status; Literary History; Hosea – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Literary History; Textual Difficulties; Structure;
  • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius – Major Themes of the Letters – Jewish/Gentile Relations; Major Scholarly Debates – Situation Reflected: Antioch or Western Asia Minor?; Major Scholarly Debates – Situation in Antioch; Major Scholarly Debates – Opponents; Other Matters; Isaiah – Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 1-2 as Overtures; Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 9 and the Fall of Samaria;
  • James – Literary Genre; Structure and Contents; Reception History; Jeremiah – Interpretation – 1:1-3 Historical Superscription; Interpretation – 52:1-34 The Destruction of Jerusalem; Jeremiah, Letter of or Letter of Jeremiah – Authorship, Date, and Language; Job – Outline; Structure and Contents – The Wisdom Poem; Structure and Contents – Elihu's Speeches; Structure and Contents – The Epilogue; Interpretation – Job 28: Wisdom as the Missing Piece; Joel – Canon and Text; Joel, Person and Name; Structure and Contents – Calls to Respond to Disasters: Joel 1:2-13; Structure and Contents – Prophetic Responses: Joel 1:15-20; Structure and Contents – Invaders Revisited: Joel 2:1-11; Structure and Contents – Prophetic Address: Joel 2:12-17; Structure and Contents – God's Answer: Joel 2:18-27; Structure and Contents – Universal Prophecy: Joel 2:28-32 (Joel 3); Structure and Contents – The Final Battle: Joel 3:1-21 (Heb. 4:1-21); Subsequent Influence; John, Gospel according to or Gospel according to John – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Interpretation – Seeking and Finding Community (1:19-51); Interpretation – “That You Might Continue to Believe”: The Living Bridegroom (20:1-31); Interpretation – The Epilogue: The Community Moves Forward (21:1-25); 1, 2, and 3 John or 1 John and 2 John and 3 John – Composition and Structure; Purpose of Writing; Reception and Influence; Jonah – Structure and Contents – Inner-Biblical Allusions in Jonah; Structure and Contents – Humor in Jonah; Joseph and Aseneth – Interpretation; Jubilees – Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Contemporary Cultural Influences; Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Halakah; Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Apocalyptic Features; Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Poetics; Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Distrinctive Features of Jubilees; Jude – Canonical Status; Authorship; Date and Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Reception History; Judges – Title; Date; Place in Canon; Authorship; Literary History – The Book of Rescuers (Judg. 3:12-8:28); Literary History – “Chapter Two” of the Deuteronomic History (Judg. 2:6-16:11); Literary History – The Scroll of Judges (Judg. 1-21); Structure and Contents – A. The Introductory Section (Judg. 1:1-2:5);
  • 1 and 2 Kings – Name, Place in Canon; Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11) – Sources; Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11) – Perspective; Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11) – Contents; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel – Sources; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Judah – Sources; Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Judah – Perspective; Contents and Structure – The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 Kgs 18-25) – Sources; Contents and Structure – The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 Kgs 18-25) – Perspective; Contents and Structure – Historicity;
  • Lamentations – Location in Canon; Textual History; Genre; Poetry and Major Themes; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation – Lamentations 1-2; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation – Lamentations 3; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation – Lamentations 4; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation – Lamentations 5; Reception History; Letters – Epigraphic Letters – Arad; Epigraphic Letters – Lachish; Epigraphic Letters – Other Hebrew Sources from the Biblical Period; Epigraphic Letters – Elephantine; Epigraphic Letters – Postbiblical Letters – Qumran; Epigraphic Letters – Postbiblical Letters – Masada; Epigraphic Letters – Postbiblical Letters – Bar Kochba; Writing and Delivering a Letter – Leather; Writing and Delivering a Letter – Pottery (Ostraca); Writing and Delivering a Letter – Other Materials; Writing and Delivering a Letter – Inks; Literacy; Form – A. Initial Address; Form – C. Body; Form – D-F. Concluding Formulas; Form – G. Outside Address; Form – Example of an Epigraphic Letter; Letters in the Hebrew Bible – Definite References to Letters; Letters in the Hebrew Bible – The Aramaic Letters in Ezra; Letters in the Hebrew Bible – Probable Letters; Letters in the Hebrew Bible – Questionable Cases; Letters in the Hebrew Bible – Generically Marginal or Mixed Cases; Additional Literary Sources; The Literary Use of Letters; Leviticus – Outline; Lost Books – Sacred Writings and Canon; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Book of the Wars of the Lord (Num. 21:14); Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Book of Jaschar; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Annals of the Kings of Israel and Judah; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Book of Acts of Solomon (1 Kgs. 11:41); Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Chronicles; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Books Attributed to Prophets; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Laments; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Other Books; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament – Gospels; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament – Acts 19:19; Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament – Agrapha; Other Christian Books; Luke, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Luke – Attestation; Date; Location and Audience;
  • 1 Maccabees – The Relationship Between 1, 2, 3 and 4 Maccabees; Structure and Contents – Section 1 (chs. 1-2); 2 Maccabees – Authorship; Setting of the Epitomist; 3 Maccabees – Transmission History; 4 Maccabees – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Authorship; Date of Composition and Historical Context; Literary History; Reception History; Malachi – Name; Literary History; Mark, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Mark – Canonical Status and Location; Structure and Contents – 1. The Coming Kingdom of God; Structure and Contents – 3. The Incomprehension of the Disciples; Interpretation; Mary, Gospel of or Gospel of Mary – The Title of the Gospel; Reception History; Matthew, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Matthew – Structure and Contents – Introduction, Part 1: The Infancy Narrative (1:1-2:23); Structure and Contents – Introduction, Part II: Prologue to Jesus' Ministry (3:1-4:25); Structure and Contents – First Discourse: The Sermon on the Mount (5:1-7:29); Micah – Background Information; Interpretation – Micah 3; Interpretation – Micah 4; Interpretation – Micah 5; Interpretation – Micah 6; Interpretation – Micah 7;
  • Nag Hammadi Library – Discoveries – The Discovery of the Nag Hammadi Library according to Jean Doresse; Discoveries – The Discovery of Berlin Gnostic Codex 8502; Discoveries – The Discovery of Codex Tchacos; Nag Hammadi Archaeology – Archaeological and Historical Investigation in the Nag Hammadi Region; Nahum – Authorship; Contents and Structure; Literary Issues – Genre; Literary Issues – Nahum as Poet; Numbers – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Contents and Structure of the Final Composition; Reception History;
  • Paul and Thecla, Acts of or Acts of Paul and Thecla – Authorship, Date of Composition, and Historical Context; Pesharim -Other Occurrences of the Word “Pesher” and Commentaries; Peshitta and Other Syriac Versions – Name; Origin and Dating of the New Testament Peshitta; Extent of the Peshitta; Scholarly Significance of the New Testament Peshitta; Other Syriac Versions of the Old Testament; Other Syriac Versions of the New Testament; Editions and Translations of the New Testament Peshitta; Legacy: The Bible of the Syriac Churches; 1 Peter – Canonical Status; Authorship; Date and Place of Composition; Literary History; Structure and Contents; 2 Peter – Canonical Status; Authorship; Date and Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; Reception History; Philemon – The Traditional Interpretation: Onesimus as a Runaway Slave from Colossae; The Traditional Interpretation Adapted: Onesimus as Bishop of Ephesus; The Enduring Appeal of Philemon; Philip, Gospel of or Gospel of Philip – Significance; Philippians – Canonical Status; Authorship; Reception History; Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate – The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – Manuscript Tradition; The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – A Consistent Account?; The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – Dating; The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – Milieu of Origin; The Middle Ages – Contents; The Middle Ages – Literary Descendants; The Middle Ages – Canonicity; The Middle Ages – Artistic Reception; The Middle Ages – Related Works; Prayers and Hymns – Categorizing Prayers and Hymns; Proverbs – Canonical Status and Location; Authorship; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 1-9: “The Proverbs of Solomon”; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 10:1-22:16: “The Proverbs of Solomon,” Part 2; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 22:17-24:22: “The Words of the Wise”; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 24:23-34; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 25-29; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 30: “The Words of Agur, Son of Jakeh”; Structure and Contents – Proverbs 31: “The Words of King Lemuel”; Psalms – Position in the Canon; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Authorial or Pseudepigraphal Headings; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Historical Headings; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Headings for Liturgical Occasions; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Musical Headings; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Instructional Headings; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Hallelujah; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Technical Terms inside Psalms;
  • Rabbinic Literature – Introduction – The Midrashic Compilations; Introduction – Genesis Rabbah; Introduction – Leviticus Rabbah; Introduction – Pesiqta de Rab Kahana; Introduction – Song of Songs Rabbah; Introduction – Ruth Rabbah; Introduction – Lamentations Rabbah (also called Eikha Rabbati); Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Readings from the Bible in the Synagogue in Rabbinic Times; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Oral Torah; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – Targum; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – The Rabbinic View of the Bible and Its Effect on the Nature of Midrash; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – Prerabbinic Forms of Midrash?; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – The Three-part Tanak and Some Formal Characteristics of Rabbinic Midrash; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Hermeneutics and Hellenistic Parallels – The Methods of Midrash Haggadah; Revelation – Canonical Status and Location in Canon; Traditional and Modern Authorship; Structure and Contents; Interpretation – Title, Epistolatory Opening, and Introduction to the Visions (1:1-8); Interpretation – Vision of a “Son of Man” and the Messages of the Seven Churches (1:9-3:22); Interpretation – Seven Bowls (15:5-16:21); Interpretation – Vision of the New Jerusalem (21:9-22:7); Romans – Authorship and Integrity of the Letter; Audience; Ruth – Location in the Canon and Textual Evidence;
  • Samaritan Pentateuch – Qumran and the SP; 1 and 2 Samuel – Structure and Contents – Outline; Septaugint and Other Ancient Greek Translations – Name and Nature; Scope; Original Form, Jewish Background, Place, and Date – Jewish Background; Original Form, Jewish Background, Place, and Date – Place; Original Form, Jewish Background, Place, and Date – Date; Evidence – Indirect Witnesses; Editions; Auxiliary Tools; Translation Technique; Retroversion of the Parent Text; Revisions of the Septaugint – Emergence of the Revisions; Revisions of the Septaugint – Nature of the Revisions; Revisions of the Septaugint – Pre-Hexaplaric Revisions; Revisions of the Septaugint – Kaige-Theodotion; Revisions of the Septaugint – Aquila; Revisions of the Septaugint – Symmachus; Revisions of the Septaugint – Hexapla; Revisions of the Septaugint – Post-Hexaplaric Revisions; The Greek Versions and Christianity – Terminology; The Greek Versions and Christianity – Theological Foundations; Shepherd of Hermas – Canonical Status; Sirach – Name of the Book; Authorship; Reception History; Song of Solomon – Canonical Status and Location in Canon;
  • Targumim – The Origin of Targumim; Texts – The Pentateuch – The Palestinian Targums; Texts – The Pentateuch – Palestinian Targumic Toseftot; Texts – The Pentateuch – Liturgical Palestinian Targum-Inspired Poems; Texts – The Prophets – Jonathan; Texts – The Prophets – Targum Prophets Toseftot; Texts – The Writings – Job; Texts – The Writings – Psalms; Texts – The Writings – Proverbs; Texts – The Writings – Ruth; Texts – The Writings – Qohelet; Texts – The Writings – Esther; Texts – The Writings – Chronicles; Connections of Targums with Other Topics – The Syriac Pentateuch and the Targumim; Connections of Targums with Other Topics – Targumim: Interpretative Tradition. Origin in Synagogue or School?; Connections of Targums with Other Topics – Targumim and New Testament; Connections of Targums with Other Topics – Tell-like Structure of our Present Targumim; Testaments – The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs – Original Language and Textual Witnesses; Reception History; Text Criticism – Apocrypha – Aims; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Maccabees; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Baruch; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Wisdom of Solomon; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Esther; Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Prayer of Manasseh; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Tobit; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Additions to Esther; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – First Maccabees; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – First-Second Esdras; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Additions to Daniel; Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Psalm 151; Apocrypha – Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain – Judith; Apocrypha – Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain – Letter of Jeremiah; Apocrypha – Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain – Psalms of Solomon; New Testament – Terminology; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P45; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P46; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P47; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P52; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P66; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P72; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P75; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - (01) or Codex Sinaiticus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - A (02) or Codex Alexandrinus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - B (03) or Codex Vaticanus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - C (04) or Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - D (05) or Codex Bezae; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - D (06) or Codex Claromontanus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - F (010) or Codex Augiensis; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - G (012) or Codex Boernerianus; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - L (019) or Codex Regius; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - W (032); New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - Δ (037); New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - Θ (038) or the Koridethi Gospels; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - 046; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 1; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 13; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 28; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 33; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 81; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 383; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 565; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 579; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 614; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 700; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 892; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 1241; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 1424; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 1739; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 2053; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 2344; New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Lectionaries (2450); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Latin (latt); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Syriac; New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Coptic (co); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Armenian (arm); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Gothic (got); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Ethiopic (aeth); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Georgian (geo); New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Old Church Slavonic (slav); New Testament - Principles of Criticism – External; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – Mark 10:7; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – Mark 16:9-20; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – John 1:18; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – John 7:53-8:11; New Testament - Illustrative Variants – Romans 5:1; 1 Thessalonians – Canonical Status and Location; Authorship; Date of Composition and Literary Context; Literary History; Structure and Contents; 2 Thessalonians – Content and Structure – Exordion (1:1-12); Content and Structure – Partitio (2:1-2); Content and Structure – Probation (2:3-3:5); Content and Structure – Exhortatio (3:6-15); Content and Structure – Peroratio (3:16-18); Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity – Literary Dependence; Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity – The Lack of Personal References; Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity – The References to Forgery in 2 Thess. 2:2 and 3:27; Thomas, Gospel of or Gospel of Thomas – Principal Themes; Debates within the Text; 1 Timothy – Context; Tobit – Date and Place of Composition; Original Language; Sources; Main Themes; Translations, English or English Translations – Versions before 1611 – The Coverdale Bible (1535); Versions before 1611 – The Matthew's Bible (1537); Versions before 1611 – The Taverner's Bible (1539); Versions before 1611 – The Great Bible (1539); Versions before 1611 – The Geneva Bible (1560); Versions before 1611 – The Bishop's Bible (1568); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The American Standard Version (1901); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The Revised Standard Version (1952); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The New American Standard Bible (1971); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The New King James Version (1982); 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The New Revised Standard Version (1989); An Overview of Modern Versions – A New Translation of the Bible (1926-1955) by James Moffatt; An Overview of Modern Versions – An American Translation (1927) by Smith and Goodspeed; An Overview of Modern Versions – The New Testament in Modern English (1958) by J. R. Phillips; An Overview of Modern Versions – The Jerusalem Bible (1966); An Overview of Modern Versions – The New English Bible (1970); An Overview of Modern Versions – The New American Bible (1970); An Overview of Modern Versions – The Good News Translation (1976); An Overview of Modern Versions – The New International Version (1978); An Overview of Modern Versions – Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures (1985); An Overview of Modern Versions – The New Testament and Psalms: An Inclusive Version (1995); An Overview of Modern Versions – The New Living Translation (1996); An Overview of Modern Versions – The English Standard Version (2001); An Overview of Modern Versions – The NET Bible (2005-print edition); An Overview of Modern Versions – The Contemporary Torah: A Gender-Sensitive Adaptation of the JPS Translation (2006); An Overview of Modern Versions – Common English Bible (2011); Modern Pioneers – The Five Books of Moses: A New Translation with Introductions, Commentary and Notes (1995); Give Us a King!: Samuel, Saul, and David (1999) by Everett Fox; Modern Pioneers – The David Story: 1 and 2 Samuel (1999); The Five Books of Moses (2004); The Book of Psalms (2007); The Wisdom Books: Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes (2010) by Robert Alter; Modern Pioneers – Restored New Testament: A New Translation with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas, Mary, and Judas (2009) by Willis Barnstone;
  • Wisdom of Solomon – Text and Versions;
  • Zechariah – Name; Canonical Status and Location; Authorship; Zephaniah – Location in Canon; Textual Evidence; Contents and Structure; Reception History;

Redirects[edit]

Subarticles[edit]

A[edit]

  • Acts – Acts as a Genre**; Acts and Hagiography**; Dating and Intertextuality**; The Acts of Andrew**; The Acts of John**; The Acts of Paul**; The Acts of Peter**; The Acts of Thomas**; The Acts of Philip*; Relevance of the Acts for the History of early Christianity**; The History of Interpretation and Reception History**;
  • Acts of the Apostles – Name of the Book**; Canonical Status*; Authorship**; Date and Historical Context**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
  • Amos – Authorship and Composition**; Historical Context**; Structure and Stylistic Features**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
  • Andrew, Acts of or Acts of Andrew – The Apostle Andrew*; The Primitive Acts of Andrew, Later Versions, and Textual Transmission**; Reconstruction of the Primitive Acts of Andrew*; Acts of Andrew Fragment in the Vatican Museum*; Plot of the Fragment**; Message of the Fragment*; Provenance of Acts of Andrew 's Thought**; Date and Place of Composition*;
  • Apocalypses – Earliest Apocalypses*; First Enoch***; Daniel**; Jewish Apocalypses of the First and Second Centuries C.E.**; The First Christian Apocalypses***; Related Literature**; Cultural Contexts for the Apocalypses***; Reception and Influence**;
  • Apocrypha – Old Testament***; New Testament***;
    • Apocrypha – Old Testament – Genres**; History of Composition and Canonization**; Significance for Understanding Early Judaism and Early Christianity**;
      • Apocrypha – Old Testament – Genres – Histories*; Poetic Books*; Prophetic Books*;
      • Apocrypha – Old Testament – History of Composition and Canonization – Jewish Community*; Early Christians*; Reformation Era**; Orthodox*;
    • Apocrypha – New Testament – Agrapha*; Lost Gospels*; Extant Gospels***; Apocryphal Acts**; Apocryphal Epistles**; Apocryphal Apocalypses**; Assumption of Mary*; Reception History**;
      • Apocrypha – New Testament – Extant Gospels - The Gospel of Thomas*; Marian Gospels**; Stories about Jesus' Birth*; Gospels of Jesus' Childhood*; Passion Gospels*; The Descent to the Underworld*; Pilate*;
      • Apocrypha – New Testament – Apocryphal Acts – Historical Value**;

B[edit]

  • Baruch – Authorship and Literary History*; Content and Interpretation**;
  • Bible – Modern Usage**; Origin of the Term Bible**; Evolution of Bibles***; An Ongoing Evolution and Legacy*;
    • Bible – Origin of the Term Bible – Plural to Singular, and Sacred*; Related Terms*;
    • Bible – Evolution of Bibles – Israelite Literature**; The Example of Jeremiah**; Jewish Textual Flourishing and Plurality**; Ends and Beginnings**; Technological Shift I: The Codex**; Technological Shift II:Printing*;

C[edit]

  • Canon – An Overview**; Hebrew Bible***; Old Testament***; New Testament***;
    • Canon – Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon**; Different Canons**; Process of Canonization***; History of Scholarship**;
      • Canon – Hebrew Bible – Principal Divisions of the Canon – Torah*; Prophets*; Writings*;
      • Canon – Hebrew Bible – Process of Canonization – Septaugint or LXX*; Qumran*;
    • Canon – Old Testament – Religious History***; Critical Scholarship***; Terms and Criteria**;
      • Canon – Old Testament – Religious History – Jewish Tradition**; Christian Tradition***;
        • Canon – Old Testament – Religious History – Christian Tradition – Early Christian Bibles**; Catholic Tradition*; Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books*; Protestant Tradition*; Protestants and the Apocrypha*; Significance*;
      • Canon – Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791)*; Modern Scholarship**;
        • Canon – Old Testament – Critical Scholarship – Modern Scholarship – Three-Stage Theory**; Criticism of the Three-Stage Theory**; An Alternative Approach*; Dead Sea Scrolls*; A First Century C.E. Canon*; The Sadducees**; Alexandrian Canon Hypothesis*; “Council” of Jamnia Myth*; Assessment*;
      • Canon – Old Testament – Terms and Criteria - “Canon 1” and “Canon 2”*; Scripture, Bible, Canon**;
    • Canon – New Testament – Definition of Canon**; Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings***; Important Canonical Lists***; Disputed Texts**; Rationale for Inclusion and Exclusion of New Testament Books**; Later Discussions of Canon and “Canon within the Canon”**;
      • Canon – New Testament – Historical Development and Transmission of Collections of Early Christian Writings – Gospels**; Paul's letters**; Remaining Writings*;
  • 1 and 2 Chronicles – Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Authorship*; Literary History***; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Structure and Content**; Literary Genre and Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • 1 and 2 Chronicles – Literary History – The Relationship between Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah**; The Original Extent of Chronicles**;
    • 1 and 2 Chronicles – Literary Genre and Interpretation – Is Chronicles Intended to Replace Samuel-Kings?*; The Chroniclers Agenda and His Essential Tendency**; History of Interpretation**;
  • Clement, Letters of or Letters of Clement – Authorship and Context**; Literary Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Colossians – Canonical Status*; Authorship**; Historical Context and Date of Composition**; Structure and Content*; Interpretation*; Reception History*;
  • 1 Corinthians – Authorship*; Date and Historical Context**; Paul in Corinth**; Structure and Outline of 1 Corinthians*; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • 1 Corinthians – Interpretation – 1:1-9 Opening Greeting and Thanksgiving*; 1:10-6:20 Paul's Response to Reports of Problems in the Corinthian Church**; 7:1-16:12 Paul's Response to a letter from the Corinthian Church***; 16:5-24 Conclusion: Travel Plans, Exhortation, and Final Greetings*;
  • 2 Corinthians – Structure and Content**; Literary History**; Interpretation***; Assessment*;
    • 2 Corinthians – Literary History – Reasons for Questioning the Literary Integrity**; Partition Theories**; Historical Reconstruction of the Relationship between Paul and the Corinthian Congregation**;
      • 2 Corinthians – Literary History – Partition Theories – The Semler-Windisch- and the Hausrath-Kennedy-Hypothesis*; The Weiss-Bultmann Hypothesis*; The Bornkamm-Schmithals-Hypothesis*; Mitchell**;
      • 2 Corinthians – Interpretation - The Proem: Leitmotifs of the Letter (1:3-11)**; Paul and His Congregation 1: Events Ensuring from the Intermediate Visit (1:12-2:13)*; Pauls' Defense of His Apostolic Ministry**; Paul and His Congregation II: Paul's Joy at the Repentance of the Corinthians (7:5-16)*; The Collection as a Symbol of the Unity of Jewish and Gentile Believers (2 Cor. 8-9)**; Paul's Attack on the Intruding Missionaries and His Preparation for a Third Visit (2 Cor. 10-13)**;
        • 2 Corinthians – Interpretation – Paul's Defense of His Apostolic Ministry – Paul's Ministry of a New Covenant (2:14-4:6)*; Apostolic Afflictions, Divine Preservation, and the Hope for Resurrection (4:7-5:10)*; Paul's Ministry of Reconciliation (5:11-6:10) and His Appeal for Reconciliation (6:11-7:4)*;

D[edit]

  • Daniel and Additions to Daniel – Authorship, Dates of Composition, and Historical Contexts**; Literary History***; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation***; Reception History***;
  • Dead Sea Scrolls – Brief History of the Discoveries**; Description of the Finds**; Description of Important Texts**; Brief History of the Qumran Community**; Description of the Sect*; Significance**;
    • Dead Sea Scrolls – Brief History of the Discoveries – Notable Caves*; Publication Process*;
    • Dead Sea Scrolls – Description of the Finds – Nomenclature for Scrolls*; Provenance**; Genres*;
    • Dead Sea Scrolls – Description of Important Texts – Biblical Texts**; Parabiblical Literature**; Commentaries**; Rules**; 4QMMT*; Texts Used in Worship**; Wisdom Texts*; Eschatological Texts*; Non-literary Texts*;
    • Dead Sea Scrolls – Brief History of the Qumran Community – Written Evidence*; Allusions to Historical Texts**; Physical Evidence**; The Essenes**; Early Reconstruction of the History**; Connecting the Essenes with the Site and the Scrolls**;
    • Dead Sea Scrolls – Significance – Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible**; Early Judaism**; Early Christianity**;
      • Dead Sea Scrolls – Significance – Early Christianity – Attitude to Scripture*; Sectarianism and Differentiation**; The Law*; Immersion for Purification*; Eschatology*; Son of Man*; Kingdom of God*; Miracles*; Mystery*; Dualism*; Devotion*; Leadership*; Community Property*; Women*; Melchizedek*; Calendar*; Ritual Meal*;
  • Deuteronomy – Name of the Book and Its Meaning*; Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Authorship*; Dates of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History**; Deuteronomy and Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Deuteronomy – Deuteronomy and Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty – Other Literary Influences*;
    • Deuteronomy – Structure and Contents – Deuteronomy and the Covenant Code***; The Decalogue**; Deuteronomy and the Status of Women**;
  • Didache – Name*; Canonical and/or Noncanonical Status*; Authorship and Date*; Edition, Translations, and Commentaries*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretations and Open Questions*; New Required Research*;

E[edit]

  • Ecclesiastes – Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Authorship: Traditional and Modern Views**; Interpretation**; Structure and Contents***; Reception History**;
  • 1 Enoch – The Text of 1 Enoch and the Dead Sea Scrolls**; Authorship and the Figure of Enoch**; The “Book of the Watchers” (1 Enoch 1-36)***; The “Book of Parables” (1 Enoch 37-71)**; The “Book of the Luminaries” (1 Enoch 72-82)**; The “Dream Visions” (1 Enoch 83-90)**; The “Epistle of Enoch” (1 Enoch 92-105)**; The History of Traditions about 1 Enoch***;
  • Ephesians – Structure and Contents**; Setting and Purpose**; Authorship***; Theology**; Contribution*;
  • 1 Esdras – The Abrupt Opening and Ending*; Interpolation of the Story of the Youths in the Narrative of the Return**; A Mixture of Genres*; Juxtaposition of Alternative Narratives and Chronological Confusion*; Reordering the Narrative of the Return: Zerubbabel's Return History (Ezra 2:1-4:5//1 Esd 5:7-45) and the Complaint to Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7-24//1 Esd. 2:15-25)**; The Reading of the Torah (Neh. 8:1-13//1 Esd. 9:36-55) and the Omission of Nehemiah's Memoirs**; First Esdras as a Whole – Title, Structure, and Concept*;
  • 2 Esdras – Canonicity*; Language, Date, and Provenance*; Form and Function***; Reception History*; Fifth Ezra and 6 Ezra*;
  • Esther and Additions to Esther – Canonical Status**; Authorship*; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s)**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Outline**; Interpretation**; Greek Additions to Esther: Structure and Contents**; Reception History*;
    • Esther and Additions to Esther – Greek Additions to Esther: Structure and Contents – Outline of the Greek Additions to Esther*; Discussion of the Greek Additions**;
  • Exodus – Canonical Status and Location in the Canon***; Authorship, Date, and Literary History***; Historical Context***; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • Exodus – Canonical Status and Location in the Canon – Exodus and Deuteronomy*; Exodus and the Former Prophets**; Exodus and Genesis**;
    • Exodus – Authorship, Date, and Literary History – The Identification of the E Source*; The Identification of the J Source**; The P Literature**;
    • Exodus – Interpretation – The Setting**; The Characters**;
      • Exodus – Interpretation – The Characters – The Conflict**; The Journey*; The Revelation**; The Sanctuary*;
  • Ezekiel – Name of Book and Meaning**; Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Authorship: Traditional and Modern*; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s)**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • Ezekiel – Structure and Contents – I. Prophetic Call Narrative*; II. Prophecies of Judgment***; III.. Prophecies Against Foreign Nations**; IV. Prophecies of Salvation**;
  • Ezra and Nehemiah – Versions, Place in the Canons, and Date**; Content and Structure***; Scholarly Issues of Interpretation***; The Impact of Ezra/Nehemiah*; Scholarly Reception of Ezra-Nehemiah**;
    • Ezra and Nehemiah – Content and Structure – The Textualization of the Tradition**; The Community as the Chief Protagonist of the Reconstruction*; The Expansion of the “House of God” to Encompass the People and City, Not Only the Temple*; Structure*;
    • Ezra and Nehemiah – Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”?***; What Is the Compositional History of Ezra-Nehemiah?*; What Was the Relationship between Samaria and Yehud/Judah?*; What Was the Conflict with the People of the Land and the Crisis of “Mixed Marriages”?**; What Was Ezra's “Torah”?**;
      • Ezra and Nehemiah – Scholarly Issues of Interpretation – How Authentic Are Ezra-Nehemiah's “Documents”? - Royal Edicts and Correspondence*; Nehemiah Memoir*; Ezra Memoir and Ezra “Source”*; The Lists*;

G[edit]

  • Galatians – Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation History**;
    • Galatians – Interpretation History – 1. The Antioch Incident*; 2. The Purpose and End of the Law**; 3. New Creation**;
  • Genesis – Name of Book*; Canonical Status and Location**; Structure and Contents***; Authorship of Genesis**; Dates of Composition, Historical Contexts, Literary History, and History in Genesis***; History of Interpretation***; Reception History**;
  • Gospels – Euaggelion as a Literary Designation**; The Diversity of Gospels***; Gospels by Analogy**; The Literary Character of Gospels***; Literary Relationships Among the Gospels***; Prospects*;
    • Gospels – The Diversity of Gospels – Narrative Gospels*; Passion Gospels*; Sayings Gospels*; Post-Resurrection Dialogues*; Theological Tractates*; Other Gospels*;
    • Gospels – Gospels by Analogy – Narrative Gospels*; Passion and Infancy Gospels*; Sayings Gospels**; Dialogue/Discourse Gospels*;
    • Gospels – The Literary Character of Gospels – Narrative Gospels***; Sayings Gospels**; Dialogue Gospels*;
    • Gospels – Literary Relationships Among the Gospels – The Synoptic Problem**; John and the Synoptics**; The Gospel of Thomas**; Jewish-Christian gospels*;

H[edit]

  • Habakkuk – Canonical Status*; Authorship*; Date**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
  • Haggai – Name*; Canonical Status and Location*; Authorship*; Date of Composition and Historical Context*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation*; Reception History*;
  • Hebrews – Name*; Canonical Status*; Authorship**; Date and Historical Context**; Literary History*; Structure**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
  • Hosea – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Authorship**; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Context(s)**; Literary History*; Textual Difficulties*; Structure*; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • Hosea – Interpretation – Interpretation of Hosea 1-3***; Interpretations of the Book of Hosea**; Hosea as Literature**;

I[edit]

  • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius – Manuscripts and Authenticity**; Major Themes of the Letters**; Major Scholarly Debates**; Other Matters*;
    • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius – Major Themes of the Letters – Discipleship and Martyrdom**; Unity and Schism**; Jewish/Gentile Relations*;
    • Ignatius, Letters of or Letters of Ignatius – Major Scholarly Debates – Situation Reflected: Antioch or Western Asia Minor?*; Situation in Antioch*; Opponents*;
  • Isaiah – Chapters 1-39***; Chapters 40-66***; The Formation of the Book (with Special Reference to Chapters 1-2 and 32-29)***; Literary Features**; Major Theological Themes***; Reception History***;
    • Isaiah – Chapters 1-39 – Isaiah 1-2 as Overtures*; Isaiah 3-5 and the Social Background**; Isaiah 6-8 and Isaiah's Prophetic Biography**; Isaiah 9 and the Fall of Samaria*; Isaiah 10, 28-31 and the Siege of Sennacherib**; Isaiah (;1-6 and Isaiah 11-12: Royal Announcements**; Isaiah 13-23: Oracles Against the Nations***; Isaiah 24-27**;
    • Isaiah – Chapters 40-66 – Isaiah 40-48: Between Babylon and Persia**; The Servant and the Servants**; Isaiah 56-66: New Grace and New Judgment**;

J[edit]

  • James – Authorship**; Date and Historical Context**; Literary Genre*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Jeremiah – Background Information**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Jeremiah – Interpretation – 1:1-3 Historical Superscription*; 1:4-19 Jeremiah's Commission and Inaugural Visions**; 2:1-10:25 Oracles of Warning to Jerusalem**; 11:1-20:18 Prophetic Laments and Sign-Acts**; 21:1-29:32 Against the Jerusalem Leadership***; 30:1-31:40 The Book of Consolation**; 32:1 -45:5 Struggles for Political Authority**; 46:1-51:64 The Routing of Judah's Enemies**; 52:1-34 The Destruction of Jerusalem*;
  • Jeremiah, Letter of or Letter of Jeremiah – Authorship, Date, and Language*; Genre, Contents, and Interpretation**;
  • Job – Authorship, Date, and Context**; Literary History***; Outline*; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation***; Reception***;
    • Job – Structure and Contents – The Prologue**; The Wisdom Dialogue**; The Wisdom Poem*; Job's Final Defense**; Elihu's Speeches*; The Divine Speeches**; The Epilogue*;
    • Job – Interpretation – The Prologue: A Critique of Fear**; The Wisdom Dialogue: The Clash of Incommensurable Perspectives**; Jobs 28: Wisdom as the Missing Piece*; The Divine Speeches**;
  • Joel – Canon and Text*; Joel, Person and Name*; Structure and Contents**; Interpretative Questions**; Subsequent Influence*;
    • Joel – Structure and Contents – Calls to Respond to Disasters: Joel 1:2-13*; Prophetic Responses: Joel 1:15-20*; Invaders Revisited: Joel 2:1-11*; Prophetic Address: Joel 2:12-17*; God's Answer: Joel 2:18-27*; Universal Prophecy: Joel 2:28-32 (Joel 3)*; The Final Battle: Joel 3:1-21 (Heb. 4:1-21)*;
  • John, Gospel according to or Gospel according to John – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Authorship**; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Contexts(s)**; Literary History**; Outline**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • John, Gospel according to or Gospel according to John – Interpretation – The Prologue as Conclusion (1:1-18)**; Seeking and Finding Community (1:19-51)*; The Wedding Motif from Cana to Cana (2:1-4:54)**; Claiming Moses and Fulfilling Feasts (5:1-10:21)**; From Bethany to Bethany: The Temple Resolved (10:22-12:11)**; The Passion Week: The New Community as the Beloved Spouse (12:12-20:31)**; “That You Might Continue to Believe”: The Living Bridegroom (20:1-31)*; The Epilogue: The Community Moves Forward (21:1-25)*;
  • 1, 2, and 3 John – Dating and Sequence**; Composition and Structure*; Purpose of Writing*; Historical Context**; Audience and Authorship**; Reception and Influence*;
  • Jonah – Structure and Contents**; Interpretation and Reception**;
    • Jonah – Structure and Contents – Inner-Biblical Allusions in Jonah*; Humor in Jonah*;
    • Jonah – Interpretation and Reception – Theology and Justice**;
  • Joseph and Aseneth – Contents**; Interpretation*; History of Scholarship**;
  • Joshua – Authorship and Literary Affiliation**; Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Structure and Content***; Interpretation**; Historical Context**; Reception History**;
  • Jubilees – Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text***; Jubilee's Responses to the Hellenistic-[Jewish] Context**; Jubilean Halakah**; Unity of the Book**; Author and Date**; Text History**;
    • Jubilees – Jubilee's Reworking of the Biblical Text – Contemporary Cultural Influences*; Halakah*; Apocalyptic Features*; Alterations to Biblical Scenes and Characterizations**; Poetics*; Distrinctive Features of Jubilees*;
    • Jubilees – Author and Date – The Argument for Qumranic Provenance**;
    • Jubilees – Text History – Literary Echoes**; Status at Qumran and Elsewhere**;
  • Jude – Canonical Status*; Authorship*; Date and Context*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Judges – Title*; Date*; Place in Canon*; Authorship*; Dates of Composition and Historical Context***; Literary History**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation History**; Reception History**;
    • Judges – Literary History – The Book of Rescuers (Judg. 3:12-8:28)*; “Chapter Two” of the Deuteronomic History (Judg. 2:6-16:11)*; The Scroll of Judges (Judg. 1-21)*;
    • Judges – Structure and Contents – A. The Introductory Section (Judg. 1:1-2:5)*; B. The Heroic Anthology (Judg. 2:6-16:31)***; C. The Concluding Section (Judg. 17:1-21:25)**;

K[edit]

  • 1 and 2 Kings – Name, Place in Canon*; Authorship***; Contents and Structure***;
    • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11)**; The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17)**; The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 Kgs 18-25)**; Chronology***; Historicity*; Language and Style**; Reception and History**;
      • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11) – Sources*; Perspective*; Contents*;
      • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel***; The Kingdom of Judah**;
        • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Israel – Sources*; Perspective**; Contents***;
        • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Separate Histories of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah until the Fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 17) – The Kingdom of Judah – Sources*; Perspective*; Contents**;
      • 1 and 2 Kings – Contents and Structure – The Kingdom of Judah until its Fall (2 kgs 18-25) – Sources*; Perspective*; Contents**;

L[edit]

  • Lamentations – Location in Canon*; Authorship**; Dates of Composition and Historical Context**; Textual History*; Genre*; Poetry and Major Themes*; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation***; Reception History*;
    • Lamentations – Structure, Contents, and Interpretation – Lamentations 1-2*; Lamentations 3*; Lamentations 4*; Lamentations 5*;
  • Letters – Epigraphic Letters**; Writing and Delivering a Letter**; Literacy*; Dictation, Transport, and Delivery**; Terminology**; Form**; Letters in the Hebrew Bible**; Greco-Roman Letters**; Letters in the New Testament**; Letters in the Apocrypha**; Additional Literary Sources*; The Literary Use of Letters*;
    • Letters – Epigraphic Letters – Arad*; Lachish*; Other Hebrew Sources from the Biblical Period*; Elephantine*; Postbiblical Letters**;
      • Letters – Epigraphic Letters – Postbiblical Letters – Qumran*; Masada*; Bar Kochba*;
    • Letters – Writing and Delivering a Letter – Papyrus**; Leather*; Pottery (Ostraca)*; Other Materials*; Inks*;
    • Letters – Form – A. Initial Address*; B. Initial Greeting**; C. Body*; D-F. Concluding Formulas*; G. Outside Address*; Example of an Epigraphic Letter*;
    • Letters – Letters in the Hebrew Bible – Definite References to Letters*; The Aramaic Letters in Ezra*; Probable Letters*; Questionable Cases*; Generically Marginal or Mixed Cases*;
    • Letters – Greco-Roman Letters – Form**;
    • Letters – Letters in the New Testament – Greco-Roman Rhetoric and the New Testament Letters**; Greco-Roman and Near Eastern Letters**; Pseudonymity**;
  • Leviticus – Authorship, Date, and Literary History**; Historical Context**; Structure and Contents**; Outline*; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Leviticus – Interpretation – Sacrifice**; Holiness and Commonness**; Purity and Impurity**; Priestly Outlook**;
  • Lost Books – Sacred Writings and Canon*; Lost Books***; Other Christian Books*; Assessment**;
    • Lost Books – Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible***; Books Mentioned in the New Testament**;
      • Lost Books – Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the Hebrew Bible – Book of the Wars of the Lord (Num. 21:14)*; Book of Jaschar*; Annals of the Kings of Israel and Judah*; Book of Acts of Solomon (1 Kgs. 11:41)*; Chronicles*; Books Attributed to Prophets*; Laments*; Other Books*;
      • Lost Books – Lost Books – Books Mentioned in the New Testament – Gospels*; Letters Attributed to Paul**; Acts 19:19*; Agrapha*;
  • Luke, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Luke – Manuscript Evidence and Earliest Attestation**; Attestation*; Authorship**; Date*; Location and Audience*; Sources**; Structure and Genre**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • Luke, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Luke – Interpretation – Salvation History**; Rich and Poor in Luke**; Women in Luke**; Luke and Judaism**;

M[edit]

  • 1 Maccabees – The Name of 1 Maccabees**; The Canonical Status of 1 Maccabees**; Authorship**; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History**; The Relationship Between 1, 2, 3 and 4 Maccabees*; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation**; Reception History***;
    • 1 Maccabees – Structure and Contents – Section 1 (chs. 1-2)*; Section 2 (chs. 3:1-9:22)**; Section 3 (chs. 9:23-16:24)**;
  • 2 Maccabees – Canonical Status**; Authorship*; Setting of the Epitomist*; Date and Historical Context**; Structure and Contents**; Literary History**; Interpretation**; Jewish and Christian Reinterpretations**; Later Reception History**;
  • 3 Maccabees – Authorship, Origins, and Date**; Historicizing Fiction**; Religious and Cultural Significance**; Transmission History*;
  • 4 Maccabees – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Authorship*; Date of Composition and Historical Context*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Malachi – Name*; Canonical Status and Location**; Authorship**; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History*; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
  • Mark, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Mark – Canonical Status and Location*; Authorship**; Date of Composition and Historical Context***; Literary History**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation*; Reception History**;
    • Mark, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Mark – Structure and Contents – 1. The Coming Kingdom of God*; 2. Jesus's Christological Identity**; 3. The Incomprehension of the Disciples*;
  • Mary, Gospel of or Gospel of Mary – The Title of the Gospel*; Attestation, Date, and Authorship**; Structure, Contents, and Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Matthew, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Matthew – Canonical Status and Location in Canon**; Authorship**; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Matthew, Gospel According to or Gospel According to Matthew – Structure and Contents – Introduction, Part 1: The Infancy Narrative (1:1-2:23)*; Introduction, Part II: Prologue to Jesus' Ministry (3:1-4:25)*; First Discourse: The Sermon on the Mount (5:1-7:29)*; Narrative Section: Healings and Miracles (8:1-(;38)**; Second Discourse: On the Mission of the Twelve (10:1-42)**; Narrative Section: Growing Tensions and Conflicts (11:1-12:50)**; Third Discourse: Parables About the Kingdom of Heaven (13:1-52)**; Narrative Section: Messianic Claims and the Demands of Discipleship (13:53-17:27)**; Fourth Discourse: Rules for the Members of the Ekklēsia (18:1-35)**; Narrative Section: Teaching, Healing, and Conflict in Judea and Jerusalem (19:1-24:2)**; Fifth Discourse: The End of Time and the Final Judgment (24:3-25:46)**; The Passion and Resurrection: Narrative (26:1-28:20)**;
  • Micah – Background Information*; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation***; Reception History**;
    • Micah – Interpretation – Micah 1**; Micah 2**; Micah 3*; Micah 4*; Micah 5*; Micah 6*; Micah 7*;

N[edit]

  • Nag Hammadi Library – Discoveries***; Nag Hammadi Archaeology**; Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices***; The Impact of the Nag Hammadi Library and Other Codices**;
    • Nag Hammadi Library – Discoveries – The Discovery of the Nag Hammadi Library according to Jean Doresse*; The Nag Hammadi Discovery According to James M. Robinson**; The Discovery of Berlin Gnostic Codex 8502*; The Discovery of Codex Tchacos*;
    • Nag Hammadi Library – Nag Hammadi Archaeology – Archaeology at the Jabal al-Tarif and Pbow**; Archaeological and Historical Investigation in the Nag Hammadi Region*;
    • Nag Hammadi Library – Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts***;
      • Nag Hammadi Library – Texts from the Nag Hammadi Library and Related Codices – Gnostic Texts – Thomas Christianity**; Sethian Gnostic Thought***; Texts of Hermetic Religion and Other Texts**;
  • Nahum – Authorship*; Contents and Structure*; Date**; Literary Issues**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Nahum – Literary Issues – Genre*; Nahum as Poet*; Nahum in the Wider Literary Context**;
  • Numbers – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Contents and Structure of the Final Composition*; Authorship**; Dates of Composition and Historical Contexts***; Interpretation**; Reception History*;

O[edit]

  • Obadiah – Content and Interpretation**;

P[edit]

  • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul – Authorship and Pseudonymity**; History of Modern Research – Trends and Developments**; The Authentic Letters***; The Disputed Letters***; The Pseudonymous Letters**;
    • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul – The Authentic Letters – Romans**; First Corinthians**; Second Corinthians**; Galatians**; Philippians**; First Thessalonians**; Philemon**;
    • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul – The Disputed Letters – Ephesians**; Colossians**; Second Thessalonians**;
    • Paul, Letters of or Letters of Paul – The Pseudonmyous Letters – The Pastoral Letters (1 and 2 Timothy, Titus)**;
  • Paul and Thecla, Acts of or Acts of Paul and Thecla – Relation to Canonical Books**; Authorship, Date of Composition, and Historical Context*; Literary History**; Contents**;
  • Pesharim - “Continuous Pesharim”**; “Thematic” Pesharim**; Other Occurrences of the Word “Pesher” and Commentaries*;
  • Peshitta and Other Syriac Versions – Name*; Origin and Dating of the Old Testament Peshitta**; Origin and Dating of the New Testament Peshitta*; Extent of the Peshitta*; Scholarly Significance of the Old Testament Peshitta**; Scholarly Significance of the New Testament Peshitta*; Other Syriac Versions of the Old Testament*; Other Syriac Versions of the New Testament*; Editions and Translations of the Old Testament Peshitta**; Editions and Translations of the New Testament Peshitta*; Legacy: The Bible of the Syriac Churches*;
  • 1 Peter – Canonical Status*; Authorship*; Date and Place of Composition*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation**;
  • 2 Peter – Canonical Status*; Authorship*; Date and Context*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Philemon – The Traditional Interpretation: Onesimus as a Runaway Slave from Colossae*; The Traditional Interpretation Adapted: Onesimus as Bishop of Ephesus*; The Traditional Interpretation Challenged: Reassessing Onesimus**; The Enduring Appeal of Philemon*;
  • Philip, Gospel of or Gospel of Philip – Location in Early Christianity**; Theological Ideas**; Key Figures**; Significance*;
  • Philippians – Canonical Status*; Authorship*; Date(s) of Composition and Historical Contexts**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate – The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate**; The Middle Ages**;
    • Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate – The Ancient Form of the Acts of Pilate – Manuscript Tradition*; Contents**; A Consistent Account?*; Dating*; Milieu of Origin*;
    • Pilate, Acts of or Acts of Pilate – The Middle Ages – Contents*; Literary Descendants*; Canonicity*; Artistic Reception*; Related Works*;
  • Prayers and Hymns – Categorizing Prayers and Hymns*; Prayers and Hymns in Narrative Contexts in the Hebrew Bible***; Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians***;
    • Prayers and Hymns – Prayers and Hymns as Sources for the Reconstruction of Liturgical Practices of Jews and Early Christians – Prayers and Hymns from the Dead Sea Scrolls**; Prayers and Hymns from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha**; Prayers and Hymns in Early Christian Writings**;
  • Proverbs – Canonical Status and Location*; Authorship*; Dates of Composition and Historical Context(s)**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
    • Proverbs – Structure and Contents – Proverbs 1-9: “The Proverbs of Solomon”*; Proverbs 10:1-22:16: “The Proverbs of Solomon,” Part 2*; Proverbs 22:17-24:22: “The Words of the Wise”*; Proverbs 24:23-34*; Proverbs 25-29*; Proverbs 30: “The Words of Agur, Son of Jakeh”*; Proverbs 31: “The Words of King Lemuel”*;
  • Psalms – Position in the Canon*; Authorship**; Structure and Compilation of the Book**; Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book***; Literary History***; Interpretation***;
    • Psalms – Rubrics and Technical Terms Used in the Book – Authorial or Pseudepigraphal Headings*; Historical Headings*; Genre Headings**; Headings for Liturgical Occasions*; Musical Headings*; Instructional Headings*; Hallelujah*; Technical Terms inside Psalms*;
    • Psalms – Literary History – Gunkel's Basic Categories***; A Puzzling Problem**; Post-Gunkel Approaches***;
  • Pseudepigrapha – The Term and the Collection**; Jewish or Christian Origin?**; Survey of Pseudepigrapha***; The Significance of the Pseudepigrapha**;
    • Pseudepigrapha – Survey of Pseudepigrapha – Revisions and Expansions of Biblical Material***; Apocalypses***; Testamentary Literature***; Apologetic, Wisdom, and Philosophical Texts**; Edifying Tales and Romances**; Liturgical Texts**;

R[edit]

  • Rabbinic Literature – Introduction***; Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures***; New Testament***;
    • Rabbinic Literature – Introduction – The Documents of Rabbinic Literature**; The Mishnah**; The Post-Mithnaic Legal Literature: The Tosefta and Talmuds**; Scripture and the Exegetical Tradition of the Written Torah**; The Midrashic Compilations*; Genesis Rabbah*; Leviticus Rabbah*; Pesiqta de Rab Kahana*; Song of Songs Rabbah*; Ruth Rabbah*; Lamentations Rabbah (also called Eikha Rabbati)*; The Rabbinic Literature as Oral Torah**;
    • Rabbinic Literature – Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – The Rabbinic “Canon” of the Bible**; Readings from the Bible in the Synagogue in Rabbinic Times*; Oral Torah*; Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture***; Rabbinic Hermeneutics and Hellenistic Parallels**;
      • Rabbinic Literature – Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Interpretation of Scripture – The Form “Midrash”**; Targum*; The Rabbinic View of the Bible and Its Effect on the Nature of Midrash*; Prerabbinic Forms of Midrash\?*; The Three-part Tanak and Some Formal Characteristics of Rabbinic Midrash*; The Origins and Many Purposes of Midrash**; Midrash Halakah and Midrash Haggadah**; Rabbinic and Patristic Interpretations of Scripture: Schools, Common Features, and the Question of Interaction**;
      • Rabbinic Literature – Hebrew Bible and Jewish Scriptures – Rabbinic Hermeneutics and Hellenistic Parallels – The Seven Rules of Hillel and the Thirteen Rules of Rabbi Ishmael**; The Methods of Midrash Haggadah*;
    • Rabbinic Literature – New Testament – Methodology***; Jewish Law before the Halakah**; Exegetical Principles**; Midrashic Parallels**; Anti-Christian Polemic**;
  • Revelation – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Traditional and Modern Authorship*; Date of Composition and Historical Context***; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation***; Reception History***;
    • Revelation – Interpretation – Title, Epistolatory Opening, and Introduction to the Visions (1:1-8)*; Vision of a “Son of Man” and the Messages of the Seven Churches (1:9-3:22)*; Vision of the Heavenly Throne Room and the Seven Seals (4:1-8:5)**; The Seven Trumpets (8:6-11:19)**; Unnumbered Visions of Conflict, Deliverance, and Judgment (12:1-15:4)**; Seven Bowls (15:5-16:21)*; Vision of the Fall of Babylon (17:1-19:10)**; Unnumbered Visions Cataloging God's Defeat of His Enemies (19:11-21:8)**; Vision of the New Jerusalem (21:9-22:7)*; Epilogue and Epistolary Closing (22:8-21)**;
  • Romans – Authorship and Integrity of the Letter*; Historical Context**; Occasion and Purpose**; Audience*; Structure of the Letter**; Interpretation**; Reception**;
  • Ruth – Names**; Location in the Canon and Textual Evidence*; Author**; Historical Context and Date of Composition**; Structure and Contents**; Reception History**;

S[edit]

  • Samaritan Pentateuch – Qumran and the SP*; The Character of the SP***;
  • 1 and 2 Samuel – Canonical Status**; Authorship**; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History***; Structure and Contents***; Interpretation**; Reception History***;
    • 1 and 2 Samuel – Structure and Contents – Outline*; Samuel**; Saul**; David**; Women**;
  • Septaugint and Other Ancient Greek Translations – Name and Nature*; Scope*; Sequence of the Books**; Original Form, Jewish Background, Place, and Date**; Evidence**; Editions*; Auxiliary Tools*; Exegesis**; Translation Technique*; Retroversion of the Parent Text*; Hebrew Source of the LXX**; Greek and Hebrew Scrolls from the Judean Desert**; Revisions of the Septaugint**; The Greek Versions and Christianity**;
  • Shepherd of Hermas – Canonical Status*; Authorship and Date**; Genre, Structure, and Contents**; Interpretation**;
  • Sirach – Name of the Book*; Canonical Status**; Authorship*; Date and Historical Context***; Textual and Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History*;
  • Song of Solomon – Canonical Status and Location in Canon*; Authorship, Date of Composition, and Historical Context**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;

T[edit]

  • Targumim – The Origin of Targumim*; Early Written Targumim**; Texts***; Chief Targumic Themes**; Genres**; Connections of Targums with Other Topics**;
    • Targumim – Texts – The Pentateuch***; The Prophets**; The Writings**;
      • Targumim – Texts – The Pentateuch – Onkelos**; The Palestinian Targums*; Pseudo-Jonathan**; The Cairo Genizah Fragments of the Palestinian Targum**; The Fragment Targums of the Pentateuch**; Codex Neofiti 1**; Palestinian Targumic Toseftot*; Liturgical Palestinian Targum-Inspired Poems*;
      • Targumim – Texts – The Prophets – Jonathan*; Targum Prophets Toseftot*;
      • Targumim – Texts – The Writings – Job*; Psalms*; Proverbs*; Lamentations**; Canticles**; Ruth*; Qohelet*; Esther*; Chronicles*;
    • Targumim – Connections of Targums with Other Topics – The Syriac Pentateuch and the Targumim*; Targumim: Interpretative Tradition. Origin in Synagogue or School?*; Targumim and New Testament*; Tell-like Structure of our Present Targumim*;
  • Testaments – The Testament of Moses**; The Vision of Amram**; The Testament of Job**; The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs**; Other “Testamentary” Literature**; Reception History*;
    • Testaments – The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs – Original Language and Textual Witnesses*; Date, Provenance, and Authorship***; Form, Content, and Function***;
  • Text Criticism – Hebrew Bible***; Apocrypha***; New Testament***;
    • Text Criticism – Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text***; The Septaugint and Its Versions***; Other Versions of the Hebrew Text***;
      • Text Criticism – Hebrew Bible – The Hebrew Text – The Masoretic Text (MT)**; The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP)**; The Qumran Scrolls**;
      • Text Criticism – Hebrew Bible – The Septaugint and Its Versions – The Septaugint (LXX)***; The Old Latin (OL)**; The Syro-Hexapla**;
      • Text Criticism – Hebrew Bible – Other Versions of the Hebrew Text – The Targumim**; Peshitta**; The Vulgate**;
    • Text Criticism – Apocrypha – Modern Study**; Aims*; Greek Compositions**; Books Translated from Semitic Originals***; Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain**; Reception History**;
      • Text Criticism – Apocrypha – Greek Compositions - Maccabees*; Baruch*; Wisdom of Solomon*; Esther*; Prayer of Manasseh*;
      • Text Criticism – Apocrypha – Books Translated from Semitic Originals – Tobit*; Additions to Esther*; Sirach**; First Maccabees*; First-Second Esdras*; Additions to Daniel*; Psalm 151*;
      • Text Criticism – Apocrypha – Books Whose Original Language Is Uncertain – Judith*; Letter of Jeremiah*; Psalms of Solomon*;
    • Text Criticism – New Testament – Terminology*; Witnesses**; History of Editions***; Principles of Criticism**; Illustrative Variants**;
      • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts**; Early Versions**; Patristic Citations**;
        • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127)**; Majuscules (321)**; Miniscules (2907)**; Lectionaries (2450)*;
          • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Papyri (127) – P45*; P46*; P47*; P52*; P66*; P72*; P75*;
          • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Majuscules (321) - א

(01) or Codex Sinaiticus*; A (02) or Codex Alexandrinus*; B (03) or Codex Vaticanus*; C (04) or Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus*; D (05) or Codex Bezae*; D (06) or Codex Claromontanus*; F (010) or Codex Augiensis*; G (012) or Codex Boernerianus*; L (019) or Codex Regius*; W (032)*; Δ (037)*; Θ (038) or the Koridethi Gospels*; 046*;

          • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Greek Manuscripts – Miniscules (2907) – 1*; 13*; 28*; 33*; 81*; 383*; 565*; 579*; 614*; 700*; 892*; 1241*; 1424*; 1739*; 2053*; 2344*;
        • Text Criticism – New Testament – Witnesses – Early Versions – Latin (latt)*; Syriac*; Coptic (co)*; Armenian (arm)*; Gothic (got)*; Ethiopic (aeth)*; Georgian (geo)*; Old Church Slavonic (slav)*;
      • Text Criticism – New Testament - Principles of Criticism – External*; Internal**;
      • Text Criticism – New Testament - Illustrative Variants – Mark 10:7*; Mark 16:9-20*; John 1:18*; John &;53-8:11*; Romans 5:1*; First Timothy 3:16**;
  • 1 Thessalonians – Canonical Status and Location*; Authorship*; Date of Composition and Literary Context*; Literary History*; Structure and Contents*; Interpretation**; Reception**;
  • 2 Thessalonians – Content and Structure**; Literary Relationship Between 1 and 2 Thessalonians**; Authorship and Date of Composition**;
    • 2 Thessalonians – Content and Structure – Exordion (1:1-12)*; Partitio (2:1-2)*; Probation (2:3-3:5)*; Exhortatio (3_6-15)*; Peroratio (3:16-18)*;
    • 2 Thessalonians – Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity**; Argumkents for Authenticity**;
      • 2 Thessalonians – Authorship and Date of Composition – Arguments for Pseudonymity – Literary Dependence*; Contradictory Eschatological Discourses**; The Lack of Personal References*; The References to Forgery in 2 Thess. 2:2 and 3:27*;
  • Thomas, Gospel of or Gospel of Thomas – The Gospel of Thomas in Early Christianity**; Authorship and Place of Origin**; Structure and Organization**; Sources of the Gospel**; Principal Themes*; Debates within the Text*; Difficulties of Interpretation**; The Dependence or Independence Debate**; The Thomasine Community**;
  • 1 Timothy – Authorship and Genre**; Context*; Audience, Contents, and Interpretation**;
  • Tobit – Date and Place of Composition*; Text**; Literary Character**; Original Language*; Sources*; Main Themes*; Reception History**;
    • Tobit – Literary Character – Tobit and Reader Engagement**;
  • Translations, English or English Translations – Versions before 1611***; 1611: Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions***; An Overview of Modern Versions***; Modern Pioneers**; Translation Theory and Bible Translation**;
    • Translations, English or English Translations – Versions before 1611 – The Wycliffe Bible**; Tyndale's Version (New Testament; 1526-1534)**; The Coverdale Bible (1535)*; The Matthew's Bible (1537)*; The Taverner's Bible (1539)*; The Great Bible (1539)*; The Geneva Bible (1560)*; The Bishop's Bible (1568)*; The Rheims-Douay Bible, or Douay-Rheims Bible (1582-1609)**;
    • Translations, English or English Translations – Authorized (King James) Version and Its Revisions – The Authorized (King James) Version (1611)**; The Revised Version (1885)**; The American Standard Version (1901)*; The Revised Standard Version (1952)*; The New American Standard Bible (1971)*; The New King James Version (1982)*; The New Revised Standard Version (1989)*;
    • Translations, English or English Translations – An Overview of Modern Versions – A New Translation of the Bible (1926-1955) by James Moffatt*; An American Translation (1927) by Smith and Goodspeed*; The New Testament in Modern English (1958) by J. R. Phillips*; The Jerusalem Bible (1966)*; The New English Bible (1970)*; The New American Bible (1970)*; The Good News Translation (1976)*; The New International Version (1978)*; Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures (1985)*; The New Testament and Psalms: An Inclusive Version (1995)*; The New Living Translation (1996)*; The English Standard Version (2001)*; The NET Bible (2005-print edition)*; The Contemporary Torah: A Gender-Sensitive Adaptation of the JPS Translation (2006)*; Common English Bible (2011)*;
    • Translations, English or English Translations – Modern Pioneers – The Five Books of Moses: A New Translation with Introductions, Commentary and Notes (1995); Give Us a King!: Samuel, Saul, and David (1999) by Everett Fox*; The David Story: 1 and 2 Samuel (1999); The Five Books of Moses (2004); The Book of Psalms (2007); The Wisdom Books: Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes (2010) by Robert Alter*; Restored New Testament: A New Translation with Commentary, Including the Gnostic Gospels Thomas, Mary, and Judas (2009) by Willis Barnstone*;

V[edit]

W[edit]

  • Wisdom of Solomon – Contents and Structure**; Language, Provenance, and Date**; Genre and Purpose**; Theology**; Formative Influences**; Text and Versions*; Reception and Canonical Status**;

Z[edit]

  • Zechariah – Name*; Canonical Status and Location*; Authorship*; Date of Composition and Historical Context**; Literary History**; Structure and Contents**; Interpretation**; Reception History**;
  • Zephaniah – Location in Canon*; Textual Evidence*; Historical Context**; Contents and Structure*; Reception History*;