Wikipedia:WikiProject Buddhism/Encyclopedic articles

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This page contains lists of articles in print reference works relating to Bddhism, broken up by comparative length of articles in those sorces, and including, where appropriate, indications of specifically named subsections of individual articles in those sources.

Encyclopedia of Buddhism[edit]

Encyclopedia of Buddhism, editor in chief Robert E. Buswell, Jr. 2004, Macmillan Reference

Major articles[edit]

articles of 2 pages or more, subarticles of 3+ paragraphs included in parenthesis -

  • Abhidharma (Abhidharma, Its Meaning and Origins; Abhidharma texts; Abhidharma exegesis); Ancestors (The Ghost Festival and merit transfer; Intermediate states and memorial rites); Apocrypha (Chinese Buddhist apocrypha; Texts and contents);
  • Biography (The Buddha's final life; The jataka tradition; Cultural contexts of the biographical genre); Bodhi or awakening (General characteristics of bodhi; Bodhi in the Mahayana); Bodhicitta or Thought of awakening (Ritual uses and meanings; Thought of awakening as awakened thought; The thought as icon); Bodhisattvas; Bodhisattva images (Early representations; The Bodhisattva of compassion; Meanings beyond the text); Perspectives on the body (The ambiguity of the body; The gift of the body); Buddha or Buddhas (Seven buddhas; Buddhas of the future; Buddhas of the present); Buddhahood and Buddha bodies (Buddha embodied in dharma and in forms; The unrestricted nirvana of the buddhas and the three buddhist kayas); Buddha images; Life of the Buddha (Before his departure from home; The period of teaching and dissemination; The last days of the Buddha; Early legendary expansions); Life of the Buddha in art (From the dream of Queen Maya to the great renunciation; From the search for truth to enlightenment; From the first sermon to the parinirvana); Buddhist studies (Traditional approaches; Japanese Buddhist studies; Buddhist art); Focus on India in Buddhist studies (subarticle of the preceding, but still over two pages); Buddhist literature in Burmese (12th to 19th centuries; 19th to 21st centuries);
  • Buddhism in Cambodia; Canon (Form, content, and transmission; Buddhist canons outside India); Cave sanctuaries; Buddhism in Central Asia (Western Central Asia; Eastern Central Asia); Buddhist art in Central Asia (Sculptures; Kucha); Chan art (Art and expression; Chan art as anti-art?); Chan School (Doctrinal and behavioral bases; Developments in China; Systematization; Modern Chan; Korea or Son); Chanting and liturgy; Buddhism in China (Historical overview - 1st to 10th centuries; Historical overview - 11th century to present; Texts and literary activities; Schools and traditions; Interactions with other religious traditions); Buddhist art in China (Later Han (25 BCE-220 CE), Three Kingdoms (220-265/280 CE), and Western Jin (365-280-317 CE); Eastern Jin (317-420) in the south and the Sixteen Kingdoms (317-439) in the north; Northern Wei (386-534), Eastern Wei (534-550), Western Wei (535-557), Northern Qi (550-577), and Northern Zhou (557-581) in the north: (Liu) Song (420-479), Southern Qi (479-502), Liang (502-557), and Chen (557-589) in the south: unified China under the Sui (581/589-618); Tang dynasty (618-907) and the Five Dynasties (907-960); Northern Song (960-1127), Liao (907-1125), Xixia (late tenth-1123), Jin (1115-1234), Southern Song (1127-1279), and Dali in Yunnan (937-1253); Yuan (1234-1368), Ming (1368-1644), and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties); Buddhist influences on vernacular literature in China (Dunhuang manuscripts; Manifestations in Chan, fiction and drama); Christianity and Buddhism (Antiquity; Late Middle Ages and Renaissance; The modern age); Colonialism and Buddhism (The colonialization of Buddhist societies; Orientalism and the rise of “Protestant Buddhism”); Commentarial literature (Indian commentaries; Chinese commentaries; Types of commentaries; Segmental analysis); Communism and Buddhism (Initial encounter; Conflict); Confucianism and Buddhism (Scholars and the clergy: the question of Buddhist patronage); Theories of consciousness (Rebirth and the theory of dependent origination; The alayavijnana theory and the theory of the eight consciousnesses); Consecration (Consecration as transformation; Consecration as dharmicization; Consecration as empowerment); Cosmology (Levels of existence; World systems; Cycles of time; Cosmology and psychology);
  • Dalai Lama (5th and 6th Dalai Lamas; 13th and 14th Dalai Lamas); Daoism and Buddhism (1st-6th centuries; 11th-14th centuries; 15th century-present); Death (Doctrinal death and mythical roots; Death as a theme of praxis; Memorializing the death of the Buddha); Funerary culture (subarticle of the preceding over two pages in length); Decline of the dharma (Timetables of decline; The periodization of decline; Causes of decline; Responses to the idea of decline); Dharma and Dharmas (The Buddhist interpretation of dharma; Dharmas, or factors; The original threefold classification of dharma; Sarvastivada dharma theory; Theravada dhamma theory); Disciples of the Buddha;
  • Economics (Need, work, and religion; Entrepreneurship, worldly and otherworldly; Giving and freedom from the degredation of need); Entertainment and performance; Esoteric art of East Asia (Overview of studies and regional histories; Esoteric art forms and types); Esoteric art of South and Southeast Asia; Ethics (Ethics as a part of the path, and the relationship of ethics to suffering, emptiness, karma and rebirth; Ordained and lay Buddhist ethics; Mahayana emphases; Contemporary ethical issues); Buddhism in Europe; Exoteric-Esoteric Buddhism in Japan or Kenmitsu Buddhism in Japan (The Kenmitsu theory; Japan's medieval Buddhist establishment; The dominance of Kenmitsu Buddhism);
  • Faith (Semantic range; East Asian usages); Festivals and calendrical rituals (East Asian festivals); Four Noble Truths (The Four Noble Truths; The eightfold path);
  • Gender (Gender in early Buddhism; Gender in Mahayana Buddhism; Gender in tantric Buddhism);
  • Buddhist art in the Himalayas (Kashmir; Nepal; Ladakh and western Tibet; Central and eastern Tibet; Mongolia); Hinduism and Buddhism (Vedic religion and Buddhism; Philosophy; Other forms of interaction); History (Patterns of didactic history: national order and eschatological decline; Histsory as seamless transmission and as comprehensive vision; History as regeneration of a cosmological order; Visionary history, critical history, and history as the field of emptiness); Huayan art (China; Korea); Huayan jing; Huayan school (Korea; Japan; Doctrines);
  • India (The social milieu of early Buddhism (5th or 4th century BCE); Schism after schism (4th - 2nd century BCE); Institutionalization and the worship of stupas (5th-3rd centuries BCE); The bodhisattvayana (2nd to 1st century BCE); From bodhisattvayana to Mahayana (1st century BCE - 2nd century CE); Institutionalization of the Mahayana (2nd - 12th century CE); The end of Buddhism in India (7th - 13th centuries CE); The revival of Buddhism in India (19th-21st centuries CE)); Buddhist art in India (Stupas and stone reliefs (2nd century BCE - 1st century CE); The Buddha image: Mathura and Gandhara (Kushan period, 1st-3rd centuries CE); Gupta period “classical” style (4th-6th centuries CE)); Northwest India; Intermediate states;
  • Japan (Contemporary organization; Early modern developments; Premodern background; Belief and practice); Buddhist art in Japan (Consecrated images; Cast, carved, and modeled images; Texts and tales; Practical needs); Buddhist influences on vernacular literature in Japan; Japanese royal family and Buddhism;
  • Kalacakra (Doctrine; Myth); Kamakura Buddhism in Japan (Nara and Heian Buddhism; The emergence of Kamakura Buddhism; Kamakura Buddhism as a scholarly category); Karma pa; Buddhist literature in Khmer; Koan (Koan literature; Kanhua Chan; Koan use after Dahui); Korea (Introduction of Buddhism to the Three Kingdoms; Expansion of Buddhist influence; Buddhism in the Koryo dynasty; Buddhism during the Choson dynasty; Modern period)); Buddhist art in Korea (Buddhist sculpture and painting); Buddhist influences on vernacular literature in Korea (Buddhist influences on Korean language and vocabulary);
  • Laity (The textual legacy; Laity in Mahayana countries; Laity and modernization; Buddhist new religious movements in Japan); Languages (Retention or translation); Laos; Lineage (Lineage and ancestor veneration); Lineage in Chinese Buddhism (subarticle of the former 2+ pages long); Local divinities and Buddhism (Buddhism and local deities: approaches and problems; Buddhist appropriation of local deities: motifs and models; Buddhism and local cults); Lotus Sutra (Texts and translations; The Lotus Sutra and devotional practices; The Lotus Sutra and specific schools – The Tiantai/Tendai tradition, The Lotus Sutra and specific schools - Nichiren and modern Lotus-based movements);
  • Madhyamaka School (Nagarjuna and his major works; Candrakirti and his major works; Madhayamaka in Tibet); Mahayana (The Mahayana and the move away from devotion and cult); Mainstream Buddhist schools (The character of mainstream Buddhist schools; The first schism; Sarvastivada; Vibhajyavada); Mandala; Martial arts (Monasteries and warrior monks; Zen Buddhism and martial arts); Meditation (The body; The body as object of meditation; Ritual acts, ritual frames; Mental culture; The mind: practices of recollection; The mind: calm and insight; Meditation in Mahayana; Tantric practices; Other uses of the word; The contexts of meditation); Merit and Merit-making; Millenarianism and millenarian movements (Judeo-Christian and Buddhist millenarianism; Maitreya in South and Central Asia; Buddhist millenarianism in China; White Lotus sectarianism); Miracles (Miracles in the life of the Buddha; Explanations for miracles); Modernity and Buddhism (Concepts of modernity and causality; Subjectivity and intentionality; The economics of modernity); Monastic architecture (Monastic architecture in South Asia; Rock-carved monastic architecture; Monastic architecture in China; Monastic architecture in Japan); Monasticism (Monasticism and the sangha; Categories of monastics; Daily monastic routines; Relationship between the monastic institution and the laity); Mongolia (Mongolian Buddhism after the fall of the Yuan dynasty (late 14th to 16th centuries); Mongolian Buddhism and the Manchus); Monks (Ascetics; Eccentrics and degenerates); Mudra and visual imagery (Mudras in Buddhist imagery; Bodhisattvas; Guardians and other figures); Myanmar (Historical background; Ascendancy of Sinhalese orthodoxy; The Burmese synthesis of traditions); Buddhist art in Myanmar (Pagan, 1000-1300 CE); Nationalism and Buddhism (The problematic nature of Buddhist nationalism);
  • Nationalism and Buddhist responses (subarticle of the preceding 2+ pages long); Nepal (Tibetan monasticism actoss the Himalayan highlands; Newar Buddhism (1000 CE-present); Theravada Buddhism); Buddhist literature in Newari; Nichiren School (Nichiren's teachings – (1) The daimoku, (2) The honzon, or object of worship, (3) The Kaidan, or organizational platform); Nirvana (The term nirvana; Early definitions; Theories of nirvana; Further developments and polemical issues); Nuns (Precepts and practice; The lineage for full ordination of women); Buddhist nuns in contemporary society (subarticle of the preceding 2+ pages long);
  • Ordination (Description of the ordination ceremony; Historical variations in Buddhist ordination); Original enlightenment or Hongaku (Practice and enlightenment; Hongaku doctrine and medieval Japanese culture);
  • Buddhist literature in Pali (Vinayapitaka or Basket of Discipline; Suttapitaka or Basket of the Discourses; Commentaries and subcommentaries; Pali literature in Southeast Asia); Path (Doctrinal implications of the path; Different models of the path); Persecutions (Pusyamitra; Premodern East and Central Asia; School rivalry in Sri Lanka; Communism); Philosophy; Pilgrimage (Pilgrimage practices; Contemporary perspectives); Historical overview of Pilgrimage (subarticle of preceding 2+ pages long); Politics and Buddhism (The ideal ruler; The relations of monk and ruler); Portraiture (Lineages and patriarchs; Donors and lay believers); Precepts (The monastic disciplinary code); Printing technologies (Movable type); Psychology (Buddhism as psychology: traditional views; A philosophy of mind; Comparing psychological theories; Buddhism and sceintific psychology; Commensurability and dialogue); Ethics and liberation as theory of mind (subarticle of preceding 2+ pages long); Meditation, consciousness, and healing (subarticle of “Psychology”, 2+ pages long); Pure Land art (Transformation tableaux of the Western Pure Land); Pure Land Buddhism (Meditative practice in East Asia and Tibet; Other practices); Pure Lands (Buddha-fields, pure and impure; Buddhist paradises); Imagining pure worlds (subarticle of the preceding 2+ pages long); Pure Land Schools (Pure Land teachings in China; Pure Land teachings in Japan);
  • Rebirth (Rebirth and the problem of no-self; Rebirth and cosmic causality; Methods for ensuring a wholesome rebirth); Relics and relics cults (Meaning and early historical context; The increasing dissemination of sarira; Buddhist kingship and the ritual use of relics); Repentance and confession (Indian Buddhism; Chinese Buddhism); Ritual (Basic model for Buddhist rituals; An examplary ritual: homa); Ritual objects (Esoteric ritual implements); Robes and clothing (Regulations for early Buddhist robes; Buddhist robes as insignias of status, occasion, and sectarian affiliation; Buddhist robes as devotional objects);
  • Sangha (Idealized community; History of the early community; Mahayana and Tantric sanghas); Buddhist literature in Sanskrit (Canonical literature; Noncanonical literature); Scripture (Scripture and canons; The uses of scripture); Sexuality (The celibate ideal: Buddha, arhat, monk, and nun; Sexuality and the lay Buddhist; Sexuality as obstacle, sexuality as opportunity); Shinto and Buddhism (Received interpretations and their problems; Buddhist appropriation of Japanese local deities; The field of Japanese local deities and its complexity; Japanese kami as manifestations of Buddhist sacred beings); Buddhist art in Southeast Asia (The Mainland: Pyu, Mon, Khmer, and Cham; Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula; The Burmese, Thai, Laotians, and Vietnamese); Sacred space (Ritualized geography; Shugendo; Pilgrimage routes; Historical, social, and economic aspects); Sri Lanka (The Anhuradhapura period; The Polonnaruva era; Hinduization of Buddhist culture in Sri Lanka; Colonial and postcolonial eras); Buddhist art in Sri Lanka; Stupa (Central India: Stupas at Sanci and Bharhut; Gandhara region; The Deccan: Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda; The stupa beyond India);
  • Taiwan (The Southern Ming/Qing dynasty period; The Japanese colonial period; The Republican period (1945-present); Recent changes); Tantra (India and Nepal; Central Asia and Tibet; East Asia; China and Korea); Thailand (Syncretism and tantric Theraveda; Sangha and state; Buddhism and Thai society); Thailand and Buddhism in the twenty-first century (subarticle of preceding 2+ pages long); Theravada (Scriptural authority; Commentarial tradition and historiography; The three refuges in religious practice and the role or ordination; Attempts to classify Theravada); Theravada art and architecture (Laypeople's activities; Jataka stories; Sculpture); Tiantai School (Provisional and ultimate truth: the Lotus Sutra and the classification of teachings; The three truths and the doctrine of inherent entailment; The Song dynasty (960-1279) schism; Transmission to and development in Japan and Korea); Tibet (The royal dynasty and the early translation period; Fragmentation and the later spread of the dharma; Tanguts, Mongols, and Buddhist efflorescence in the 12th to 14th centuries; Great institutions and the Dga' ldan pain the 15th and 16th centuries; The Dalai Lamas and Rnying ma revitalization in the 17th and 18th centuries);
  • United States (Encounters: 1844-1923; Exclusions: 1924-1964); United States: Crossings: After 1965 (2+ page subarticle of preceding);
  • Vajrayana (The sorceror's discipline); Vietnam (History; Practice); Vinaya (Theories on the date of vinaya literature; Anxillary vinaya texts);
  • War (The early times: political neutrality; A Buddhist war ethic?; Compassionate killing); Women (Women and normative constructions of the female: mothers, wives, objects of desire; Women and the valorization of the female);
  • Yogacara School (Historical overview; Yogacara outside India; Classic texts; Vijnaptimatra; Eight consciousnesses; Purification of the mental system);

Significant articles[edit]

articles of less than 2 pages but three or more paragraphs

Minor articles[edit]

articles of 1-2 paragraphs

Redirects[edit]

Shorter subsections[edit]

marked sections of larger articles where the section is only 1-2 paragraphs long, listed by name of parent article first

  • Ancestors (Buddhist ideas of soul and afterlife; Founder worship in Japan; Conclusion);
  • Bodhi (The sudden/gradual issue; Bodhi as “enlightenment”); Bodhicitta or Thought of awakening (Technical definitions; Summary interpretations); Perspectives on the body (Subtle bodies, salvific bodies); Buddha or Buddhas (Twenty-five Buddhas); Buddhahood and Buddha bodies (Characteristics of buddhahood; Buddha bodies or Kayas; Pure buddha fields and celestial buddhas); Life of the buddha (Sources for the biography of the historical Buddha; Ascetic life and austerities; Buddhas of earlier ages; The cult of the relics of the Buddha; Buddhas of the future; Types of Buddhas; Epithets of the Buddha); Buddhist studies (Major trends; Tibetan Buddhism; Chinese Buddhism; Anthropological studies);
  • Buddhist art in Central Asia (Architecture; Wall paintings); Chan art (Art and iconoclasm); Chan School (Monastic routine; Internationalization; Japan or Zen; Soho; Rinzai; Obaku; Vietnam or Thien; Conclusion); Buddhist influences on vernacular literature in China (Buddhism and language; Ultimate impact); Colonialism and Buddhism (Buddhism as a justification for colonialization); Commentarial literature (Exegesis, the plurality of transmissions, and the commentarial context); Confucianism and Buddhism (Historical and cultural considerations; Confucian and Chinese patriarchs; Gentry and popular Buddhism; Simultaneous versus successive operations of plural consciousnesses; Sautrantika theories of consciousness; Theory of consciousness in Buddhist epistemology; Relationship with the tatjagatagarbha theory); Consecration (Making the Buddha present); Cosmology (Mahayana perspectives);
  • Daoism and Buddhism (6th-10th centuries); Dharma and Dharmas (Analysis of dharmas in the Madhyamaka school; Vijnanavada dharma theory); Dreams (Dreams in Sakyamuni's biography; The dogmatic classification of dreams; Dreams as images of the mind; Dreams as paths to liberation);
  • Economics (Money and abstraction; Money, asceticism, and accumulation); Esoteric art of East Asia (Imagery in the Esoteric tradition: doctrine and practice); Esoteric art of South and Southeast Asia (Visual supports for ritual meditation; Transcendent pantheon in esoteric art; Regional variations); Ethics (Sources of ethical thinking; Comparisons with Western ethics);
  • Faith (Summary interpretation); Folk religion in Japan (Folk religion, Buddhism, and worldly beliefs; Folk heroes and pilgrimage customs); Folk religion in Southeast Asia (Brahmanism);
  • Hells (Number and arrangement of hells); Images of hells (Mulian); Buddhist art in the Himalayas (Bhutan); Huayan art (Japan; Southeast Asia); Huayan school (Early history; Dushun; Zhiyan; Fazang; Huiyuan; Chengguan; Zongmi; Li Tongxuan; Further spread and influence; Taxonomies of teachings);
  • India (The sangha and social norms (5th or 4th century BCE); The Buddha's death and the first council (5th or 4th century BCE); Asoka Maurya (3rd century BCE); A time of change and development (2nd century BCE - 4th century CE)); Buddhist art in India (Pillars and edicts of the Mauryan emperor Asoka (mid-3rd century BCE); Rock-cut architecture (1st century BCE - 2nd century CE); Painting and sculpture at Ajanta (5th century CE) and related sites; Final phase of Buddhist art in India (6th-12th centuries CE));
  • Buddhist art in Japan (Painted images); Japanese royal family and Buddhism (Royal culture and Buddhism; Buddhist accession rites and Shinto);
  • Kalacakra (History); Buddhist art in Korea (Buddhist monastery architecture; Pagodas and reliquaries; Buddhist paraphenalia);
  • Laity (Laity in Theravada countries); Languages (Retention or translation – Central Asia, Retention or translation - China and East Asia, Retention or translation - Tibet and Mongolia, Retention or translation - South and Southeast Asia, Retention or translation - Modern vernaculars); Local divinities and Buddhism (Buddhist cosmology and popular religious practices concerning the afterlife; The problem of syncretism); Lotus Sutra (Central themes of the Lotus Sutra – The one vehicle and skillful means, Central themes of the Lotus Sutra - Universal buddhahood, Central themes of the Lotus Sutra - The primordial Buddha; The Lotus Sutra and specific schools);
  • Madhyamaka School (Early history: Nagarjuna and his disciple Aryadeva; Aryadeva and his major work; Madhyamaka in Central and East Asia; Development of disvisions within the Madhyamaka school; Bhavaviveka and his major works; The Yogacara-Madhyamaka synthesis of Santaraksita and Kamalasila); Mahayana (The old linear model and the date of the “origin” of the Mahayana; The evidence for the Mahayana outside of texts; The Mahayana and monastic Buddhism in the middle period; The Mahayana and the role of the laity; The Mahayana and the misrepresentation of non-Mahayana literature; The scholasticism of the Mahayana; The Mahayana and the new bodhisattvas); Mainstream Buddhist schools (Traditional mainstream schools; The Mahasamghika branch; The Shtavira school; Mahayana); Millenarianism and millenarian movements (Agrarian utopianism in Japan); Miracles (Disciples of the Buddha; Miracles in the spread of Buddhism; Miracles and monks); Modernity and Buddhism (Institutional modernity); Monstic architecture (Lamaist monasteries in China; Monastic architecture in Korea); Mongolia (Buddhism during the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1260-1368); Mongolian Buddhism in the twentieth century); Monks (Scholars; Administrators); Buddhist art in Myanmar (Early history, 600-800 CE; Post-pagan, 1300-1752; The Konbuang dynasty, 1752-1885);
  • Nepal (Early Buddhism in the Licchavi period); Nichiren School (Present organization and observances; The founder Nichiren; Contributions to Japanese culture); Nirvana (Summary interpretation);
  • Original enlightenment or Hongaku (Terms and texts; Major ideas);
  • Buddhist literature in Pali (Tipitaka or Threefold Basket; Abhidhammapitaka or Basket Concerning the Teaching; Conclusion); Persecutions (Bamiyan; Zoroastrian persecution; The White Huns; The demise of Buddhism in India; European colonial period); Philosophy (Issues; No-self; Change and causality; Morality and ethics; Philosophy and truth; Traditions and styles; Abhidharma; Madhyamaka; Yogacara; Huayan; Kyoto school); Politics and Buddhism (Buddhism as a political problem; Law and party politics); Precepts (The Five, Eight, and Ten Precepts; Mahayana precepts); Printing technologies (Dharani and the origin of Buddhist print culture; Xylography; Computer-age print culture); Psychology (Why Buddhism and psychology?); Pure Land art (Western Pure Land evoked through the Amitabha image; Other pure lands; Pictorial programs of pure land tableaux; Pictures of the Buddha's welcoming descent; Spatial installation of pure lands); Pure Land Buddhism (Pure Land and Mahayana Buddhism; Mindful recollection of the Buddha; Pure land societies);
  • Rebirth (Origins of the doctrine); Ritual objects (implements of ornamentation; Vessels for offerings; Ritual implements in the Japanese liturgical context);
  • Sangha (Modern Buddhist communities); Buddhist literature in Sanskrit (Canonical literature - Agama recollections, Vinaya and abhidharma, Mahayana, Vajrayana, Commentaries; Noncanonical literature – Narrative, Ritual texts, Treatises, Poetry and drama, Nepalese Buddhist literature in Sanskrit); Sexuality (Buddhist views on homosexuality); Shinto and Buddhism (Esoteric Buddhism and kami cults); Shugendo (Buddhist aspects of shugendo); Sacred space (Indian Buddhism; Monasteries); Stupa (Western Deccan; North and Eastern Asia in the fifth to seventh centuries); Sutra illustrations (Sutra illustrations in South and Southeast Asia; Sutra illustrations in East Asia);
  • Tantra (Japan); Theravad (Buddhology; Sacred landscape; Paritta); Tiantai School (The three tracks and buddha-nature; Zhanran and the buddha-nature as insentient beings); Tibet (The modern nonsectarian movement and monastic intransigence in the 19th and 20th centuries; Communism and the Tibetan diaspora; Post-Maoist Tibet);
  • Vajrayana (Mahayana subset; Fruitional vehicle); Vietnam (History – From the beginning to independence, Early Vietnamese dynasties (968-1010), Li dynasty (1010-1225), Tran dynasty (1225-1400), The (later) Ly dynasty and the Northern-Southern dynasties (1428-1802), Nguyen dynasty (1802-1945), The French period, Postcolonial struggle, from 1975 to the beginning of the twenty-first century); Buddhist influences on literature in Vietnamese (Magazines and periodicals; Books); Vinaya (The extent of vinaya literature; The structure of vinaya literature);
  • War (From nonviolence to compassion); Women (Women as patrons and rulers; Women as renunciants; Contemporary appropriations and subversions); Wonbulgyo (History; Doctrine; Practice; Ceremonies);
  • Yogacara School (Three natures or trisvabhava);

The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion[edit]

The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion, ed. Stephan Schumacher and Gert Woerner, Shambhala, 1994 Please note that this reference works includes articles which are at times separately designated as being relevant to "Buddhism" and to "Zen." Following the text of the work itself, I have broken the listings into separate sections for Buddhism and Zen.

Buddhism[edit]

Major articles[edit]

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Minor articles[edit]

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Zen[edit]

Major articles[edit]

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