Wikipedia:WikiProject Christianity/Encyclopedic articles

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This page is intended to be a collection point for lists of articles contained in other reference sources relating to Christianity, which could serve as a basis for developing our own content.

The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity[edit]

The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity, edited by Ken Parry, David J. Melling, Dimitri Brady, Sidney H. Griffith, and John F. Henley, 1999, Blackwell

Articles with subjarticles[edit]

2 pages or more main article -

Major articles[edit]

2 pages or more –

Significant articles[edit]

2 paragraphs to 2 pages

Minor articles[edit]

1 paragraph

Other[edit]

  • Patron Saints (also check for the canon of the Brotherhood of St. Herman of Alaska) – Athens – Philothei (p. 380); Belarus – Euphrosyne of Polotsk (p. 192); Elimeia region – Nikanor of Kalistratos (p. 344); against Epidemics – Charalampos (p. 116); Forests and woods – Elias (p. 178); Greece – Andrew the Apostle (p. 29); Greek evzone or Greek national guard – George of Ioannina (p. 210); Karamanlis and other Greeks of Cappadocia – John the Russian (p. 273); Lesbos – Ignatios Agallianos (p. 247); Pythion – Cyril VI of Constantinople (p. 153); Russia – Andrew the Apostle (p. 29); Salamis – Laurentios of Megara (p. 294); Scotland – Andrew the Apostle (p. 29); Thessaly – Charalamps (p. 116); Verroia, Macedonia – Saint Jerusalem or Rosalia or Rosa (p. 267);

The Encyclopedia of Christianity[edit]

The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Editors Erwin Fahlbusch et al, Eerdmans/Brill, 1999

Notes: This list contains not only information on the names and lengths of every article contained in the work in question, but also information on the various named and unnamed designated subsections of those articles. In those instances where the article subsections have clear names, I have used those names. Where they do not, but the article has a clear outline format, indicated by section and subsection numbers, I have written down what seems to me the “sense” of those sections, often in longer format than the clearly named subsections, unfortunately. In “articles” section, articles with subarticles have titles followed by a “*”; In “subarticles” sections, subarticles of sufficient length to otherwise qualify as “major” in their own right are marked with “***”, significant subarticles with “**”, and minor subarticles with “*”. Articles are listed by the titles they have in the book itself, although it is likely that in at least some cases the titles for the directly relevant articles here would differ. Where appropriate, please pipe a link to the correct directly relevant extant article, or to the not-yet-extant directly relevant article.

Major articles[edit]

2 pages or more

Significant articles[edit]

2 paragraphs to 2 pages

Minor articles[edit]

1 paragraph

Redirects[edit]

Redirect subarticles[edit]

Articles or themes with named subarticles or separate numbered “outline” sections[edit]

  • Subsections are listed below after the main article title and a hyphen. In the event that a subsection itself has subsections, they are included in a separate indented listing below the subsection of which they are sections. Three asterisks after a name indicates that it is of comparable length to a "major" article, two to a "significant" article, and one to a "minor" article.

A[edit]

  • Abortion – Medical, Biblical, and historical survey**; Legal aspects and ethical discussion**;
    • Abortion – Medical, Biblical, and historical survey – Definition*; Historical survey**; Biblical survey**; Abortion and Christianity**;
    • Abortion – Legal aspects and ethical discussion – Legal aspects**; Ethical discussion**;
  • Abortion counseling – Definition*; Variables*; Dynamics and goals**; Training*; Institutions**;
  • Abraham – Biblical tradition**; History of research**; Abraham in the New Testament*;
    • Abraham - History of research – Historical assessment**; Form-critical and historical analyses**;
      • Abraham – History of research – Historical assessment – Abraham as a fictitious figure*; Abraham as a historical person*;
      • Abraham- History of research – Form-critical and historical analyses – A. Alt and M. Noth*; R. E. Clements*;
  • Acculturation – Concept*; Forms of acculturation**; Criticism**;
  • Achievement and competition – Achievement in industrial societies**; Definition of achievement and competition**; In social formation**; Free market and just opportunities*; Criticism of the achievement society*;
  • Action theory – Antiquity and Middle Ages*; Modern period**; Present-day discussion**;
    • Action theory – Present-day discussion - Sociology**; Anthropology*; Analytic action*;
  • Acts of the Apostles – Author*; Structure*; Sources*; Text*; Style*; Historical significance*; Theology**; Apostolic council*;
  • Adiaphora – Term**; In Christian ethics**; Adiaphora and politics*;
    • Adiaphora – In Christian ethics – Term as used in Christianity*; Problem*; Church ordinances*;
  • Adventists – History**; Organization, structure, and activities**; Doctrine and worship**;
    • Adventists – Doctrine and worship – 1844 as dawn of end times*; Adventists and the Old Testament*; Life and diet ordinances*; Sabbath commandment*; Conditional immortality*; As remnant end-time community*; Health*;
  • Aesthetics – Concept**; Characteristics*; Criteria**; Tasks*; Religion**;
  • Africa – General survey**; The Religious situation**; African Christianity**;
    • Africa – General survey - Population and economic potential**; Social and political structure**; Trends*;
    • Africa - The Religious situation – Statistics*; A Holistic view of life**; Significance of tribal religions*;
    • Africa - African Christianity – Diversity and growth**; The African legacy and Christianity**; Problems and tasks*; Ecumenical developments*;
      • Africa – African Christianity – The African legacy and Christianity – Roman Catholic Church*; Protestant churches**;
  • African theology – Term and scope**; Bible vs. African legacy*; African identity**; Theological institutions**; Africanization**;
    • African theology – Term and scope – Term*; Forms*; Varieties*; Prerequisities*;
    • African theology – African identity – Anthropological poverty*; Contents*; Racism*;
    • African theology – Theological institutions – Lack of institutions*; Ecumenical Association of African Theologians*;
    • African theology – Africanization – Language*; Statistics*;
  • Afro-American cults – Experiential*; Slavery*; In Tropical America*; Changes**; Pentecostals*;
    • Afro-American cults – Slavery – Preservation of cultural memory*; African slaves and Christianity*;
    • Afro-American cults – Changes – In the New World**; After emancipation**;
      • Afro-American cults – Changes – In the New World – Variety*; Syncretic nature*; Secretivism*;
      • Afro-American cults – Changes – After emancipation – Freeing of religion*; Christian elements*;
        • Afro-American cults – Changes – After emancipation – Christian elements – Pukkumina*; Yoruba input*; In Brazil*; Jamaica and Rastafarianism*;
  • Aggression – Concept*; Theological tradition*; Theories**; Conclusion*;
    • Aggression – Theories – Concupiscence and Augustine*; Impulse theory of Adler and Freud**; Lorenz's theory*; Frustration theory*; Learning and unlearning of aggression*; Theory of primitive cultures being free of aggression*;
  • Agrapha – Sources containing agrapha*; Significance**;
  • Alexandria – History*; Mixed population*; Global importance*; Jews in Alexandria**; Christianity in Alexandria**;
  • Alexandrian theology – Two phases*; First phase**; Second phase**;
  • Altar – Term*; Old Testament**; New Testament*; Christian**; Structure*; Altars for sacrifice*; Positions;
    • Altar – Old Testament – Purpose*; Composition*; Location*;
    • Altar – Christian – Early Christian*; Reformation*;
    • Altar – Composition - Pre-Nicene home church table*; Altar containing relics of saints*; Increasing use of stone*; Post-Reformation and use of wood*;
    • Altar – Positions - Pre-12th century; Change of location thereafter*; Protestant churches*; Current position*;
  • Amos or Book of Amos – Amos and his times**; Contents*; Message*;
  • Anabaptists – Term**; Threefold origin**; Groups**; Theological positions**;
    • Anabaptists – Threefold origin – Blaurock, Grebel, and the first community**; Hans Hut**; Melchior Hoffman*;
    • Anabaptists – Groups – Swiss Brethren*; Hutterites*; Munster with Simons and Joris**;
    • Anabaptists – Theological positions – Free church and the last days**; Opposition to scholastic theology*; Published works*;
  • Analogy – Definition*; History**; Modern discussion**; Theological evaluation*;
    • Analogy – History – To Aristotle**; Aquinas*; Scotus and Kant*; Joseph Butler*;
  • Analytic ethics – Concept*; Trends**; Present discussion*; Analytic ethics and theological ethics*;
    • Analytic ethics – Trends – Intuitionism*; Emotivism*; Prescriptivism*; And morality*; Neonaturalism or descriptivism*;
  • Analytic philosophy – Name**; Method and Goal**;
    • Analytic philosophy – Name – Rise and spread*; Founders and representatives*;
    • Analytic philosophy – Method and goal – Logical atomism*; Logical empiricism**; Linguistic philosophy**;
  • Anarchy – Term*; In social anthropology**; Since the 19th century**; Anarchist theory**; Ethics and church*;
    • Anarchy – In social anthropology – In Africa*; Sigrist and regulated anarchy*; Transformation into a centralized system*;
    • Anarchy – Since the 19th century - 12th-14th century precursors in regional uprisings*; 19th century European anarchists*; 20th century*;
    • Anarchy – Anarchist theory – Overview*; Proudhon*; Bakunin*; Nechayev*;
  • Ancestor worship – Term**; Physical and spiritual ancestors**;
  • Angel – Biblical**; Dogmatic**;
    • Angel – Biblical – Old Testament**; Hellenistic Judaism**; New Testament**;
      • Angel – Biblical – Old Testament – Malיak YHWH יĕlōhîm*; Cherubim and seraphim*; Malיāk;
      • Angel – Hellenistic Judaism – Angelology*; Antithesis of the sacred and profane*;
      • Angel – New Testament – Representatives of the heavenly world*; Jesus*;
  • Anglican Communion – Organization**; Expansion**; Statistics**; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Anglican Communion – Organization – Organization and communion*; Biblical basis**; International bodies**;
    • Anglican Communion – Expansion – Early days*; Overseas bishops**; Continental Europe*; Third World*;
    • Anglican Communion – Ecumenical relations – Memberships**; Interchurch relations*;
  • Angola – Missionary history**; Churches in Angola**; Interconfessional cooperation*; The Ecclesiastical and social situation in Angola**;
    • Angola - Churches in Angola – The Roman Catholic Church*; The Protestant Churches**; The Independent Churches*;
  • Animals – Biblical data**; Church history**; Religion*; Philosophy**; More recent themes**;
  • Anointing – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • Anthropology – Overview**; Old Testament anthropology**; New Testament anthropology**; Theological anthropology**; Philosophical anthropology**; Social anthropology**;
    • Anthropology – Old Testament anthropology – Individual anthropology**; Social anthropology**;
    • Anthropology – New Testament anthropology – Basic points*; Clarifications**; Terminology**;
    • Anthropology – Theological anthropology – Thematic definition*; Historical development**; Eastern Orthodoxy*; Theological alternatives**; Remaining ecumenical tasks*;
    • Anthropology – Philosophical anthropology – Word and concept*; History and methodology**; Themes*;
    • Anthropology – Social anthropology – Concept**; Explicit and implicit models**; Relation to self and the world*;
  • Anthroposophy – Development**; Basic ideas**; Practical implications*;
  • Anti-Semitism or Anti-Judaism – Antiquity**; Middle Ages**; Modern period**;
  • Apocalypticism – Scope**; The Old Testament and Early Judaism***; The New Testament**; In Church history**;
    • Apocalypticism - Scope – Definition*; Other religions**;
      • Apocalypticism - Scope – Other religions – Hinduism*; Buddhism*; Zoroastrianism*; Islam*;
    • Apocalypticism - The Old Testament and early Judaism – Extent and origin**; Main ideas**; The Background in prophecy or wisdom*; The Historical problem*;
      • Apocalypticism - The Old Testament and early Judaism – Main ideas – Creation and human power*; The Community of the righteous*; Numbers*; Angels and Demons*; The Eschatological turning point*;
    • Apocalypticism - The New Testament – John the Baptist*; Jesus*; The Evangelists**; Paul**; Revelation**;
      • Apocalypticism – The New Testament – The Evangelists – Mark*; Matthew*;
    • Apocalypticism - In Church history – Historical significance*; The Middle Ages**; The Reformation**; The Confessional Age and Pietism*; North America**;
  • Apocrypha – Old Testament apocrypha***; New Testament apocrypha***;
    • Apocrypha – Old Testament apocrypha – Concept*; Form*; Contents**;
      • Apocrypha – Old Testament apocrypha – Contents – First Esdras*; First Maccabees*; Second Maccabees*; Third Maccabees*; Judith*; Tobit*; Additions to Esther*; Additions to Daniel*; Prayer of Manasseh*; Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah*; Sirach*; The Wisdom of Solomon*;
    • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Gospels**; Acts**; Epistles**; Apocalypses**;
      • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Gospels – Gospel fragments*; Jewish-Christian gospels**; Gospel of the Egyptians*; Gospel of Peter*; Infancy gospels**; Conversations of the risen lord with his disciples**;
        • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Gospels – Jewish-Christian gospels – Gospel of the Nazarenes*; Gospel of the Ebionites*; Gospel of the Hebrews*;
        • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Gospels – Infancy gospels – Protevangelium of James*; Infancy Gospel of Thomas*;
        • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Gospels – Conversations of the risen lord with his disciples – Epistula apostolorum*;
      • Apocrypha – New Testament apocrypha – Acts – Acts of Peter*; Acts of Paul*; Acts of Andrew*; Acts of John*; Acts of Thomas*;
      • Apocrypha – Epistles – Jesus and Abgar*; Paul and Seneca*; Laodiceans*; Pseudo-Titus*;
      • Apocrypha – Apocalypses – Ascension of Isaiah*; Apocalypse of Peter*; Apocalypse of Paul*;
  • Apologetics – Definition**; New concepts**; Theological significance*;
    • Apologetics – New concepts – Up to World War I**; After World War I**;
  • Apophatic theology – Basis**; Significance**; In the Church**; Theological implications**;
  • Apostle or Apostolate – History of the term “apostle”*; Adoption by Christianity**; Development in Paul*; Further development**; Christ as apostle*;
    • Apostle or Apostolate – Further development – In the Pauline School*; In Luke*; In First Clement and Ignatius*;
  • Apostles' Creed – History and setting**; In the tradition of the Reformation*; Its nature*; Debate**;
  • Apostolic churches – Catholic Apostolic Church**; New Apostolic Church**; Other apostolic churches*;
  • Apostolic fathers – The Phrase*; The Writings**;
    • Apostolic fathers – The Writings – Didache*; Barnabas*; Clement**; Ignatius*; Polycarp**; Shepherd of Hermas*; Epistle to Diognetus*; Quadratus Fragment and Papias of Hierapolis*;
      • Apostolic fathers – The Writings – Clement – First Clement*; Second Clement*;
      • Apostolic fathers – The Writings – Polycarp – Philippians*; Martyrdom of Polycarp*;
  • Archaeology – Biblical archaeology**; Christian archaeology**;
    • Archaeology – Biblical archaeology – Task**; Methods**; Historical chronology (Epochs)**; Biblical archaeology and Biblical scholarship*;
  • Argentina – History*; The Churches**; The Protestant Churches**; Interdenominational cooperation*; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Argentina – The Churches – The Roman Catholic Church**; Protestantism and the organization of evangelical churches**;
    • Argentina – The Protestant Churches – Anglican Church*; (Scottish) Presbyterian Church*; Evangelical Church of the River Plate*; Evangelical Waldensian Church*; Argentine Reformed Church*; Argentine Evangelical Lutheran Church*; Evangelical Congregational Church*; Evangelical Methodist Church*; Baptist churches*; Evangelical Church of Disciples of Christ*; United Evangelical Lutheran Church*;
  • Aristotelianism – Philosophy of Aristotle**; History of Aristotelianism;
    • Aristotelianism – Philosophy of Aristotle – Works**; Teaching**;
    • Aristotelianism – History of Aristotelianism – Antiquity*; Middle Ages**; The Reformation and modern times**;
  • Arnoldschain Conference – Founding and goal*; History and mode of operation**;
  • Asceticism – The Concept and its present significance**; The New Testament and the early church**; The Reformation and the modern period**;
  • Asia – Social, political, and economic situation**; The Religions of Asia**; Christianity in Asia**;
    • Asia – Christianity in Asia – History of Christianity in Asia**; The Christian churches and their work**; Cooperation of the Protestant churches**; Ecumenical dialogue**;
  • Assembleias de Deus no Brasil – History**; Church structures*; Faith and life**;
  • Assemblies of God – History**; Missions**; Institutions and polity**; Women's roles*; Recent trends**; The Worldwide Assemblies of God Fellowship**;
  • Assurance of salvation – Biblical framework*; Assurance and security**; Theological aspects**; Present situation*;
  • Asylum – Definition*; Religious origin*; History**; Church law**; International law*;
  • Athanasius – Life**; Theology**;
  • Atheism – Definition and typology**; Change of significance**; Theological consequences*;
  • Atonement – Old Testament and Judaism**; New Testament**; Systematic theology**;
  • Augustine – Early life and conversion**; Churchman and writer**;
  • Augustine's theology – Introduction*; Ethics, faith, and knowledge**; God, the Trinity, and Christ**; Creation**; Sin and grace**; Ecclesiology and the sacraments**; Asceticism and monasticism*; Hermeneutics**; History and eschatology**; Augustinianism**;
  • Australia – Socioreligious context**; The Christian churches**; Interconfessional relations**; Church-state relations**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Australia – The Christian churches – Statistics*; The Roman Catholic Church**; The Anglican Church**; The Uniting Church*; The Orthodox Churches**; The Lutheran Church*;
    • Australia – Non-Christian religions – The Aborigines*; Judaism*; Islam*;
  • Austria – Sociopolitical framework**; Churches**; Transdenominational organizations**; Non-Christian religions**; Exodus from churches*;
    • Austria – Sociopolitical framework – Political order*; State-church relations*;
    • Austria – Churches – Roman Catholic**; Protestant**; Orthodox*; Old Catholic*; Free Churches*;
    • Austria – Non-Christian religions – Judaism**; Islam*; Buddhism*; Sects**;
  • Authority – Concept*; Typology**; Discussion**; New developments*;
  • Autonomy – Concept*; Significance**;

B[edit]

  • Baha'i – History*; Theology*; Structure*;
  • Bahamas – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Bahrain – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Bangladesh – The Roman Catholic Church*; Protestants*; Ecumenical organizations**;
  • Baptism – Overview**; Biblical data**; History and theology***; Baptism in the United States**; Baptism in Germany**; Church law**;
    • Baptism – Biblical data – Primitive practice**; Paul**; Colossians and Ephesians*; Synoptic gospels*; Acts*; Johannine school*; Significance**;
    • Baptism – History and theology – Unity and differences**; The Rite in history***; Baptism and the ecumenical movement**; Cultural issues**;
      • Baptism – History and theology – The Rite in history – The Early church**; The East**; The Medieval West**; The modern West**;
      • Baptism – History and theology – Baptism and the ecumenical movement - “Common baptism”**; Affirmation of “common baptism”*; Sacramental efficacy**; Sacramental validity**;
      • Baptism – History and theology - Cultural issues – Secularization*; Inculturation**; Encounters with other religions*;
    • Baptism – Baptism in the United States – Colonial period and 19th century**; Baptists**; The Present situation**;
      • Baptism – Baptism in the United States – The Present situation – Pentecostals*; Ecumenical movement*; Megachurches*;
    • Baptism – Baptism in Germany – Changes**; New approaches in practical theology**;
      • Baptism – Baptism in Germany – Changes – Current situation*; Changes in motivation*; Former East Germany*;
      • Baptism – Baptism in Germany – New approaches in practical theology – R. Leuenberger & followers' approach*; R. Stuhlmann's approach; P. Cornehl's approach*; 1993 & 1995 studies*; Baptism in pastoral care*;
    • Baptism – Church law – General features*; Roman Catholics**; Orthodox and Anglicans*; Protestants**; Ecumenical questions**;
  • Baptists – Name and history**; Numbers*; Doctrine**; Church and state*; Mission and evangelism*; Catechumenate*; Church life and worship**; Ecumenical relations*; Social structure*;
    • Baptists – Doctrine – Sola scriptura*; No binding confessions*; Soteriology and discipline*; Linkage of faith and baptism*; Priesthood of all believers*; Role of the local congregation*;
  • Barbados – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Barmen Declaration – Background*; Six theses*; Aftermath**; Ansbach Declaration & acceptance*;
  • Baroque – Definition**; Connections with humanism**; Baroque poetics***; Art, music, philosophy, and science**;
    • Baroque – Connections with humanism – Concept of reality*; Concept of humanity**; Concept of poetics*; Function of language*;
    • Baroque – Baroque poetics – From simplicity to multiplicity*; Striving for completeness*; Variation**; Complexity and obscurity*; Imagination and the involvement of the reader*; Thinking in scale and the Baroque metaphor**; Passions*;
    • Baroque – Art, music, philosophy, and science – Garden architecture and the extended metaphor of the garden**; Palace and theater*; Church architecture**; Painting**; Music**; Science and philosophy**;
  • Behavior or Behavioral psychology – Definition*; Research**; Deviance**; Therapy**;
  • Belarus – General*; Orthodox, Catholics, and Uniates**; Protestants**;
  • Belgium – Churches**; Interdenominational dialogue**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Belgium – Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**; Free churches**; Anglican Church*; Orthodox Church*;
    • Belgium – Interdenominational dialogue – Positive relations*; Protestants and Jews*;
    • Belgium – Church and state – Recognized churches*; Lay movement*; Religious instruction*;
    • Belgium – Non-Christian religions – Islam*; Jews*; Move toward Christian unity*;
  • Benedictines – Term*; Role of Benedict*; Rapid spread*; To French Revolution**; French Revolution and secularization*; Women Benedictines**; Basis of Western monasticism*;
  • Benin – Churches**; Ecumenical relations*; Church and state*; Other religions**;
    • Benin – Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestants**;
      • Benin – Churches – Protestants – Methodists**; Pentecostals & Sudan Interior Mission**; Independent churches*;
    • Benin – Other religions – Islam**;
  • Bible manuscripts and editions – Old Testament manuscripts**; New Testament manuscripts**; Printed editions**;
    • Bible manuscripts and editions – Old Testament manuscripts – Background**; Ancient Bible manuscripts**; Medieval Bible manuscripts**;
      • Bible manuscripts and editions - Medieval Bible manuscripts – Cairo Prophets*; Petersburg Codes of the Prophets*; Aleppo Codex*; Leningard Codex*; Erfurt codixes*;
    • Bible manuscripts and editions – New Testament manuscripts – The Oldest extant manuscripts**; Noteworthy uncials; Important miniscules;
      • Bible manuscripts and editions – New Testament manuscripts – The Oldest extant manuscripts - p46 or Chester Beatty Biblical Papyrus II*; p52*; p66 or Bodmer Papyrus II*; p75 or Bodmer papyri XIV and XV*; p87*;
      • Bible manuscripts and editions – New Testament manuscripts – Noteworthy uncials – Codex Sinaiticus*; Codex Alexandrinus*; Codex Vaticanus*; Codex Ephraemi*; Codex Bezae*; Codex Washingtoniensis*;
      • Bible manuscripts and editions – New Testament manuscripts – Important miniscules – 1 or 12th century Basel*; 13 or 13th century Paris*; 33 or 9th century Paris*; 461 or St. Petersburg*; 565 or St. Petersburg deluxe 9th century*; 700 or 11th century British Museum*; 1739 or 10th century Mount Athos*;
  • Bible societies – Foundations*; 19th century Bible societies**; Outreach**; Roman Catholic response**; United Bible Societies**;
    • Bible societies - 19th century Bible societies – British and Foreign Bible Society*; In the United States*;
    • Bible societies – Outreach – Third World*; Bibles without the Apocrypha*;
    • Bible societies – United Bible Societies – Origin*; Bible distribution**; Statistics*;
  • Bible study – Concept*; History*; Forms and contents**; Didactic steps and methods**; Worldwide significance*;
    • Bible study – Forms and contents – Based on theme*; Based on texts*; Based on passages or whole*; In larger groups*;
  • Bible versions – General**; Antiquity**; Middle Ages**; Reformation and modern period***; The Present**;
    • Bible versions – Antiquity – LXX**; Aramaic targums*; Languages of the Roman Empire**; Others;
      • Bible versions – Antiquity – Languages of the Roman Empire – Latin**; Syriac**; Coptic*; Others*;
    • Bible versions – Middle Ages – Dutch*; English**; German**; Scandinavian languages**; Romance languages **; Slavic languages**; Uralic languages**; Other languages**;
    • Bible versions – Reformation and modern period – English**; German**; Dutch*; Scandinavian languages**; Romance languages**; Slavic languages**; Uralic languages; Other languages*;
      • Bible versions – Reformation and modern period – Scandinavian languages – Danish*; Norwegian*; Swedish*;
      • Bible versions – Reformation and modern period – Romance languages – French*; Italian*; Spanish*; Portuguese*; Catalan*; Galician*; Romanian*;
      • Bible versions – Reformation and modern period – Slavic languages – Old Church Slavonic*; Others*;
      • Bible versions – Reformation and modern period – Uralic languages – Finnish*; Hungarian*;
  • Biblical theology – Concept and history***; Biblical theology in context***;
    • Biblical theology – Concept and history – Concept**; History**; Recent developments**; Conclusion*;
      • Biblical theology – Concept and history – Concept – As opposed to dogmatic theology*; Emphasis on theology*; Emphasis on logical and conceptual structures*; Stress on distinctiveness of the Bible*; Stress on the inner coherence of the Bible*;
      • Biblical theology – Concept and history – History – Reformation*; Rise of historical consciousness*; 20th century*; 1945-1960 English-speaking world*; History of salvation**;
      • Biblical theology – Recent developments – Overstated decline*; Bultmann, Eichrodt, & von Rad*; Opposition to the idea of biblical theology*; 1970s and W. H. Schmidt**; B. S. Childs*; H. Gese**; H. H. Schmid**; U. Luck**;
    • Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context – Problem**; Ecumenical aspect**; Africa**; Asia**; Latin America**; Feminist perspectives**;
      • Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context - Ecumenical aspect – Ecumenical movement**; World Council of Churches**;
      • Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context – Africa – Bible in Africa*; Bible & African culture*; African Christianity today*; Preaching in Africa*; African independent churches*;
      • Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context – Asia – Japan**; India*;
      • Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context – Latin America – Liberation theology*; Bible and the poor*; Hermeneutical consciousness in scholarly exegesis*; Criticism of churches*;
      • [[Biblical theology – Biblical theology in context – Feminist perspectives – Woman's Bible*; Feminist criticism*; Methods of feminist interpretation*; Goals of feminist interpretation*; Reception**;
  • Biography or Biographical research – General**; New research**; Conversions**;
    • Biography or Biographical research – New research – Cohort research*; Sociology of age-stratification*; Sociology of the life course*; Objective and subjective aspects*; Psychological research*;
  • Birth control – Historical overview of fertility and family planning**; Biomedical overview of birth control methods**; Demographic overview of family planning**; Social history and issues**; Moral issues and perspectives**; Positions of specific religious traditions**;
  • Bishop or Episcopate – Rise**; Forms**; Disruption and continuity**; Spiritual leadership**; Ecumenical developments**;
  • Black churches – In the United States***; The African diaspora***;
    • Black churches – In the United States – Introduction**; Beginnings in the Colonial era**; 1800-1860: the rise of the independent African American church**; 1860-1877: The Civil War and Reconstruction**; 1877-1915: The Church at its nadir**; 1915-1965: Urbanization and the struggle for civil rights**; 1965-Present**;
    • Black churches – The African diaspora – Variety of African expressions**; Historical and theological insights**; Ecumenical significance;
      • Black churches – The African diaspora – Variety of African expressions – Background**; Multiformity and contexuality*; African diaspora in Britain**;
        • Black churches – The African diaspora – Variety of African expressions – African diaspora in Britain – Independent African American churches*; Sabbatarians*; Holiness movement*; Revivalists (Jamaica) & Spiritual Baptists*; Pentecostal movement**; African Indigenous churches*; Ras Tafari movement*; Anglo-Catholics*; African charismatic congregations*; Asian Christian fellowships*;
          • Black churches – The African diaspora – Variety of African expressions – African diaspora in Britain – Pentecostal movement – Trinitarian Pentecostals*; Oneness Pentecostals or Apostolic Pentecostals*; Latter Rain movement*;
      • Black churches – The African diaspora - Historical and theological insights – Contributions to the Church Universal**; Organization**; Different concept of the Holy Spirit**; Freedom from fundamentalism*; Same Biblical language but different realities*; Danger of further exploration*; Ecumenical significance**;
  • Black theology – Theological discipline and historical roots**; Central theses and positions*; Black theology in South Africa**; New developments**;
    • Black theology – Theological discipline and historical roots – Term**; Historical roots*;
    • Black theology – Black theology in South Africa – Roots*; Move to contextual theology*;
    • Black theology – New developments – Womanist (black feminist) theology*; Bible and African themes*; Return to black roots**;
  • Blessing – Term*; Old Testament**; New Testament**; History**; Signs**; Significance**; The Papal blessing**;
  • Bolivia – Peoples and politics**; Christian churches**; Relations among the churches**; Relations between church and state**; Other religious groups*;
    • Bolivia – Peoples and politics – History*; Social history*;
    • Bolivia – Christian churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Historic Protestant churches**;
      • Bolivia – Christian churches – Historic Protestant churches – Baptists*; Methodists*; The Evangelical Christian Union*; Other groups*; Evangelical expansion*;
    • Bolivia – Relations among the churches – Evangelical churches**; Roman Catholic and evangelical churches*;
    • Bolivia – Relations between church and state – Roman Catholics and the state*; Evangelicals and the state*;
  • Botswana – Overview**; Christian churches**; Church and state*; Other religions*;
    • Botswana – Christian churches – Survey**; Church life*; Ecumenical relations*;
  • Bourgeois or Bourgeoisie – Etymology and semantics**; Background of the rise of the bourgeois class**; Bourgeois society**; The Bourgeoisie and Christianity**;
  • Brazil – History, society, economy, and state**; Missions, Roman Catholic structures, and evangelization**; Protestantism and ecumenism**;
  • Brethren churches – Origin with the Brethren of Germany*; Move to America and schism**; Church of the Brethren**; 1920s and 1930s schisms and ecumenical relations**; Brethren in Christ*; Evangelical United Brethren Church*;
  • British missions – Origins**; 19th-century developments**; Missions and imperialism**; The First World War and after**; The Last stage**;
    • British missions – Origins - 17th and 18th centuries**;
      • British missions – Origins - 17th and 18th centuries – Thomas Bray and Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge*; SPCK and German missions*; Honourable Society in Scotland for Propogating Christian Knowledge*; Particular Baptist missions*; “NissionarySociety” later London Missionary Society*; Scottish societies*; Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East*; Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society*; British and Foreign Bible Society*;
    • British missions – 19th-century developments – Nondenominational missions*; Late-century missionary expansion**;
      • British missions – 19th-century developments – Late-century missionary expansion – Specialist medical missions*; Mill Hill Fathers*;
    • British missions – The Last stage – Status as of 1984*; Current test*;
  • Buddhism – Sphere*; Sources**; Teaching**; Monastic community**; History**;
    • Buddhism – Teaching – Biography of Buddha**; Samsara and escape**; Mahayana Buddhism**; Vajrayana*;
    • Buddhism – History – Councils*; Archaeology*; Asoka*;
  • Bulgaria – Historical context**; The Bulgarian Orthodox Church**; The Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches*; Muslims*; Other religious groups*; Church and state**;
    • Bulgaria – The Bulgarian Orthodox Church – History**; Church life*; Organization*; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Bulgaria – The Roman Catholic Church – To 19th century*; 19th century on*;
  • Bureaucracy – Term*; Scientific analysis**; Bureaucracy and the church**;
  • Burkina Faso – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Burundi – Overview**; Christian missions**; Interdenominational organizations**; Church and state**;
  • Byzantium – General features**; Historical epochs**; Theology**; Aftermath of defeat*;
    • Byzantium – Historical epochs – Early (324/330-634)**; Middle (635-1204)**; Late (1204-1453)**;
      • Byzantium – Historical epochs – Early (324/330-634) - 4th century*; Justinian I*; Heraclius and reform*;
      • Byzantium – Historical epochs – Middle (635-1204) – Concentration in Asia Minor and Thrace*; Macedonian dynasty*; Weakening of emperor and empire*; Comnenus and Angelus dynasties*;
      • Byzantium – Historical epochs – Late (1204-1453) – Enrico Dandalo*; Michael VIII Palaeologus*; After Michael VIII Palaeologus*;
    • Byzantium – Theology – Post-Nicene patristics**; Iconoclastic controversy, Macedonian Renaissance, dialectic, the “Panoply,” and Palamism**;
      • Byzantium – Theology – Post-Nicene patristics – To Cyril of Alexandria*; Neo-Chalcedonianism*; Monothelitism*;
      • Byzantium – Iconoclastic controversy, Macedonian Renaissance, dialectic, the “Panoply”, and Palamism – Iconocolastic controversy**; Macedonian Renaissance and filioque controversy**; 11th century*; Comnenus and Angelus dynasties**; Palamism**;

C[edit]

  • Cabala – Term*; Spread**; Teaching**;
  • Calvinism – Term*; The Influence of Calvin**; Calvinism as a theology**; Implications in other fields**;
    • Calvinism – The Influence of Calvin – Calvinist outlook*; Influence of the Genevan church**;
    • Calvinism – Calvinism as a theology – Four main forms**; Since 1700*;
      • Calvinism – Calvinism as a theology – Four main forms – Reformed orthodoxy*; German Reformed tradition*; Federal theology*; Puritanism*;
  • Calvin's theology – The Institutes**; Calvin's theology in the Institutes***; Importance**;
    • Calvin's theology – The Institutes – 1536 edition*; 1539 edition*; 1543 and 1550 editions*; Final 1559 edition*; French editions*;
    • Calvin's theology – Calvin's theology in the Institutes – Book 1: The Knowledge of God**; Book 2: Christology**; Book 3: The Doctrine of Grace**; Book 4: The Church, the Means of Grace, and Civil Government**; Method**;
    • Calvin's theology – Importance – Exposition of Scripture*; Geneva Academy*; Geneva Catechism*; The Doctrine of predestination*; Eucharistic controversy*; Servetus**; The Right of resistance**; The Presbyterial office**; Human rights, the constitutional state, and democracy*; Capitalism**;
  • Cambodia – General*; Missionary history**; Church and state**; Buddhism*;
    • Cambodia – Missionary history – Roman Catholic**; Protestant**;
  • Cameroon – General situation*; Religious situation**;
    • Cameroon – Religious situation – The Coming of Christianity**; Interdenominational organizations**; Church and state relations**;
      • Cameroon – Religious situation – The Coming of Christianity – Missions**; Protestant churches**; Roman Catholic Church**;
      • Cameroon – Religious situation – Interdenominational organizations – Church Union**; Federation of Churches and Missions**;
      • Cameroon – Church and state relations – The Church and Islam*;
  • Canada – Christian churches**; Collaboration among Christians**; Church and state; Non-Christian groups*;
    • Canada – Christian churches – The Roman Catholic Church*; The United Church of Canada*; The Anglican Church of Canada*; The Presbyterian Church in Canada*; Lutheran churches in Canada*; Baptists in Canada*; Other Protestant groups*; Eastern Orthodox Church*; Protestant overseas missions*; Majority of citizens in small number of denominations*; Inclusiveness*; Recent challenge to inclusiveness*; Canadians of “no religious preference”*; Statistics*;
    • Canada – Collaboration among Christians – Canadian Council of Churches*; Canadian churches in the World Council of Churches*; United Church & Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)*; Coalitions*; Ecumenical theology*;
    • Canada – Church and state – Education*; As custodians of the national conscience*;
  • Canon – The Old Testament Canon**; The New Testament Canon***; Doctrine of the canon**;
    • Canon – The Old Testament Canon – Presuppositions and preparatory stages**; The Hebrew Canon**; Other forms of the Old Testament Canon**;
    • Canon – The New Testament Canon – Presuppositions and preparatory stages up to approximately A.D. 150**; Early development**; The Closing of the New Testament Canon**; Conclusion*;
      • Canon – The New Testament Canon – Presuppositions and preparatory stages up to apprximately A.D. 150 – Emphasis on salvation*; Discussion of the salvific event**; Evidence to 150 A.D.**;
      • Canon – The New Testament Canon – Early development – Justin Martyr and canon*; Marcion's canon*; Melito of Sardis's canon*; Evidence of Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement*;
      • Canon – The New Testament Canon – The Closing of the New Testament Canon – To Athanasius**; To synod of 419**; Syrian canon**;
    • Canon – Doctrine of the Canon – Criteria of Canonicity*; Official significance of the Canon**;
  • Canon law – Term;*; Periods in development of canon law**;
  • Cape Verde – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Capitalism – Term**; Development**; Criticism**;
    • Capitalism – Term – Controversy**; As a social system*; Problem of unpaid labor*; Public labor*;
    • Capitalism – Development – Market and money*; Capitalists*; Role of the state*; Role of science*; Relation of capitalism to the noncapitalist world*;
    • Capitalism – Criticism – Labor movement**; Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**;
  • Cargo cult – Term*; Location*; Prophetic involvement*; Theology and development**;
  • Caribbean Conference of Churches – Origin**; Organization**; Challenges*;
  • Carnival – Terminology*; Theological context and debate**; German Fashnacht*;
  • Cartesianism – Term*; René Descartes**; The Development of Cartesianism**; Cartesianism today*;
    • Cartesianism - René Descartes – Life*; Main theses**; Main works*;
      • Cartesianism - René Descartes – Main theses – Methodology*; Epistemology*; Doctrine of God*; Physics*; Metaphysical dualism*; Ethics*;
    • Cartesianism – The Development of Cartesianism – The Main trends*; Occasionalism*; The End of Cartesianism*;
  • Caste – Racial basis*; Religion and caste**; Untouchables**;
  • Casuistry – Term*; In Judaism*; In Christianity**; Criticism**;
  • Catacombs – Term*; History**; In Italy**;
  • Catechesis – Term and history**; Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Free Church views**; Catechesis today**; Adult catechesis*; Cathechesis in the Third World*;
    • Catechesis – Term and history – Definition*; Baptismal catechesis*; Elementary catechesis*; Reformation**;
    • Catechesis – Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Free Church views – Roman Catholic view*; Orthodox and Free Church views**;
  • Catechism – Term**; Reformation catechisms**; Roman Catholic catechisms**; Modern catechisms**; Catechisms in the Third World*;
  • Catechist – Term*; History*; The Present**;
    • Catechist – The Present – In the public schools*; Elsewhere**;
  • Categorical imperative – Term*; Formulations**;
  • Categories – Aristotle*; Kant*; Hegel*; Current situation*;
  • Cathari – Name**; Origin**; Spread**; Organization**;
  • Catholic Action – Task**; Development**; Present manifestations*;
  • Catholic or Catholicity – Term and usage**; Catholicity as a mark of the church**; Ecumenical discussion and Protestant Catholicity**;
    • Catholic or Catholicity – Term and usage – Ignatius to Augustine*; Augustine and Vincent of Lerins*; Irenaeus and Cyprian on*;
    • Catholic or Catholicity – Catholicity as a mark of the church – In the Orthodox Church**; In the Roman Catholic church**; In the Reformation**; Since the Reformation**;
    • Catholic or Catholicity – Ecumenical discussion and Protestant Catholicity – In the ecumenical movement**; Protestant Catholicity**;
  • Catholic missions – Theological basis**; Goal**; Hierarchy/Leadership**; Statistics*; Workers*; Supporting Mission-aid societies**; Modern characteristics**;
  • Catholic Reform or Counterreformation – Terms**; Historical survey**;
  • Catholicism (Roman) – Term and phenomenon***; Research**; Dogmatic elements**; Catholicism and Protestantism**;
    • Catholicism (Roman) – Term and phenomenon – Catholicism as a form of Christianity**; Phenomenological approach*; Catholicism as a historical construct**; Political Catholicism*; Social Catholicism*; Cultural Catholicism*; Liberal Catholicism*; Reform Catholicism**; Critical Catholicism, Left-wing Catholicism, and Congregational Catholicism**; National Catholicism**; Anglo-Catholicism*; Sociohistorical Catholicism*;
    • Catholicism (Roman) – Research – Presuppositions*; Historical research*; Sociology of Catholicism*; Social history of Catholicism*;
    • Catholicism (Roman) – Dogmatic elements – Importance of dogmatic elements of the Roman Catholic tradition to the study*; Church as sacramentum mundi**; Salvific mission of the church**; Nature and tasks of the church**; Catholic mental attidude and claim to universal relevance*;
  • Causality – Classic definition**; Antiquity*; The Modern period**;
  • Celibacy of the clergy – History**; Theology**; Sociology**; Within the Catholic Church**; Ecumenical significance**;
  • Cemetery – The Word*; Definition*; Forms**; Development in the Christian West**;
    • Cemetery – Forms – Europe**; North and South America**; Africa*; Asia**;
      • Cemetery – Forms – Europe – Central and northern Europe*; Britain and Ireland*; Western Europe and Mediterranean Europe**; Eastern and southeastern Europe*;
      • Cemetery – Forms – North and South America – United States and Canada*; Central and South America*; Australia*;
      • Cemetery – Asia – Arab lands and Middle East*; Central Asia*; Northern India*; Indochina, China, and Japan**;
    • Cemetery – Development in the Christian West – Origin of the Christian cemetery*; The Medieval churchyard*; Protestantism*; The Secular cemetery**;
  • Censures – Catholic canon law*; History**;
  • Central African Republic – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Chad – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Chad – Religious situation – Protestants*; Roman Catholicism*; Church and state*;
  • Chalcedon, Council of or Council of Chalcedon – Historical importance*; The Definition**; Other rulings*; Ecumenical significance**;
  • Chance – Definition**; Logical status**; Organization and systematic classification**;
    • Chance – Organization and systematic classification – Chance in mathematics and physics*; Chance and practical actions*; Chance in art*; Chance and finite life*;
  • Charisma – The New Testament**; The Sociology of religion**;
    • Charisma – The New Testament – Term*; Paul**; First Peter and the Pastoral Epistles*;
      • Charisma – The New Testament – Paul – Basic meaning*; Specific sense**;
    • Charisma – The Sociology of religion – Terms*; Attributions*; Charismatic authority**; Significance for religious sociology*;
      • Charisma – Charismatic authority – Ideal type*; Change**;
  • Charismatic movement – Definition and terminology**; Beginnings**; Developments worldwide***; Points of tension**; Reception**; International structures*;
    • Charismatic movement – Developments worldwide – North America**; Europe**; Africa**; Asia*; Latin America**; Australia and New Zealand*;
  • Charismatic religion – Features**; Concept*; Sources*; Extensions of the concept**;
  • Child labor – The Problem**; The Struggle against child labor**;
  • Childhood – Definition*; Child development**; Changing views of childhood**; Socialization**;
  • Children of God – Development and teaching**; Organization and practice*; Status*;
  • Chile – Land*; History**; Roman Catholic Church and State to 1973**; Protestantism**; Ecumenism**; Churches after 1973**; Non-Christian religions*;
  • China – The Churches in China; Churches and political development**; The Present situation**;
    • China – The Churches in China – Protestant churches*; National and independent churches**; Roman Catholic Church**;
    • China – The Present Situation – New developments in church-state relations**; Ecclesiastical and theological developments**;
  • China Inland Mission – Background**; Origins**; Development**; Characteristics**;
  • Christian and Missionary Alliance – Origin and Aims*; Extent and size*; Beliefs**;
  • Christian art – Early Christianity**; Byzantium**; The Early medieval West**; The Romanesque and Gothic**; The Renaissance**; The Protestant and Catholic Reformations**; The Baroque and Rococo**; The Enlightenment and Neoclassicism**; The New World**; 19th century**; 20th century**; Contemporary**;
  • Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) – Origin and aims**; Development**;
    • Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) – Origin and aims – Origin and church unity*; Biblical authority*; Restoration*;
    • Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) – Development – Campbell and Stone era*; Current groups*;
  • Christian communication – Concept and goals**; History**; Europe and North America**; Third World and ecumenical cooperation**;
  • Christian Community – Definition*; History**; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Christian Community – History - Origins and spread**; Theology*; Ethics*; Organization**;
    • Christian Community – Ecumenical relations – Anthroposophy*; Membership*; Roman Catholic Church*;
  • Christian Conference of Asia – Scope*; Founding*; Basis of membership*; Goals*; Tasks*; Methods**;
  • Christian development services – International background*; Ecumenical responses and structures**; Problems*;
    • Christian development services – Ecumenical aspects and structures – World Conference of Churches Commission on the Churches' Participation in Development**; World Conference of Churches Commission on Inter-Church Aid, Refugee, and World Service*; SODEPAX**;
  • Christian Peace Conference – Founding and goal*; Organization**; Guidelines**; Recent changes**;
  • Christian publishing – Definition*; History***; Development and organization**; Conservative religious publishing in the United States**; Problems and prospects**;
  • Christian Science – Rise*; Teaching**; Healing**; Worship**;
  • Christians for Socialism – Founding**; Worldwide scope**; Agenda*;
  • Christmas – Date*; Multiple masses and Advent**; Derivative popular customs**;
  • Christological titles – Christological titles as a clue to early Christian faith*; Son of Man**; Other titles**; The One faith in Christ and Christological titles*;
    • Christological titles – Other titles – Christ (Messiah)**; Lord**; Son of God**; Logos*; Son of David*; End-time prophet*; Servant of the Lord, high priest, lamb**;
  • Christology – Overview**; Christology in the New Testament***; Christology in the history of dogma***; Christology in Orthodox theology**; Christology in Roman Catholic discussion**; Christology in the Third World**; Christology in dogmatics***;
    • Christology – Christology in the New Testament – The State of research*; Jesus**; The post-Easter community**; The Gospels**; Paul**; Summary**;
    • Christology – Christology in the history of dogma - “Classical Christology”**; Early church Christology**; Christology in the Latin Middle Ages**; Reformation Christology**; Post-Enlightenment Christology**;
      • Christology – Christology in the history of dogma - “Classical Christology” - Definition**; Self-enclosed nature**; In revelatory theology**;
      • Christology – Christology in the history of dogma – Early church Christology – Irenaeus and Origen**; Athanasius**; Apollinaris of Laodicea**; Eastern christology*;
      • Christology – Christology in the Latin Middle Ages – Dyophysitism and Leo I*; Hypostatic union**;
      • Christology – Reformation Christology – Acceptance of the first four councils*; Solus Cristus*; Lutheran and Reformed differentiation**; Luther's Unio hypostatica*;
      • Christology – Post-Enlightenment Christology – Crisis for classical Christology*; Schleiermacher's solution*; Hegel's solution**;
    • Christology – Christology in Roman Catholic discussion – Exegesis and dogmatics*; Tradition and interpretation**; Past and present**; Jesus and the church**;
    • Christology – Christology in the Third World – A Christus Victor Christology*; A Christology of the Passion**; A Christology of the cosmic Christ*; The Black Christ as liberator**;
    • Christology – Christology in dogmatics – Expectations of Christus praesens**; The Coming of Jesus**; Who is Jesus Christ?**; The Significance of Christ's coming**; Resurrection, cross, and incarnation as retrospective theological concepts**; The Tragic in the light of Christology*; Remaining tasks*;
  • Chronicles or Books of Chronicles – Text**; Purpose*; Era*;
  • Church – Subject, tasks, and problems of ecclesiology***; Historical aspects***; Theological aspects***; Sociological aspects**; The Church in transition***;
    • Church – Subject, tasks, and problems of ecclesiology – The Church of faith*; The Empirical church**; The Uniqueness of the phenomenon*; Tasks, problems, and framework of ecclesiology***;
      • Church – Tasks, problems, and framework of ecclesiology – Meaning, characeristics, function, location, and significance***;
        • Church – Tasks, problems, and framework of ecclesiology – Meaning, characteristics, function, location, and significance - Problems identifying the above***; Realistic ecclesiology**;
          • Church – Tasks, problems, and framework of ecclesiology – Meaning, characeristics, function, location, and significance - Problems identifying the above – Church of faith and church of the world*; Discrepancy between assertion of unity and universality and the reality of separate bodies*; Developing required insight of faith**; Internal disagreements of the church**; Church's inadequacy in society**;
    • Church – Historical aspects – New Testament**; Historical constructs and theories***;
      • Church – Historical aspects – New Testament – Term*; Jesus**; The Primitive community**; Paul**; Later writings**;
        • Church – Historical aspects – Later writings – Theme of church and Israel*; Question of preserving the church's identity*; Relationship between church and state and society**;
      • Church – Historical aspects – Historical constructs and theories – Early church structures*; Apostolic fathers**; The Gnostic crisis**; The Patristic golden age**; Augustine**; The Middle Ages**; The Reformation**; The Modern period**;
        • Church – Historical aspects – The Reformation – Martin Luther**; John Calvin*; Free church*;
    • Church – Theological aspects – Orthodox ecclesiology**; Roman Catholic ecclesiology**; Anglican ecclesiology**; Lutheran ecclesiology**; Reformed ecclesiology**; Free Church ecclesiology**;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Orthodox ecclesiology – Basic concept**; Marks of the church**;
        • Church – Theological aspects – Orthodox ecclesiology – Marks of the church – Unity*; Holiness*; Catholicity*; Apostolicity*;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Roman Catholic ecclesiology – Divine and human character**; Hierarchy and the people of God**; Symbolic and instrumental sacramentality**; Membership**; Church and the world*;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Anglican ecclesiology – Doctrinal basis**; Ecclesiology**; Organization**;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Lutheran ecclesiology – Basis**; Understanding of ministry**; Present situation**; Situation outside Germany**; The Ecumenical context*;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Reformed ecclesiology – Theological aspects**; Orienting data**; Form of the church**; Social significance**;
      • Church – Theological aspects – Free Church ecclesiology – Concept and historical presuppositions**; Characteristics**;
        • Church – Theological aspects – Free Church ecclesiology – Characteristics – Discipleship*; Primary of scripture over tradition*; Desire to restore the church as a community of saints*; Priesthood of all believers*; Separation from the world and service to the world*;
    • Church – Sociological aspects – Concept**; Tasks and problems**;
    • Church – The Church in transition – The Present-day phenomenon**; Ecclesiological problems*; Situation as an ecclesiologically relevant context**; Implications and consequences**; Concept, value, form, and function of the church**;
      • Church – The Church in transition – Implications and consequences – Change is normal**; Attempt to deny change*; Implications of fundamental variability**;
        • Church – The Church in transition – Implications and consequences – Implications of fundamental variability – Particularity*; Confessionality*; Contextuality*; Plurality*;
      • Church – Concept, value, form, and function of the church – Multidimensionality of the term “church”*; Content as the wealth of the church*; Changability of the concrete form of the church**; Success based on concept that offers a realistic and feasible solution*;
  • Church and state – Legal aspects**; Theological aspects***;
    • Church and state – Legal aspects – Historical development**; Present situation**; Basic positions**;
      • Church and state – Legal aspects – Present situation – Hostile separation**; Separation**; Establishment**; Intermediate separation**;
    • Church and state – Theological aspects – The Problem**; Biblical basis**; Roman Catholic Church**; Reformation churches**; Ecumenical movement**; Greek and Russian Orthodoxy*;
  • Church architecture – Term**; Beginnings and development in late antiquity**; Middle Ages in the West**; Renaissance, Reformation, mannerisms, Baroque**; Modern times**;
  • Church conference centers – Origin and development of the concept**; Work and importance*; Worldwide scope**;
    • Church conference centers – Origin and development of the concept – Helmut Thielicke*; In Roman Catholicism*; Ecumenism*;
  • Church discipline – History**; Germany**; United States**; Church of England**;
    • Church discipline – Church of England – Offenses involving doctine and worship**; Other offenses*; Process of investigation*; Court of Ecclesiastical Causes Reviewed & Commission of Review*; Nature and forms of imposed discipline**;
  • Church employees – Germany**; England**; United States**;
    • Church employees – Germany – Conceptual co-workers*; Nature of employment**; Types of employment*; Rights of representation*;
    • Church employees – England – Clergy as self-employed persons*; Licensed to hold office*; Clergy employed by third parties*;
    • Church employees – United States – Title VII*; Applicability of wrongful termination*; Emplyment tax*;
  • Church fathers – Definition**; Historical development of the concept**; Patristics**; Historical survey**;
    • Church fathers – Historical survey – Greeek and Alexandrian fathers**; Latin fathers*; Syriac fathers*;
  • Church finances – Germany**; International**;
    • Church finances – International – Voluntary contributions*; Mandatory contributions*; Church taxes*; Endowments and state subsidies*; Influence of societal development*;
  • Church government – Early church tendencies**; Church history**; Roman Catholic Church**; Orthodox Church**; Other Christian churches**;
    • Church government – Early church tendencies – Two fundamental convictions**; Various early forms**;
      • Church government – Early church tendencies – Two fundamental convictions – Subsidiary nature of human involvement to God*; Importance of rendering of service*;
      • Church government – Various early forms – Itinerant charismatics*; Model of the Jerusalem church**; Paul and the local church**; Johannine literature as supralocal group of disciples*;
    • Church government – Church history – Bishop, Presbyter, and Deacon & Rise of the bishop*; Papal power*; Impact of Luther**; Impact of Zwingli and Calvin*; 19th century Germany*;
    • Church government – Roman Catholic Church – Apostolic succession, the papacy, and the Corpus Iuris Canonici**; 1983 Corpus Iuris Conanici*; Three forms of law**; Supporting bodies*;
      • Church government – Roman Catholic Church – Three forms of law – Office of teaching*; Office of sanctifying*; Office of rule*;
    • Church government – Other Christian churches – Western and Central Europe**; Scandinavia**; Anglican Communion**; United States and the Third World**;
  • Church growth – Overview**; Germany**; Third World churches**; Minority churches in Europe**; United States**; Church growth movement**;
    • Church growth – Germany – People's Church or Volkekirche**; Free Churches**;
    • Church growth – Third World churches – Challenges**; Recent growth**;
      • Church growth – Third World churches – Challenges – Lack of cultural continuity*; Alien social and leadership structures*; Extreme economic diversity*;
    • Church growth – Minority churches in Europe – Lutheran and Reformed**; Orthodox**;
    • Church growth – United States – Socioreligious context**; Evangelism and discipleship**;
  • Church in a socialist society – Issues**; The Example of East Germany**; Evaluation**;
    • Church in a socialist society – Issues – Church role in national identity and emancipation*; Church's role in activism*; Changes in socialism's self-identification*; Refutation of the Marxist withering away of religion*; Role in Eastern bloc perestroika*;
  • Church law – Term*; History**; Basis and standards**; Subject matter**; Sources and forms**; Legislation**;
    • Church law – History – Before the Middle Ages**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Modern times**;
    • Church law – Subject matter – Protestant**; Roman Catholic*; Orthodox*;
    • Church law – Legislation – Problem*; History**; Roman Catholic**; Orthodox**;
  • Church membership – Protestant and Roman Catholic**; Orthodox**; Free Churches**; United States**; The Withdrawl of church members**;
    • Church membership – Protestant and Roman Catholic – Protestant**; Roman Catholic**; Changed model with varied roles and levels of membership*;
  • Church music – Perspective*; History***; Recent developments**;
    • Church music – History – Early church*; After Constantine**; The East**; Gregorian reform in the West**; The Reformation**; 18th century*; 19th century**;
      • Church music – History – The Reformation – Roman Catholic**; Lutheran**; Calvinist**; Zwingli*;
  • Church of Scientology – Origins*; Basic principles**; Political and economic aspects, institutions*; Organization*; Evaluation*;
  • Church of South India – Early history**; Confessional basis*; Development**; Organization*; Worship, church law, institutions**; Ecumenical relations*; Self-understanding and problems**;
  • Church of the Nazarene – Summary*; Doctrine**; Development**; Present tendencies*;
  • Church orders – Early church**; Reformation and after**;
    • Church orders – Reformation and after – Terminology*; Commissioning*; Influence**; Content*; Later influence**;
  • Church registers – Definition*; History**;
  • Church struggle – Term*; Background of the conflict**; The Protestant church struggle**; The Role of the Roman Catholic Church**; Connections with the ecumenical movement**; Aftereffects**; Evaluation*;
  • Church year – Term**; Types***; Liturgical aspects**; Development**; Problems and opportunities**;
    • Church year – Types – Orthodox**; Roman Catholic**; Lutheran**; Anglican**; Reformed**;
      • Church year – Types – Lutheran – Germany**; Scandinavia*; United States*;
      • Church year – Types – Anglican – United States*; England**;
    • Church year – Development – Basic structure*; Specific holidays**;
  • Cistercians – Rise*; Development**; The Rule*; Constitution*; Liturgy*; Spirituality*; Arts*; Economy*; Habit*; Cistercians today**;
  • City – Biblical aspects**; Sociological aspects**; Theological aspects**;
    • City – Biblical aspects – General*; Negative**; Positive**;
    • City – Sociological aspects – Definition*; Reasons for development**; Phases in development**; Further development*;
      • City – Phases in development – Antiquity*; Middle Ages*; Age of absolution & loss of autonomy*; Industrialization*; 20th century*;
    • City – Theological aspects – Church reactions**; Problems**; Tasks**;
  • Civil law and the church – Europe**; United States**;
    • Civil law and the church – United States – Church discipline**; Confession and counseling*; Religious education and proselytizing*;
  • Civil religion – Definition**; Historical development**; Evolution of American civil religion**; Civil religion in other Western countries**; Civil religion outside Europe and North America**; Criticism**;
  • Civil rights movement – Background and rise**; High point and denouement**;
  • Classicism – The Term**; Weimar Classicism**; Absolutizing art**; The Significance of antiquity*; Religiosity in classicism**; Classicism in the history of music*; Classicism in the plastic arts**;
  • Clergy and laity – Historical data**; Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican views**; Reformation understanding**; New ideas**;
    • Clergy and laity – Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican views – Roman Catholic views**; Orthodox views**; Anglican views*;
  • Cluny, Order of or Order of Cluny – Origin*; Reason for formation**; Rise of the order**; Buildings at Cluny*; Decline*;
  • Codex Iuris Canonici – Early history**; Contents**; Relation to non-Catholics**; Ecumenical significance**;
  • Cognition – Cognition as process**; Cognition as content**;
  • Colombia – General situation**; Religious situation***;
    • Colombia – Religious situation – Indo-American religions*; Christian churches**; Non-Christian groups**; Interdenominational and ecumenical organizations*; Relations between state and church*;
      • Colombia – Religious situation – Christian churches – Roman Catholicism**; Protestant churches**;
  • Colonialism – Definition*; European expansion***; Theories of imperialism**; Neocolonialism and domestic colonialism**;
    • Colonialism – European expansion – The Antecedents of European expansion**; The Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires until 1600**; The Dutch, English, and French colonial empires until 1818**; Imperialism under the guise of free trade, 1815-1881**; The Period of new imperialism, 1881-1945**; Decolonialization after 1945**;
  • Colonialism and mission – Methodology*; Early colonial period**; Modern colonial imperialism**; Postcolonial era*;
    • Colonialism and mission – Modern colonial imperialism – Process of colonial imperialism**; Mission's benefit from colonialism**; Missions' objection to colonialism**;
  • Colossians or Epistle to the Colossians – Occasion and contents**; Authorship**; Features**;
  • Commission of the Churches on International Affairs – Origins and objectives*; Procedure**; Ongoing issues*;
  • Communication – Term*; Forms**; Theories**; The Church*; Practical theology**; Ethics**;
  • Communities, spiritual or Spiritual communities – Developments in Protestantism**; Forms and features**;
    • Communities, spiritual or Spiritiaul communities – Developments in Protestantism – Reformation inhibition of development of Protestant religious orders*; 19th century development of new communities of deacons and deaconesses*; Post World War I spiritual communities**; Post World War II Protestant religious communities**; Continuing importance of older communities*;
    • Communities, spiritual or Spiritual communities – Commonalities of monastic and external communities*; Commonality of Eucharist, hours, and rule*; Pietist and denominational communities*; Ecumenical attitude*; Self-conscious church movements*; Place of spiritual communities in the church*;
  • Community service – Development**; The Church and community service*;
  • Comoros – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Compromise – Concept*; Meaning**; Techniques*; Readiness for compromise*; Limits*;
  • Conciliarity – Term*; Conciliar fellowship**; Call for social involvement*;
  • Concordat – Term*; History**; Assessment*;
    • Concordat – History – Before World War II**; After World War II**;
  • Conference of European Churches – Rise**; Members and activities**; Organization*;
  • Confessing Church – Origins**; First and Second synods**; Augsburg and Bad Oenynhausen synods**; Decline**; Lay support*; Post World War II**;
  • Confession of faith – The Nature and task of confession**; Confession and eschatology**; Confession and unity**; The Public nature of confession**; The Ecumenicity of confession**;
  • Confession of sins – Biblical background**; Present-day practice**; Pastoral implications**;
    • Confession of sins – Biblical background – Old Testament*; New Testament*; Postbiblical history*;
    • Confession of sins – Present-day practice – Post Vatican II Roman Catholicism*; Orthodox Church*; Anglican and Lutheran churches*; Reformed*; Independent*;
    • Confession of sins – Pastoral implications – Change of emphasis in private confession churches*; Impact of psychology*; Incorporation of some psychotherapy*; Sociopsychological perspective**; Assessment*;
  • Confessions and creeds – Confessions as statements of faith**; Lutheran confessions**; Reformed confessions***;
    • Confessions and creeds – Reformed confessions – Zwingli's Theses**; First Helvetic Confession**; After 1675**; Karl Barth**;
  • Confirmation – Baptism and confirmation**; Origin and historical development**; 20th century discussion**; Ecumenical aspects**;
    • Confirmation – Origin and historical development – Early stages*; The Reformation**; Further development**;
    • Confirmation - 20th century discussion – Service**; Instruction**; Present situation**;
  • Conflict – Psychological theories**; Anthropology**; Sociology**; Conflict and the church*;
  • Congo (Brazzaville) or Republic of Congo – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Congregation – New Testament**; Practical theology***; Sociology**; Systematic theology**;
    • Congregation – New Testament – Term*; Beginnings*; Paul**;
    • Congregation – Practical theology – Terms**; Structure and organization**; Principles of work**; Plural form**; Unity**;
      • Congregation – Practical theology – Principles of work – Martyria**; Diakonia**; Koinonia**;
    • Congregation – Systematic theology – Biblical foundations**; Historical development**; Ecumenical multiplicity**; Theological criteria**;
  • Congregationalism – Polity**; History**;
  • Conscience – In philosophy**; In theology***;
    • Conscience – In philosophy – Definition and terminology*; Conscience in the history of philosophy**; Conscience in modern discussion**;
      • Conscience – In philosophy – Conscience in modern discussion – Psychology*; Hegel*; Autonomy of conscience*;
    • Conscience – In theology – Ambivalence**; Contingency**; Freedom**; Individuality and sociality**; Political responsibility**;
  • Conscientious objection – Term*; Law**; History**; Pastoral care*; Organization*;
  • Consecration – Term*; In the Bible*; Roman Catholic Church**; Orthodox church*; Anblican Communion*; Reformation priesthood of all believers*; Free Churches*;
  • Consensus – Term**; In Christian tradition**; Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant views**; In ecumenical dialogue**;
  • Conservatism – Secular usage***; Christian usage**;
    • Conservatism – Secular usage – Definitions**; Political conservatism**; New trends**; Neoconservatism**;
      • Conservatism – Secular usage – Political conservatism – Right of center**; Rise at the end of the 18th century**; Conservative values**; Conservatism in Germany**; Conservatism in western and southern Europe*;
        • Conservatism – Secular usage – Political conservatism – Conservatism in Germany – Transition to nationalism*; Post World War II changes*;
      • Conservatism – Secular usage- Neoconservatism – Term**; Authors**;
    • Conservatism – Christian usage – Religious neoconservatism**; Neoconservatism in Roman Catholicism**; Neoconservatism in Protestantism**;
  • Constitution – Technical way of publishing church legislation*; Legal act of establishing a church*;
  • Consumption – Definition**; An individual decision**; As social phenomenon**; Education and policy**; Goals and forms of restraint**;
    • Consumption – Definition – In economic theory*; Use of goods and services to meet human needs*;
    • Consumption – An individual decision – Common need to meet recurrent needs*; Economics and decisions*;
    • Consumption – As social phenomonon – Increased production and change of the role of households*; As an index to the orientation and content of human life*;
    • Consumption – Education and policy – Education*; Legal policy*;
    • Consumption – Goals and forms of restraint – Ethic of consumer restraint*; Forms of restraint*;
  • Contemplation – Terms**; Aspects**; Classic authors*; Related concepts**;
    • Contemplation – Aspects – Buber's roots of contemplative experience*; Transcending of the self*; Need of divine assistance to transcend in Christian tradition*; Immanence of experience*; Essential connection with action*; Phenomenologically visible aspect of Christian contemplation*;
  • Contextual theology – Term**; Development**; Theological self-understanding**; Essential criterion**;
  • Continuing education – Term**; Description**; In the churches**;
    • Continuing education – Description – Spread*; Tasks and goals**; Structure and organization*; Pedagogy**;
    • Continuing education – In the churches – Historical roots*; Present-day state**; Problems**;
  • Conversion – Conversion to Christian faith**; Conversion as denominational change***;
    • Conversion – Conversion to Christian faith – Conversion, mission, and evangelism**; Biblical, ecclesiastical, and theological aspects**; Contextual factors**;
      • Conversion – Conversion to Christian faith – Biblical, ecclesiastical, and theological aspects - As part of the Biblical message**; In the church fathers**; Theological aspects*;
      • Conversion – Conversion to Christian faith – Contextual factors – Common in young people*; Sociocultural factors*; Political implications**;
    • Conversion – Conversion as denominational change – The Ecumenical problem**; In practice**; Motives**; Evaluation**;
  • Coptic Orthodox Church – Term*; History**; 1968 on**;
  • Corinthians, Epistles to the or Epistles to the Corinthians – Significance*; History of the Corinthian church**; Literary data*; First Corinthians**; Second Corinthians**; Edition and redaction*;
  • Corpus Iuris Canonici – Contents**; The Roman Edition (1582) and later editions*; Significance**;
    • Corpus Iuris Canonici – Contents – Decretum Gratiani**; Liber Extra**; Liber Sextus**; The Clementines**; The Extravagantes of John XXIII**; The Extravagantes Communes**;
  • Corruption – Term**; In non-Christian religions**; In the Bible**; Significance*;
    • Corruption – In non-Christian religions – Hinduism*; Buddhism*; Islam*; In China*; In ancient Egypt*;
    • Corruption – In the Bible – Old Testament**; New Testament*;
  • Costa Rica – The Country and its history**; The Roman Catholic Church**; Protestantism**; Non-Christian religions*;
  • Councils of the church – Term**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Modern period**; Roman Catholic Church law**; Orthodox Church**; Protestantism**; Ecumenical movement**; List of ecumenical councils**;
    • Councils of the church – List of ecumenical councils – List of unanimously accepted councils*; List of additional councils accepted by the Roman Catholic Church*;
  • Counseling – Definition*; Counseling versus therapy**; Methods**; Biblical perspectives*; Trends in the United States**;
  • Counseling centers, Christian or Christian counseling centers – Definition*; Europe**; United States and Canada**; Latin America*; Asia and Africa**;
  • Counterculture – Term**; Historical origin and development**; Spiritual dimensions**; Decline and encuring significance**;
  • Covenant – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Dogmatic aspects**;
    • Convenant – Old Testament – Translation and usage**; Formula**; Development of the theological concept**; Post-Old Testament usage*;
      • Covenant – Old Testament – Development of the theological concept – God's self-commitment**; Israel's commitment**; Range of the concept**;
    • Covenant – New Testament – Terms, usage, and translation**;
      • Covenant – New Testament – Terms, usage, and translation - The Eucharistic tradition**; Paul**; Hebrews**; Luke, Ephesians, Revelation**;
    • Covenant – Dogmatic aspects – In the federal theology of the 16th and 17th centuries**; Modern discussion**;
      • Covenant – Dogmatic aspects – In the federal theology of the 16th and 17th centuries – Covenant as alliance with God**; Covenant of works and covenant of nature**; Cocceius**;
  • Creation – In the history of religion***; Old Testament**; New Testament**; Systematic theology and ethics***;
    • Creation – In the history of religion – Perspectives on creation*; Creation in Middle Eastern religions**; Worldwide themes**;
      • Creation – In the history of religion – Creation in Middle Eastern religions – Israel and Mesopotamia**; Egyptian parallels**;
      • Creation – In the history of religion – Worldwide themes – Simplicity to multiplicity**; The Almighty and his rivals**; Admixture and separatism**;
    • Creation – Old Testament – Israelite explanations of the universe**; The Literary traditions**; Israel's neighbours**; Theological themes**;
      • Creation – Old Testament – Israelite explanations of the universe – Yahweh's struggle with chaos*; Sexual view of creation*; Verbal creation*;
      • Creation – Old Testament – The Literary traditions – Priestly*; Yahwistic*; Other*;
      • Creation – Old Testament – Israel's neighbors – Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamian views of creation*; Other linkages*;
      • Creation – Old Testament – Theological themes – The Nature of creation**; The People of God**;
    • Creation – New Testament – Introduction*; Christology and creation*; Eschatology and creation**; Later themes*; Ethical implications**;
      • Creation – New Testament – Eschatology and creation – Jesus*; Paul**; Revelation*; Early missionary preaching*;
    • Creation – Systematic theology and ethics – Understanding of “creation”*; Creation in church doctrine**; Present concepts**; Biblical issues**; Ethical perspectives**;
      • Creation – Systematic theology and ethics – Creation in church doctrine – God as creator**; Creation out of nothing*; The Elements of God's creation**; God's relation with his creation**;
      • Creation – Systematic theology and ethics – Present concepts - “Nature” and “world” as abstract terms*; Nexus as events, not substances*; Counterindication of insertion of theory of evolution*;
      • Creation – Biblical issues – Framework of interpretation*; Lack of success of atempting an ontological framework*; Statements and attitude of Jesus*; God as differentiated from heaven and earth*; Creator cannot be equated with his creation*;
      • Creation – Ethical perspectives – Theology of creation ordinances*; Charges of anthropocentricity*; Danger of asserting human cocreativity*; Nature of ethics of creation*; “Peace” or “reconciliation with nature” as inherently figurative expressions*;
  • Creativity – Definition**; The Humanities**; Theological discussion and church practice**;
    • Creativity- The Humanities – Anthropology*; Psychology*;
    • Creativity – Theological discussion and church practice – Theology and modern research*; Changes to central conceptions of theological anthropology**; Practical expression**;
  • Crisis cult – Term**; Recent examples*; Christianity as a crisis cult**; Earlier history*;
  • Crisis intervention – Term*; Causes of crises*; Response*; Aims of crisis intervention**; Stages*;
  • Critical theory – History**; Development**; Critical theory and theology*; International reception of critical theory*;
    • Critical theory – Development – Main motifs**; The Middle phase of critical theory**; Second generation**;
  • Criticism – Term*; Early history**; Kant and Hegel**; The 19th century**; The Critical faculty**;
  • Cross – General**; Presuppositions**; Forms**; Methodology**; Depictions**;
    • Cross – Presuppositions – Biblical**; Sitz im leben**;
    • Cross – Depictions – Early church**; Early and high Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Modern period*;
  • Crusades – Background*; Cause and progression**; Perspectives**; Evaluation**;
    • Crusades – Cause and progression – Peter the Hermit**; 1101 wave*; 1187-1197**; 1198*; 1213 on**;
  • Crypto-Calvinism – Term*; History**; Aftermath*;
  • Cuba – Geography**; Population*; Mission and historical development**; Churches and religions**; Revolution and its consequences**;
  • Cultic meal – Religious character*; Social character*; Participation of the deity in some cases**; Other, strictly human, cases**; Union with the divine in the sacramental meal**;
  • Cultic purity – Nataure*; Sex and death as causes of impurity*; Distinction between cathartic and prophylactic rites*; Application to ministers and occasionally participants*; Possible requirement of special lifestyle**;
  • Culture – Term**; Philosophy**; Morphology of culture**; Culture and anthropology**; Culture and sociology**;
  • Culture and Christianity – Problem**; Concept**; Ecumenical debate**; Perspectives**;
    • Culture and Christianity – Concept – The Plurarlity of culture**; The Multiformity of Christianity**;
    • Culture and Christianity – Ecumenical debate – Relations between culture and Christianity**; The Reformation and world missionary movement**; Roman Catholic views**; Ecumenical statements**;
    • Culture and Christianity – Perspectives - “Culture” in positive light**; The Relativization of Western culture**; Theological moorings**;
      • Culture and Christianity – Perspectives – Theological moorings – Ecumenical and multicultural or intercultural Christianity only possible future form*; Sole criteria will be the confesion of Jesus Christ*;
  • Culture Protestantism – Term**; In history and in society**; Criticism**; Culture Protetantism and Christian freedom**;
  • Curia – Papal curia***; Episcopal curia*;
    • Curia – Papal curia – History**; In church law***;
      • Curia – Papal curia – In church law – Secretariat of State**; Congregations**; Tribunals**; Councils**; Offices**; Other**;
  • Curse – As word of power*; Original formula of curses*; In the Old Testament*; In Christianity*;
  • Custom – Custom as a religious phenomenon**; Religious and ecclesiastical custom**; Functions**; Development**; Change**; Forms**; Perspectives and tasks**;
  • Cynicism – Greek cynics**; Christian interest in cynics*; Compromise between lofty claims and failure to achieve them**; Distinction between previous term and real cynicism*; As a test of truth by the amount of mockery it can bear*;
  • Cyprus – Paleolithic and Neolithic history*; Religious traditions*; In the Crusades*; 1878-1989*; Republic of Cyprus*; Statistics*;
  • Cyril of Alexandria – Life**; Writings**;
  • Czech Republic – Historical survey**; Religious groups**; Interchurch relations**; Theological education*; Church and state**;
    • Czech Republic – Religious groups – Roman Catholic Church*; Old Catholic Church*; Orthodox Church*; Hussite Church*; Protestants**; Others*;

D[edit]

  • Dance – History of religion**; Scripture**; Church**; Liturgy*;
    • Dance – History of religion – Classical period*; Eastern religions*;
    • Dance – Church – Dance in Church history**; Dance in missionary settings**; Current use**;
  • Daniel or Book of Daniel – History**; Doctrine of the four world empires**; Traditions beneath apocalyptic statements**; Influence**;
  • David – Historical traditions**; Timing of David*; Significance**; History of the Davidic kingdom*; Royal ideology*; In the New Testament*;
    • David - Historical traditions – In the Deuteronomic history*; Composite nature*; Story of succession*;
  • Deacon or Deaconess – Definition**; Forms**; Ecumenical situation**;
    • Deacon or Deaconess – Definition - Those named deacons**; Deacons under other names*;
    • Deacon or Deaconess – Forms – Liturgical-sacramental**; Social service**; Combined forms*;
      • Deacon or Deaconess – Forms – Social service – Civil service pattern*; Institutional-clerical pattern**; Local congregational “lay” pattern**;
    • Deacon or Deaconess – Ecumenical situation – Developments**; Challenges**;
  • Dead, cult of the or Cult of the dead – Death; Archaeology of burials*; Nature of the grave*; Funerals**; Afterlife**; Soul*; Burial accompaniments*; Prevention of the return of the dead*;
  • Death – State of the problem*; Biblical data**; Philosophical aspects**; Theological aspects**;
    • Death – Biblical data – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • Death penalty – Biblical data**; In theology and church history**; Ethical reflections**;
    • Death penalty – Biblical data – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Death penalty – In theology and church history – Early opposition to the death penalty*; Middle Ages opposition to the death penalty**; Reformers*; Enlightenment**;
    • Death penalty – Ethical reflections – Death penalty not rehabilitative*; Nonrecidivism argument neither ethical nor logical*; As a general deterrent*; To enforce moral order*; Punishment as retribution*;
  • Decalogue – Old Testament use of the term*; Differences**; Not a unity*; Theological commandments precede ethical commandments*; From what period?**; Consistent with the whole Old Testament*;
  • Democracy – Term and history**; Concepts and problems**; Democracy and Christianity**;
    • Democracy – Concepts and problems – Modern problems**; The Concept of substantive democracy**; The Concept of formal democracy**; Democratization**;
  • Denmark – The Evangelical Lutheran Church or Folkekirke***; Other Churches and Communions**;
    • Denmark – The Evangelical Lutheran Church or Folkekirke – The Lutheran Church, 1536-1849**; The Folkekirke after 1849**;
      • Denmark – The Evangelical Lutheran Church or Folkekirke – The Folkekirke after 1849 – Organization and finances**; Church and state*; Theological basis**; Church practice**; Ecumenical relations*;
  • Denomination – Terminology**; Churches and the various confessions and denominations**; The Denominational problem**; Confessionalism and Denominationalism**; Recent discussion**; Sociological perspectives**;
    • Denomination – Churches and the various confessions and denominations – In Church history generally**; Since the 16th century**;
    • Denomination – The Denominational problem – The Ecumenical problem**; Present situation**; Reformulation**;
    • Denomination – Confessionalism and Denominationalism – Concepts**; In Church history**; Rise and structure**; Limitation as stigma**;
      • Denomination – Confessionalism and Denominationalism – Rise and structure – Presuppositions**; Need of a comprehensive doctrinal structure**;
    • Denomination – Recent discussion – Denominational identity**; Confessionality**;
  • Dependence – Term**; Theories of dependence**; Strategies to overcome dependence**; Dependence in the context of the church**;
    • Dependence – Theories of dependence – Historical and theoretical context**; Explanatory force and limits**;
  • Depression – Definition**; Symptoms and cause**; Causes and classification**; Therapy**; Depression and faith**;
  • Depth-psychological exegesis – Term*; In Biblical scholarship**; Points of exegesis**; In Germany and France*;
    • Depth-psychological exegesis – In Biblical scholarship – Historical-critical mode*; Therapeutic and psychoanalytic exegesis*; Applicative exegesis**;
    • Depth-psychological exegesis – Points of exegesis – Directs attention to unconscious dimensions of biblical statements*; What understandings can be drawn?*;
  • Despair – In psychology**; Situational neurosis**; In theology and philosophy**;
    • Despair – In theology and philosophy – Biblical usage*; Scholastic philosophy*; Reformation view**; Stollberg's modern view*; In Kierkegaard*;
  • Deuteronomistic history – History in Genesis through Kings**; Author of the history**;
  • Deuteronomy or Book of Deuteronomy – Name*; Form*; Contents**; Date**;
  • Development – Socioeconomic development***; Psychological development**; Religious development**;
    • Development – Socioeconomic development - Theory**; Underdevelopment and developing countries**; Strategies**; Aid**;
    • Development – Psychological development – Individual psychology*; Analytic psychology*; Humanistic psychology*; Transcendental and esoteric psychologies*; Psychological counseling*;
  • Development education – History*; Concepts and methods**;
    • Development education – Concepts and methods – Developing an awareness among the rich**; Attempting to liberate the disadvantaged**;
  • Devil – Concept**; Early forms in Judaism**; Development**; Relation to faith*; Roman Catholic exorcism*; Satanism in literature and Satanic groups*;
    • Devil – Concept – Late arrival in the history of religion*; Speculation regarding accumulation of negative features*; Relationship to gods of opposition in ancient cultures*;
    • Devil – Early forms in Judaism – Devil as “adversary”*; Personifications of uselessness and destruction*; New Testament*;
    • Devil – Developments – Early Christianity**; Islam*; Early modern age**;
  • Devotional literature – Term**; History***; Moravian daily Texts**;
    • Devotional literature – Term – Early mention in Pietism*; Idea of a goal and pursuit of it*; Forms of devotional literature*; Can only be defined functionally*;
    • Devotional literature – History – Early church and Middle Ages**; Luther and the Post-Reformation period**; Baroque and Pietism**; Enlightenment and revival**;
  • Diakonia – Theological basis**; Forms and agents**; Church and state**; Historical development and ecclesiological significance; Reformation;
    • Diakonia – Forms and agents – Institutions*; Homes*; Aid for seniors*; Child care*; Congregational diakonia*; Counseling*; Group care*; Ecumenical diakonia**; International cooperation*;
    • Diakonia – Church and state – Integration of church and state programs**; United States model**; Former socialist countries*; Third World*;
    • Diakonia – Historical development and ecclesiological significance – The Early church and Orthodox Christendom**; Middle Ages and Roman Catholic developments**; Reformation**;
  • Dialectic – Etymology and history**; Systematics**;
    • Dialectic – Etymology and history – Greece to Middle Ages*; Doctrine of invention of new arguments*; In Marxism**; Marxist-Leninist philosophy**; Process philosophy of Whitehead*; Kierkegaard*;
    • Dialectic – Systematics – Dialectic of absolutes or Platonic dialectic*; Dialectic of polarity*; Dialectic of synthesis*;
  • Dialectical theology – The Phrase**; Tasks**; Further development and result**;
    • Dialectical theology – The Phrase – Purpose**; Dialectical theology and philosophical dialectic*; Dialectical theology as Dialectical speech about God and humanity*;
    • Dialectical theology – Tasks – Proclamation as a basis*; Tradition**; Philosophy of science*;
    • Dialectical theology – Further development and result – Bultmann, Gogarten, and Barth**; Impact**; Results*;
      • Dialectical theology – Further development and result – Impact – In Germany*; In the church at large**;
  • Dialogue – Philosophy**; Ecumenical context**;
    • Dialogue – Ecumenical context – Term**; Dialogue between denominations and religions**; Subjects and results**;
      • Dialogue – Ecumenical context – Dialogue between denominations and religions – Modern times*; Differences between interdenominational and interreligious dialogue**; Goal of interreligious dialogue*;
      • Dialogue – Subjects and results – Can lead to consensus*; Can lead to recognizing an open question*; Dialogic theology*;
  • Diaspora – Term**; Diaspora and ecumenism**;
    • Diaspora – Term – Biblical view**; Reformation view*; Late 20th century*; Imprecision of term in modern Protestantism*; In the Roman Catholic Church*;
    • Diaspora – Diaspora and ecumenism – Comparing small and large diaspora churches*; Partner churches*; Diaspora relief*; Relation between diaspora and mission*; Legal aspects of diaspora*; Diaspora as an opportunity for learning*;
  • Didactics – Term*; Structure**;
  • Disarmament and armament – Political aspects**; Theological and ethical aspects***;
    • Disarmament and armament – Theological and ethical aspects – In church discussions**; In secular discussions**;
      • Disarmament and armament – Theological and ethical aspects – In church discussions – Church views**; Post World War II views**; Through the 1960s**; Post Vatican II**; Fifth Assembly of the World Council of Churches*; Late 1970s**;
      • Disarmament and armament – In secular discussions – 1989 UN General Assembly resolution 44/116J**; Failure of earlier models and Kant's proposal*; Disarmament alone not enough*;
  • Disciple – Old Testament and John the Baptist**; Jesus**;
  • Discipleship – New Testament**; Systematic theology**;
    • Discipleship – New Testament – Term*; Jesus*; New Testament**;
      • Discipleship – New Testament – New Testament – Mark*; Matthew*; Luke*; John*; Revelation*;
    • Discipleship – Systematic theology – To the Reformation**; Reformation**; Post Reformation**; 19th century on**; Ecumenical movement*; Protestant view*;
  • Dispensationalism – J. N. Darby**; American dispensationalism**; Revised dispensationalism**; Progressive dispensationalism**;
  • Dissenters – Term and groups**; Legacy and later history**;
  • Distance education – Meaning**; Types of organizations involved*; Remedial function*; And the churches**;
    • Distance education – Meaning – Common factors*; Methods tried*; As directed self-study**; In the era of information technology**;
  • Divination – Term**; Social practice**; Motifs, needs, functions**; Biblical assessment*;
    • Divination – Social practice – Oracles**; Diviners**; Social setting**; Belief system*;
      • Divination – Social practice – Social setting – Private individuals*; Cultic personnel*; Legal divination*; Court or state divination*;
  • Dogma – History of the term**; Material sense**; Confessional forms**; Ecumenical focus**; Specifically Christian?*; Critical evaluation**;
    • Dogma – Confessional forms – Early church**; Orthodox*; Catholic**; Protestant and Anglican**;
  • Dogmatics – Concept**; History**; Current Protestant dogmatics***; Roman Catholic**; Eastern Orthodox**; Anglican**; Contemporary themes and tasks**;
    • Dogmatics – History – Reformation and older Protestantism**; Neo-Protestantism**; The New

Era**;

    • Dogmatics – Current Protestant dogmatics – Germany**; Holland*; Scotland*; Scandinavia**; England*; North America**; Latin American liberation theology**;
      • Dogmatics – Current Protestant dogmatics – Germany – Nature**; Basic problem**;
  • Dogmatism – Philosophy**; Theology**;
  • Dominican Republic – Colonial history**; Roman Catholic Church**; Protetantism**; Ecumenicism**; Other religions*;
  • Dominicans – Foundation**; Later history**; Associated groups**;
    • Dominicans – Foundation - Characteristics**;
      • Dominicans – Foundation - Characteristics – Accepted a lack of communal property*; Set up a corporate society that was not tied to any particular place*; Combined pastoral work and study*;
  • Donatists – Origin*; History**; Decline*;
  • Doubt – Philosophical aspects**; Theological aspects**;
    • Doubt – Philosophical aspects – Everyday definition*; Philosophical definition*; 16th and 17th centuries**; Bacon, Galileo, and Descartes**; Modern science*; Wittgenstein*;
  • Doxology – As an address of praise**; Broader usage*;
  • Dream – Biblical data**; Origin and psychological meaning**; Religious functions and theological relevance**;
    • Dream – Biblical data – Old Testament**; New Testament*;
    • Dream – Origin and psychological meaning – In history**; Modern dream research**;
  • Dutch missions – History and current situation**; The Missionary task**;
    • Dutch missions – History and current situation – Early history**; 19th century on**; Late 20th century**:
  • Duty – Common definition*; Concept in ethics**; Duty in Kant**; 19th and early 20th century views*; In 20th century theological ethics*;
  • Dying, Aid for the or Aid for the dying – Concept**; Aid**; Assisted suicide**;
    • Dying, Aid for the or Aid for the dying – Aid – The Hospice movement*; Withholding of life-sustaining treatment**;

E[edit]

  • Early Catholicism – Modern use of term*; 19th and 20th century use of the term**; Present debate**;
  • Early church – Term**; Historical survey**;
    • Early church – Historical survey – Christian congregations**; Catholic Church**; Later imperial church**;
  • Easter – Term**; Relation to Passover**; Forms of observance**; Debate over the date**;
  • Ecclesiastes or Book of Ecclesiastes – Name*; Origin*; Structure*; Content**;
  • Ecology – Term*; Modern issues**; Church positions**;
  • Economic ethics – Ethics, the economy, and the corporation***; Earlier Christian approaches to economic ethics***; 20th-century economic ethics and Christianity***; Economic ethics entering the 21st-century**;
    • Economic ethics – Ethics, the economy, and the corporation – Biblical and Greek roots**; Oikos and Polis**; The Corporation**;
    • Economic ethics – Earlier Christian approaches to economic ethics – The Early tradition**; Reformation and scholasticism**; The Enlightenment**;
    • Economic ethics – 20th-century economic ethics and Christianity – Max Weber**; The Social gospel and Christian realism**; The Roman Catholic Church**; The World Council of Churches**; Other perspectives**;
    • Economic ethics – Economic ethics entering the 21st-century – Globalization**; Questions and issues**;
  • Economy – Definition**; Historical forms**; Present-day forms**; North and south problems**; The State and economy**;
    • Economy – Historical forms – Early ideas**; Marxist ideas**;
      • Economy – Historical forms – Marxist ideas – Primitive society*; Slavery*; Feudalism*; Capitalism*; Socialism*;
    • Economy – Present-day forms – Centrally planned economy and market economy**; Neoliberalism and Ordoliberalism**; Regulative principles in market economies**; Self-evolution*; Third World*;
  • Economy (Orthodox theology) – Term*; Scriptural basis**; Ecumenical relevance*;
  • Ecstasy – Scope of the term**; Profane and sacred**; In religions and religious philosophies**;
    • Ecstasy – Scope of the term – Human side*; Semasiologically*;
    • Ecstasy – Profane and sacred – Profane culture*; Religious culture*;
    • Ecstasy – In religions and religious philosophies – In religion**; In philosophy*;
  • Ecuador – General**; History of the Christian churches**; Church-state relations*; Other religious groups*;
  • Ecumenical dialogue – Term*; Formal features**; Levels**; Goals**; Themes and results**; Dialogues and reception*;
  • Ecumenical mission – Term*; History of discussion*; History of cooperative global missions**; Beyond “Protestant” churches**;
  • Ecumenical theology – Terms and agencies**; Tasks and concepts**; Possibilities and limits**; Comparative study of denominations**;
  • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – Concept**; History***; Evaluation**; Emerging issues**;
    • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – Concept – Early and Biblical usage*; Usage in church history**; Common basis*; Differing interpretations**; Goal**; Relation to interfaith efforts**; Forms;
      • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – Concept – Differing interpretations – Anglican Communion*; Free Churches*; Orthodox Church*; Churches of the Reformation*; Roman Catholic Church**;
    • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – History – New Testament and the early Church**; Medieval church**; The Reformation**; 16th-18th centuries**; 19th century**; 20th century**; Ecumenism in the churches**; Dialogues**; Regional and local groups**; Christian World Communions**;
      • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – History - 20th century – World Missionary Conference (Edinburgh, 1910)**; 1910-1948**; World Council of Churches (1948-)***;
        • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – History – 1910-1948 – Mission**; Peace*; Life and work**; Faith and order**;
        • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – History – World Council of Churches (1948-) - First assembly (Amsterdam, 1948)**; Second assembly (Evanston, Ill., 1954)*; Third assembly (New Delhi, 1961)**; Fourth assembly (Uppsala, Sweden – 1968)**; Fifth assembly (Nairobi, Kenya, 1975)*; Sixth assembly (Vancouver, Canada, 1983)**; Seventh assembly (Canberra, Australia, 1991)**; Eighth assembly (Harare, Zimbabwe, 1998)*;
      • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – History – Ecumenism in the churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Orthodox Church**; Evangelicals and fundamentalists**;
    • Ecumenism or Ecumenical movement – Emerging issues – Goal*; Concepts of unity and models of union*; Ecumenical reception*; Councils of churches*; Life and work, faith and order*; Other churches*; New issues*; The Next generation*;
  • Edification – Biblical**; In church history**; Present-day*;
    • Edification – Biblical – As apostolic work*; Mutual encouragement of church members*; Orienting for the benefit of others*; Unity and totality of the congegation always in view*; As a work of the Spirit*;
  • Education – Europe**; United States**; Third World (Africa)**;
    • Education – Europe – Definition**; History and problems**; Further history and problems**; Theory**; Present situation**;
    • Education – United States – Public education*; Didactic and methodological structure*; Dissatisfaction with public education**;
    • Education – Third World (Africa) – Traditional education**; Islam, Christian mission, and colonialism**; Developments after independence**; Perspectives and problems today**;
  • Jonathan Edwards – Early interests and calling**; Role in the Great Awakening**; Later writings**; Assessment**;
  • Egypt – Data**; Christian churches**; Islam**; Church relations to the state and Islam**;
  • Egyptian religion – The Gods and mythology; Cult of the dead**;
    • Egyptian religion – The Gods and mythology – Names and forms**; Divine nearness and transcendance**; Explicit theology**;
      • Egyptian religion – The Gods and mythology – Divine nearness and transcendance – Cultic dimension**; Cosmic dimension*; Mythological dimension**;
    • Egyptian religion – Cult of the dead – The Hereafter*; Immortality*; Passage of the dead*;
  • El Salvador – General**; History**; Protestants**;
  • Elder – Early church*; Reformation through 19th century**; Today*; Catholic Church*;
  • Elijah – Life**; Present form of stories**;
  • Emancipation – Meaning and history**; Institutional and group use**; Modern usage*; Emancipation and redemption*;
  • Emperor worship – Antiquity*; Ancient Greece and Mesopotamia*; Roman*; And Christianity**;
  • Empire and Papacy – Significance in the Middle Ages*; Development to Charlemagne**; Emperor as world ruler to 1046**; Rise of papal power and climax under Innocent III**; Decline**; Reformation period**;
    • Empire and Papacy – Rise of papal power and climax under Innocent III - 11th century and Gregory VII**; Concordat of Worms*; 12th century rise*; Innocent III*;
    • Empire and Papacy – Decline – Frederick II*; Dependence on France and Boniface VIII**; After Boniface VIII*;
  • Encyclopedia – General**; Theological**;
    • Encyclopedia – General – Term*; History of the term**;
    • Encyclopedia – Theological – Theological encyclopedia**; Theological theory*;
  • Enemy – Concept**; Love of enemy**; Love of enemy and politics**;
  • Energy – Exhaustible resources*; Renewable resources**;
  • Enlightenment – Term**; Interpretations**; Criticisms**; Dialectic**;
  • Enoch – Name*; Enoch son of Jared**; Books ascribed to Enoch**;
    • Enoch – Books ascribed to Enoch – Ethiopic Enoch or 1 Enoch*; Slavonic Enoch or 2 Enoch*; Hebrew Enoch or 3 Enoch*; Book of Giants*;
  • Environment – As a term for the natural world**; Objections to use of the term*;
  • Environmental ethics – Term and history**; Anthropological issues**; Christian theology and practice**;
  • Envy – In Scripture**; In human behavior**; Moral theology*;
    • Envy – In human behavior – Description of human application*; Envy of the gods*; In philosophy*;
  • Ephesians, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Ephesians – Contents**; Composition**; Uniqueness**;
  • Ephesus – History*; Church history**; Christian buildings*;
  • Episcopacy – New Testament and patristic periods**; Roman Catholicism**; Anglicanism**; Lutheranism**; Anglican/Lutheran ecumenical agreements on the historic episcopacy**; Other Protestant groups**;
  • Epistemology – Philosophical**; Theological**;
    • Epitemology – Philosophical – Knowledge and belief**; Truth and justification**; Major figures**; Debates and difficulties**;
    • Epistemology – Theological – Religious knowledge*; Christian theology**; Problems**;
      • Epistemology – Theological – Problems – Hermeneutics*; Epistemological basis of theology*; Critical examination of what religion says about God*;
  • Equality – Term*; History**; Theological and ethical evaluation**;
    • Equality – History – Athens and Pericles*; Old Testament*; New Testament*; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation period**; Modern period**;
  • Eritrea – History**; Religions**;
  • Eschatology – Overview**; Old Testament**; New Testament***; History of dogma**; Orthodox tradition**; Roman Catholic theology**; African Christianity**; Dogmatics**;
    • Eschatology – Old Testament – Concept*; History*; Origin*; Development**; Basic convictions*;
    • Eschatology – New Testament – Jesus**; Before and alongside Paul*; Paul*; Pauline churches**; Synoptics and Acts**; Johannine writings**; Development**;
    • Eschatology – History of dogma – Fathers**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; 20th century renaissance of eschatology**; Ecumenical movement*;
    • Eschatology – Orthodox tradition - Dogmatics**; Liturgical, sacramental, and ascetic spirituality**;
    • Eschatology – Roman Catholic theology – Concentration and expansion*; Convergence with evolution*; Hope as history of freedom**; Traditional themes in a new light**;
    • Eschatology – African Christianity – Christian eschatology as a new element in African thinking*; Christian hope**; Eschatological and apocalyptic texts**;
      • [Eschatology]] – African Christianity – Christian hope – Strong expectation of the imminent return of Christ**; Experience of hope through the power of God*; Question of death and the hereafter*;
      • Eschatology – African Christianity – Eschatological and apocalyptic texts – Bible passages**; Eschatological symbols**;
    • Eschatology – Dogmatics – Theological order*; Basic theme*; Themes and hermeneutics*; Eschatology and ethics*;
  • Estonia – General situation**; Christian churches**; Interchurch relations**; Non-Christian religions*; Church and state**;
    • Estonia – Christian churches – Orthodox**; Lutheran**; Evangelical Christian and Baptist Union**; Others**;
      • Estonia – Christian churches – Others – Roman Catholic Church in Estonia*; United Methodist Church in Estonia*; Estonian Conference of Seventh-day Adventists*; Estonian Christian Pentecostal Church*; Armenian Apostolic Church in Estonia*;
  • Ethics – Overview**; Philosophical ethics***; Old Testament ethics***; New Testament ethics**; Ethics in Roman Catholic theology**; Feminist ethics**; History of Christian ethics**; Tasks of theological ethics***;
    • Ethics – Philosophical ethics – Term**; Relation of ethics and religion, and validity of philosophical ethics**; The Question of the Good and its change of form***; Questions of legitimacy and detailed points**; Ethics, morality, and regional moral codes**;
    • Ethics – Old Testament ethics – Theological influences*; The Collective context**; Legal codes**; Individual modifications**; Areas of ethical concern**;
      • Ethics – Old Testament ethics – The Collective context – Heavy interdependence on family and treaty allies*; Binding force of treaties*;
      • Ethics – Old Testament ethics – Legal codes – Covenant Code**; Deuteronomic Code*; P Code**;
      • Ethics – Old Testament ethics – Areas of ethical concern – Family life and its protection*; Laws of inheritance*; Sexual integrity of the family*; Status of women*; Business ethics*;
    • Ethics – New Testament ethics – Basis*; Jesus*; Synoptic gospels and Acts*; Paul*; Later writings**; Johannine writings*; Relevance of New Testament ethics*;
    • Ethics – Feminist ethics – Moral agency*; Relationship*; Plurality**; Ecology*;
    • Ethics – History of Christian ethics – Present situation in research*; Development**;
      • Ethics – History of Christian ethics – Development – Early church*; Scholasticism**; Reformation*; Modern period**;
    • Ethics – Tasks of theological ethics – Term and tasks**; Dogmatics and ethics**; Bible and ethics**; Ethics and ecumenism**; Ethics and the religions*;
      • Ethics – Tasks of theological ethics – Terms and tasks – Regarding worship and similar constitutive action*; Metaethics**; Required universality, not specifically Christian, ethics**; Question of emphasis*; Ranking of aspects**; Distinction between theological theses and theological constructions**;
      • Ethics – Tasks of theological ethics – Dogmatics and ethics – Difference between dogmatics and ethics*; Dogmatics role in theoretical construction of ethics*; Relevance of dogmatic statements**; Theological ethics distinct from dogmatics**;
        • Ethics – Tasks of theological ethics – Dogmatics and ethics – Relevance of dogmatic statements – Grace**; Freedom*; Sanctification*; Eschatological and pneumatological role of ethics**;
  • Ethiopian Orthodox Church – History and constitution**; Doctrines and practices*; Worship*; Church and state**;
  • Ethnology – Terms and tasks*; Subject matter**; Methods*; History**; Relativizing of the European and American monopoly of rationality*;
  • Eucharist – Overview**; Ecumenical discussion**; New Testament texts**; Development in the church and theology***; Contemporary practice***; Eucharistic unity***;
    • Eucharist – Ecumenical discussion – Among Reformation churches**; Biliteral conversations**; Lima Text**;
      • Eucharist – Ecumenical discussion – Bilateral conversations – Anglican and Catholic dialogue*; Lutheran World Federation and Roman Catholic dialogue**; World Alliance of Reformed Churches and Roman Catholc dialogue*; Reformation and Eastern Orthodox churches**;
    • Eucharist – New Testament texts – The Last Supper**; The Eucharist in Christian worship**; Theological interpretation**;
      • Eucharist – New Testament texts – The Last Supper – New Testament accounts**; Question of historicity of the institution**;
    • Eucharist – Development in the Church and theology – Early church and Orthodox churches**; Roman Catholic Church***; Reformation teaching**; Free Church traditions**; Third World churches**; Sects and religious societies**;
      • Eucharist – Development in the Church and theology – Early church and Orthodox churches – Theological context*; Early church**; Orthodox churches**;
      • Eucharist – Development in the Church and theology – Roman Catholic Church – Sacrifice of the Mass**; Real presence**;
      • Eucharist – Development in the Church and theology – Orthodox churches – Separation of agape meal and eucharist*; Increased importance of the priest*; Theory of transformation**; Emphasis on cosmic and eschatological dimensions*;
    • Eucharist – Contemporary practice – Devotion**; Eucharistic movement**; Elements and forms**; Tasks**;
      • Eucharist – Contemporary practice – Devotion – Historical survey**; Problems**; Third World**; Free Churches**; Reversal of old trends**;
    • Eucharist – Eucharistic unity – Confessionally characteristic positions**; The Ecumenical debate and goal**; Official practice on ecumenical occasions;
      • Eucharist – Eucharistic unity – Confessionally characteristic positions – Orthodox*; Roman Catholic**; Protestant*;
      • Eucharist – Eucharistic unity- The Ecumenical debate and goal – Intercommunion*; Toward “Unity in one faith and in one eucharistic fellowship”**;
  • Europe – General situation***; Religious situation**; Christian churches***;
    • Europe – General situation – Statistics**; Political, economic, social, and cultural features**; Problem areas**;
    • Europe – Religious situation – Statistics**; Features*; Problem areas**;
    • Europe – Christian churches – History**; Problems and tasks**; Christian life, activities, piety**; Problems of interdenominational and international dialogue**;
  • European theology (modern period) – Survey***; Criticism and distinctives***;
    • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Theology between church and academia**; Historical and regional developments***; Current trends**;
      • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Historical and regional developments – Germany (Protestant)***; Great Britain**; Scandinavia**; Netherlands**; Roman Catholicism***; Orthodoxy**;
        • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Historical and regional developments – Germany (Protestant) – First half of the 19th century**; Second half of the 19th century**; World War II**; 1960s**;
        • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Historical and regional developments – Scandinavia – Denmark**; Norway*; Sweden**; Finland**;
        • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Historical and regional developments – Roman Catholicism – Before Vatican I**; Vatican I to Vatican II**; Vatican II and following**;
        • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Historical and regional developments – Orthodoxy - 19th century**; 20th century**;
      • European theology (modern period) – Survey – Theology between church and academia – Origins**; The Present**;
    • European theology (modern period) – Criticism and distinctives – Third World criticism**; Geographic and historical context**; Distinctives**; Universality and contextuality**;
      • European theology (modern period) – Criticism and distinctives – Third World criticism – Four criticisms**; Universality and contextuality*;
      • European theology (modern period) - Criticism and distinctives - Geographic and historical context – Internal distinctions*; 2000 year history of European theology**;
      • European theology (modern period) – Criticism and distinctives – Distinctives – Elements that result from the original Christian witness*; Tense confrontation between spirit and nature*; Incompatible strands of thought*;
      • European theology (modern period) – Criticism and distinctives – Universality and contextuality – K. Rahner*; T. Rendtorff*; D. Ritschl*; Ongoing problem**;
        • European theology (modern period) – Crititicism and distinctives – Universality and contextuality – Ongoing problem – Particularity of exprression of a universal message*; Historical mode of the revelation*; Contextual theologies*;
  • Euthenasia – Active (direct) and passive (indirect) euthenasia**; Voluntary and nonvoluntary euthenasia**; Suffering**; Withdrawing and withholding medical treatment**; Artificially administered nutrition and hydration*; Sanctity of life, autonomy, and utilitarianism**; Physician-assisted suicide*;
  • Evangelical missions – Term*; History**; Organization**; Present significance**;
  • Evangelical movement – Term**; Roots**; Theology and organization**;
  • Evangelism – Term**; Ecumenical discussion**; Modern practices**;
    • Evangelism – Ecumenical discussion – Missionary Structure of the Congregation*; Context of evangelism**; “Mission and Evangelism”*; World Evangelical Fellowship 1983 Wheaton, Illinois meeting*; Roman Catholic Church*; People of other living faiths**; Orthodox complaints*;
    • Evangelism – Modern practices – Role of churches**; Varied forms of evangelism**; Aim at growth of members**;
  • Everyday life – Usage**; Sociological perspective**; Theological perspective**; Theological problem**;
    • Everyday life – Usage – Common usage*; To the 1960s**; 1960s paradigm shift**;
    • Everyday life – Sociological perspective – Term*; Social and cultural norms*; Adherence to norms*; Question of inclusion*; Maintenance of the everyday*; Modern pressures on the microcosm of everyday life**; Academic theories**;
    • Everyday life – Theological perspective – Everyday life as a substratum*; Existential interpretation and analysis*; Phenomenology*; Sociopsychological analyses*;
    • Everyday life – Theological problem – Communication of gospel and faith**; Solutions**; Modern irrelevance of “expert” tradition*;
      • Everyday life – Theological problem – Modern irrelevance of “expert” tradition – Failure to address unsatisfactory nature of present reality*; Models of interpretation*;
  • Evil – The Problem**; Relevance*; The Bible**; Practical significance*;
  • Evolution – Concept**; Scientific elaborations**; Theological issues and engagement***; Conclusions**;
    • Evolution – Concept – Change over Time*; Emergence*; Origin**; Selection*;
    • Evolution – Scientific elaborations – Physical sciences*; Biology**; Social sciences*; Ethics**; Human evolution*;
      • Evolution – Scientific elaborations – Biology – Integration of genetics into Darwin's theories*; Involvement of molecular biology*; Punctuated equilibrium model*; Complexity science*;
    • Evolution – Theological issues and engagement – Questions**; Responses***;
      • Evolution – Theological issues and engagement – Responses – Opposition to evolution**; Taking account of evolution**; Evolution as a guiding motif***; Evolution as creation myth*;
  • Excommunication – Concept*; History**; Situation today**;
  • Exegesis, Biblical or Biblical exegesis – Old Testament***; New Testament***;
    • Exegesis, Biblical or Biblical exegesis – Old Testament – Jewish exegesis in antiquity and the Middle Ages*; Christian exegesis from the early church to the Enlightenment**; Exegesis in the 19th and 20th centuries**; Present situation*;
    • Exegesis, Biblical or Biblical exegesis – New Testament – History**; Methods and questions**;
      • Exegesis, Biblical or Biblical exegesis – New Testament – History – Early church**; Middle Ages*; Humanism*; Reformation theology**; Modern period**; Present situation**;
      • Exegesis, Biblical or Biblical exegesis – New Testament – Methods and questions – Textual criticism*; Literary criticism*; Form criticism*; Redaction criticism*; Linguistic and conceptual research*; Comparative religion*; New Testament theology*;
  • Existential theology – Term**; Existential theology and existential interpretation**; Development and impact**; Problems**;
  • Existentialism – Term**; Forms and emphases**; Discussion and impact**;
  • Exodus, Book of or Book of Exodus – The Book**; Sources*; Exodus Motifs in the Old Testament*;
  • Exorcism – In religious studies**; In practical theology**;
    • Exorcism – In practical theology – Practical development**; The Humanities*; Modern evaluation and practice**;
  • Experience – In philosophy**; In theology**;
  • Expressionism – Definition*; Expressionistic literature**; Painting, graphics, and sculpture**; Architecture**; Music**; Dadaism**;
    • Expressionism – Expressionistic literature – Lyric poetry**; Drama**; Expressionism and film*; Theory of language*; Expressionism and World War I**;
  • Ezekiel, Book of or Book of Ezekiel – Book**; Forms**; Research*; Theology*;

F[edit]

  • Faith – Overview**; Old Testament**; New Testament**; Systematic theology***;
    • Faith – New Testament – Concept**; Jesus*; New Testament view of faith**; Theological significance and reception*;
      • Faith – New Testament – New Testament view of faith – Faith as patience or steadfastness*; Faith and “coming to faith” as conversion**; Paul's view of faith as the common legacy of proclamation to the primitive church**; John's view of faith as the result of miracles**; James' view of faith as an attitude of steadfastness or impartiality*; “Little faith” in Matthew*;
    • Faith – Systematic theology – Christian faith: definition*; Faith in Jesus Christ**; Faith and believing*; Old Testament and New Testament**; Theological development***; Typology of theoretical reflection**; Contextual development**;
      • Faith – Systematic theology – Theological development – Early church*; Medieval scholasticism**; Luther**; Roman Catholicism**; The Protestant world**; Schleiermacher**; Development since Schleiermacher**;
        • Faith – Systematic theology – Theological development – Development since Schleiermacher -

Faith and experience**; Faith and church**; Faith and history**; Faith and life**; Faith and knowledge**; Faith and language**; Faith and (epistemic) belief**; Faith and the consciousness of faith**; Faith and person*;

      • Faith – Systematic theology – Typology of theological reflection – Anthropology*; Pneumatology*; Theology*; “I believe in Jesus Christ”**; Multiple perspectives and the Trinity**;
        • Faith – Systematic theology – Typology of theological reflection - “I believe in Jesus Christ” - Anthropocentric approach*; Pneumatocentric approach*; Theocentric approach*;
  • Faith and Order Movement – Origins; Lausanne, 1927**; Edinburgh, 1937**; Lund, 1952**; Montreal, 1963**; Major studies and accomplishments, 1963-1993**; Santiago de Compostella, 1993**; Prospect**;
    • Faith and Order Movement – Major studies and accomplishments – The Meaning of the Visible Unity of the Church**; Baptism, Eucharist, and Ministry**; The Unity of the Church and the Renewal of Human Community**;
  • Family – Biblical views**; The Family in Western tradition***; Family pastoral care***;
    • Family – The Family in Western tradition – Early Christian norms**; The Roman Era*; The High Middle Ages**; The Reformation Era**; The Modern era**;
    • Family – Family pastoral care – Family systems theory and therapy**; Family life education and enrichment**; Family ministry**; The Minister's family**;
  • Fascism – Term**; Fascism as a social movement**; Seizure of power**; Fascist regimes*; Fascism and Christian culture*;
    • Fascism – Fascism as a social movement – The Epoch of fascism*; Profile and explanation**;
  • Fasting – Forms of fasting**; Goals and motives**;
    • Fasting – Forms of fasting – Israel and Judaism*; Greece and Rome*; Christianity**; Today*;
  • Father – Old Testament**, New Testament, early church**; Psychoanalysis**; Pastoral psychology*; Sociology**;
  • Fellowship Movement – Definition**; Distinctive features**; History**; Outlook**;
  • Feminism – History**; Global growth**; Differences; Theories and practices**; Feminism and the church**;
  • Feminist theology – 19th-century traditions**; Catalytic insights in the 20th century**; Contributions***; Global and local contexts**;
    • Feminist theology – Contributions – Biblical studies**; Historical studies**; Theological studies**;
  • Fiji – General**; Religion**; The Churches and education**; Ecumenical relations*; Missions*; The Churches and nationalism**;
  • Finland – Churches***; Ecumenical and interchurch relations***; Other religions***;
    • Finland – Churches – Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland***; Orthodox Church of Finland***; Other churches and Christian communities***;
  • Charles Grandison Finney – Early life and conversion**; Revivals in upstate New York**; National evangelistic leadership**; Oberlin College and later career**; Legacy**;
  • Force, violence, nonviolence – Theology and ethics***; Ecumenical aspects**;
  • Foreigners or Aliens – Modern problems and discussions**; Church diaconal aid**;
  • Forgiveness – Term and problems**; Biblical data**; Doctrinal data**; Ecumenical discussion and fresh insights**; Ethical importance*;
    • Forgiveness – Biblical data – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Forgiveness – Doctrinal data – Early church**; Scholasticism**; Reformation**; Modern period*;
  • Formula of Concord – Background**; Development**; Evaluation*;
  • France – The Church in France***; Inerchurch relations and cooperation**; State and church**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • France – The Church in France – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant church**; Free Churches**; Orthodox Church*;
      • France – The Church in France – Protestant church – Reformed churches**; Lutheran churches**; Reformed and Lutheran religious communities*;
      • France – The Church in France – Free churches – Federation Protestante de France members*; Federation Protestante de France nonmembers*;
    • France – Interchurch relations and cooperation – Inter-Protestant**; Protestant and Catholic**; National Council of Churches*;
    • France – State and church – General**; Alsace-Lorraine*;
    • France – Non-Christian religions – Islam*; Judaism*;
  • Franciscans – Francis and beginnings**; Developments in the 13th and 14th centuries**; The Order in the Reformation period**; The Franciscans after Trent**;
  • Free Religion or Freireligiöse – Roots*; Bund Freireligiöser Gemeinden Deutschlands**;
  • Freedom – Philosophical**; Theological***;
    • Freedom – Philosophical – Etymology and concept*; History and systematics**; Development*;
      • Freedom – Philosophical – History and systematics – Antiquity**; Middle Ages**; Modern period**;
        • Freedom – Philosophical – History and systematics – Antiquity – Greek philosophical basis**; Greek relgious basis**;
        • Freedom – Philosophical – History and systematics – Modern period – Kant and Hegel**; Freedom as emancipation*;
    • Freedom – Theological – Biblical tradition**; Early church and Orthodox tradition**; Middle Ages*; Luther**; Calvin*; Calvinism**; Modern theories**; Roman Catholic Church**; Modern Protestantism**;
  • Freethinkers – Goals**; History**; Relations with the churches*;
  • Friends, Society of or Society of Friends – Definition**; Origins**; Early theology**; Polity**; Three hundred years of activity**;
  • Functionalism – Definition*; Functionalism and psychology*; Functionalism and sociology**;
  • Fundamental theology – Concept*; Development of the discipline**; In Roman Catholic theology**; In Protestant theology**;
  • Funeral – General*; Historical development**; Orthodox Church**; Christian Africa**; Contemporary Western examples***;
    • Funeral – Historical development – Biblical**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation*; Modern times*;
    • Funeral – Contemporary Western examples – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestants in North America**;
      • Funeral – Contemporary Western examples – Protestants in North America – Traditional funeral rites**; American funeral practices**; Reform and revision*;
  • Future – Early philosophy**; Hobbes, Heidegger, and utopia**; Autonomy**; Modern philosophy of science*;

G[edit]

  • Gabon – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Galatians, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Galatians – Contents*; Problems**; Theology*;
  • Genesis, Book of or Book of Genesis – Name*; Contents and structure**; Literary-critical and theological problems*;
  • Genocide – Definition**; Explanation**; Prevention**;
  • Gentiles or Gentile Christianity – Usage*; Old Testament*; New Testament**; Modern problems**;
  • Geography of religion – Term*; To the Enlightenment**; Weber and after**;
  • Georgia – Christian history**; Present situation**; Ecumenical tensions**;
  • German Christians – Definition*; Origins**; Ascendancy in 1933**; Later history**; Theological evaluation*;
  • German missions – Historical development of German Protestant missions***; Present situation and future prospects**;
  • Germanic Mission – Individual witnesses in southeastern Europe (3rd-4th centuries)**; Homoean mission (4th-6th centuries)**; Christianization of the Franks (5th-8th centuries)**; The Anglo-Saxons in mission history (5th-8th centuries)**; Christianization of the Saxons (6th-10th centuries)**; Conclusion of the Germanic Mission in Scandinavia (8th-12th centuries)**;
  • Germany – Political background**; The Churches***; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Germany – The Churches – Political and social stance***; Protestants***; Roman Catholic Church**; Other churches**;
      • Germany – The Churches – Protestants – Evangelical Church (EKD)**; In East Germany**; The Postunification period**;
  • Ghana – Political situation**; Church situation**; The State and the churches**;
  • Glory – Term and Biblical usage**; Dogmatics*; Aesthetic*;
  • Glossolalia – Definition and terminology*; Glossolalia in the New Testament**; Historical overview**; 20th-century explanations**; Theological reflections**;
  • Gnesio-Lutherans – Term*; Melachthon's role*; The Disputes**; Significance*;
    • Gnesio-Lutherans – The Disputes – Adiaphora*; Majoristic controversy*; Antinomian controversy*; Synergistic controversy*; Osiandrian controversy*; Second eucharistic controversy*;
  • Gnosis or Gnosticism – Term, history, and definition**; Phenomenology**; Origins**; Types and trends**; Sources**; Ethics and cult**; Relation to New Testament and Christianity**;
    • Gnosis or Gnosticism – Phenomenology – Main external features**; Worldview, myth, redemption**; Limits*;
    • Gnosis or Gnosticism – Relation to New Testament and Christianity – New Testament**; Early church*;
  • God – Ideas of God in the religions**; Concept of God and social development**; Philosophy***; Old Testament**; New Testament**; Orthodox tradition**; Historical development and modern discussion***;
    • God – Philosophy – Origins of the Western philosophical concept of God**; Beginnings of a philosophical concept**; Socrates; Plato and Aristotle**; Philosophy and theology**; Modern period**; The Influence of Kant; Contemporary views of God**;
    • God – Old Testament – Development of Old Testament statements**; Uniqueness of Old Testament statements**;
      • God – Old Testament – Development of Old Testament statements – Variation in the Old Testament*; Forerunners to Yahweh**; Yahweh as dating from the time of Moses**; Expansion of the cult**; Addition of the El predicates*; Prophets*; Yahweh as omnipotent*; Problems*;
      • God – Old Testament – Uniqueness of Old Testament statements – Yahweh declares his name and can be invoked by name*; Yahweh is transcendent**; Experiences of God by humans*;
    • God – New Testament – General characteristics*; Jesus**; New Post-Easter accents**; Paul**; John**;
    • God – Historical development and modern discussion – Themes and tendencies***; Problems and new approaches**;
      • God – Historical development and modern discussion – Themes and tendencies – Early church**; Post-Reformation**;
        • God – Historical development and modern discussion – Themes and tendencies – Early church – Unity of God*; Identity of God with the God of the Old Testament*; Doctrine of the Trinity**; Development of the idea of God in the West**; Medieval doctrines of God**;
        • God – Historical development and modern discussion – Themes and tendencies – Post-Reformation – Bohemian, German, and Swidd-French Reformations produced nothing new**; Natural and revealed knowledge of God**; Schleiermacher, Hegel, and followers**; Reaction of Roman Catholic theology**;
      • God – Historical development and modern discussion – Problems and new approaches – Whether we can talk and think about God at all*; Whether the human inquiry into meaning and history is not unavoidably referred back to God*; Rediscovering and reformulating the doctrine of the Trinity*; God's omnipotence*; Jewish-Christian dialogue*; Question of God and nature, a new “natural theology”*; Process theology*; The God of the Bible in debate with other concepts of God*; Feminists's questioning*; Debate with atheism*;
  • God, Arguments for the existence of or Arguments for the existence of God – General**; Logical structures**; Assessment**;
    • God, Arguments for the existence of or Arguments for the existence of God – General – Arguments, proofs, and basic beliefs**; Essence and existence*; Argument forms**;
    • God, Arguments for the existence of or Arguments for the existence of God – Logical structures – Ontological arguments**; Axiological arguments*; Epistemic arguments; Cosmological arguments**; Teleological arguments**;
  • Godparent – Historical development**; Suggested reinterpretation**;
  • Good, The or The Good – Definition and terminology*; The Good in the history of philosophy**; The Good in the philosophy of religion*;
  • Gospel – Biblical**; Dogmatic**;
    • Gospel – Biblical – Greek Usage**; Old Testament and Septaugint**; Early Judaism**; Jesus**; Primitive community**; Paul**; Post-Pauline witnesses**; Synoptics; Luther**;
    • Gospel – Dogmatic – Concept*; Genre*; Controversies**; Ethical and political aspects**;
  • Grace – Overview**; Bible**; Orthodox teaching**; Roman Catholic teaching**; Reformation teaching***;
    • Grace – Bible – Old Testament and Judaism**; Paul**; Other New Testament writings**;
    • Grace – Orthodox teaching – Grace as God's self-communication**; Theological development of the concept**; Human action and the work of grace**;
    • Grace – Roman Catholic teaching – Augustine and his influence**; Middle Ages**; Molinism**; New tendencies**;
    • Grace – Reformation teaching – Reformation breakthrough**; Protestant Orthodoxy**; Methodism, Awakening, and Enlightement**; New Approaches**;
  • Greece – Churches**; Ecumenism**; Church and state**; Other religious groups**;
    • Greece – Churches – Orthodox Church of Greece*; Orthodox Church of Greece clergy*; Orthodox Church of Greece laity*; Roman Catholics and Protestants*;
    • Greece – Ecumenism – State of ecumenical relations**; Monastic resistance to ecumenism**;
    • Greece – Church and state – Sacralization of the emperor*; National consciousness*; 1967 coup*; 1975 constitution**;
    • Greece – Other religious groups – Jehovah's Witnesses*; Judaism and Islam*; Sociology of religion view*;
  • Greek philosophy – Epochs**; Pre-Socratics**; Sophists*; Socrates*; Plato**; Aristotle**; Postclassical philosophy**;
    • Greek philosophy – Pre-Socratics – Kosmos and Physis**; Conceptual implication of kosmos and physis**;
    • Greek philosophy – Plato – Doctrine of the two worlds*; Nature of the soul*;
    • Greek philosophy – Aristotle – Logic**; Metaphysics**; Ethics*;
    • Greek philosophy – Postclassical philosophy – Epicureans*; Stoics**; Skeptics**;
  • Greek religion – General character**; Historical development**;
  • Gregorian chant – Term*; Historical development**; Repertory**; Liturgical function**;
    • Gregorian chant – Repertory – Genres**; Musical-aesthetic description*;
    • Gregorian chant – Liturgical function – Roman Catholic Church*; Lutheran Church*;
  • Grief – Symptoms**; The Grief process**; Support**;
  • Group and Group dynamics - Group**; Group dynamics***;
    • Group and Group dynamics – Group dynamics – Psychodynamic perspectives**; Sociopsychological perspectives**; Systems perspectives**; Implications for churches**;
      • Group and Group dynamics – Group dynamics – Implications for churches – Theology and piety*; Pastoral leadership**; Congregational participation**; Pastoral care**;
  • Guatemala – The Land**; The Churches***;
    • Guatemala – The Land – Geography*; Population*; Political development**; Economic development**;
    • Guatemala – The Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**; Ecumenism**;
  • Guilt – Definition and phenomenon*; Theological aspects**; In religious history*; Philosophical aspects**; Psychological aspects**; Legal aspects**; Theological demarcation**;
  • Guinea – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Guinea-Bissau – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Guyana – History, society, economy, and state**; Churches**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions and cults**;

H[edit]

  • Haiti – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Haiti – Religious situation – Roman Catholicism**; Protestantism**; Voodoo**; Ecumenical relations*;
  • Happiness – Definition*; Judeo-Christian tradition**; Modern view**; Transcultural aspects**;
    • Happiness – Judeo-Christian tradition – Biblical macarism**; Augustine*; Scholasticism*; Luther*;
  • Heaven – Meaning**; Biblical traditions**; Theological and scientific cosmologies**;
    • Heaven – Meaning – Firmament*; Group of uncontrollable power and forces*; Place of the gods*; Equated with God*; Place of life after death*;
    • Heaven – Biblical traditions – Heaven created by God**; Dwelling place of God*; Dwelling place of the angels**; Christ-caused communion between heaven and earth*; Heaven as abode of the dead*;
  • Hebrew language – Term*; Canaanite dialect*; Linguistic stages**; Semitic linguistic features**;
  • Hebrews, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Hebrews – Structure and contents*; Historical questions*; Literary and theological character*; Place in the history of primitive Christian theology*;
  • Hegelianism – The Hegel school**; Decline of the school**; Left and right wings**; Impact of Hegel's philosophy**; Hegel renaissance**;
  • Heidelberg Catechism – Occasion*; Composition and author*; Contents*; History, spread, and significance**;
  • Hell – Religious history**; The Bible and dogma**;
  • Hellenism – Problems**; Development**; Judaism and Christianity**;
    • Hellenism – Development – Politics**; Economy*; Education**, Science, culture**; Philosophy**; Religion**;
  • Hellenistic-Roman religion – Basis in Hellenism after Alexander**; Main ideas**; Official and popular forms**; Development in the Roman Empire**;
    • Hellenistic-Roman religion – Basis in Hellenism after Alexander – Spread**; Urbanization**;
    • Hellenistic-Roman religion – Main ideas – Philosophy*; Worldview**; Divine overcoming of fate*; Liberation for divine life*; Dualistic tendencies*; General view of the divine**;
    • Hellenistic-Roman religion – Official and popular forms – The Cult as a Bond**; Astrology, magic, and belief in the underworld and miracles**;
    • Hellenistic-Roman religion – Development in the Roman Empire – Impact of the Hellenized Near East**; Hermetic and Neoplatonic synthesis**;
  • Heresies and schisms – Dogmatic aspects**; Historical data***; Historical schisms**;
    • Heresies and schisms – Dogmatic aspects – Views of the three criteria of heresy*; Concept of pure truth**; Word of God*; Contrary to the priesthood of all believers*;
    • Heresies and schisms – Historical data – Primitive Christianity**; Early church**; Middle Ages*; Reformation**; Modern period**; Ecumenical discussion**; Roman Catholic Church**;
  • Heretical baptism – Third century**; Fourth and fifth centuries**;
  • Hermeneutics – Old Testament***; New Testament**; Philosophy and theology***;
    • Hermeneutics – Old Testament – Significance**; Approach***; Task**;
      • Hermeneutics – Old Testament – Approach – Text*; Form*; Prebiblical or extra-biblical use*; Archaeological data*; First Old Testament usage*; Later Old Testament contexts*; Various Old Testament literary settings*; Theology*; First use in the New Testament*; Other New Testament uses*; Use by other groups*; History of doctrine and the life of the church*; Contemporary applications*; Third World perspectives*; New voices*;
    • Hermeneutics – New Testament – Concept and task**; History**; Modern problems**;
    • Hermeneutics – Philosophy and theology – Concept and task**; Hermeneutical philsophy**; Hermeneutical theology**; Results and criticism**;
      • Hermeneutics – Philosophy and theology – Concept and task – Centrality to Christian and Western traditions**; Schleiermacher on**;
      • Hermeneutics – Philosophy and theology – Hermeneutical theology – Bultmann*; Ebeling and Fuchs*; Criticism of claim to giving deeper and more comprehensive understanding**;
      • Hermeneutics – Philosophy and theology – Results and criticism – Unifying view of hermeneutics*; Alternative to constructivism*; Competition with Anglo-Saxon analytic philosophy*;
  • Herod and Herodians – Herod the Great**; Herod's three sons**;
    • Herod and Herodians – Herod's three sons – Herod Archelaus*; Herod Antipas*; Philip*;
  • Hierarchy – Church law**; Criticism**;
    • Hierarchy – Church law – Original usage*; As ranking in religious organizations**; Hierarchia ordinis and hierarchia iurisdictionis*; Orthodox and Anglican usages*;
    • Hierarchy – Criticism – Gregory VII to Reformation**; Reformation**; Within Roman Catholicism*; In ecumenical dialogue*;
  • High priest – Old Testament*; Hellenistic period**; As symbol of atonement*;
  • Hinduism – Characteristics**; Spread*; Historical development***; Present situation**;
    • Hinduism – Historical development – Vedic period**; Classical Hinduism**; Hindu Middle Ages**; Modern period**;
      • Hinduism – Modern period – Rammohan Roy*; Keshub Chunder Sen*; Arya Samaj*; Ramakrishna*; Vivekananda*; Mohandas K. Gandhi*; Aurobindo Ghose*; Ramana Maharishi*; Swami Chinmayananda*; Satya Sai Baba*; Maharishi Mahesh Yogi*; Shree Rajneesh*; Swami Muktananda*; Hare Krishna movement*;
  • Historicism – Early usage**; Troeltsch*; Rehabilitation attempts*; Popper*;
  • Historiography – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Church history***;
    • Historiography – Old Testament – Historiography and historical thinking**; Main works**;
    • Historiography – New Testament – Acts**; Synoptics**; Revelation*;
    • Historiography – Church history – General**; Beginnings of Christian historiography**; Augustine and Orosius**; Middle Ages**; The Reformation and its opponents**; Enlightement and 19th century**; 20th century**;
      • Historiography – Church history – General – Institution of the church*; Claim of absoluteness*; Divergent traditions that divide the church**;
  • History, Auxiliary sciences to or Auxiliary sciences to history – Survey**; Philology**; Paleography**; Epigrahy*; Numismatics*; Diplomatics**; Chronology**; Geography/Cartography*;
  • History of religion – Definition*; Approaches**; Not a theological discipline**; History as event*;
  • History of religions school – Formation*; Aims**; In context**;
  • Holiness movement – General description**; Distinguishing doctrine**; History***;
    • Holiness movement – History – Phoebe Palmer and the shorter way**; Dissenting Methodism**; Revivalism and the camp meeting***; Denominations and associations***;
      • Holiness movement – History – Revivalism and the camp meeting – Finney and Oberlin perfectionism**; National Camp Meeting Association**; Conflict**;
      • Holiness movement – History – Denominations and associations – Holiness Church*; Church of God (Anderson, Ind.)**; Church of God (Holiness)*; Salvation Army; Church of the Nazarene**; Wesleyan Church**; International Holiness Convention*; Cooperation**;
  • Holy Spirit – Biblical data***; Theological data***;
    • Holy Spirit – Biblical data – Old Testament and early Judaism**; New Testament**;
      • Holy Spirit – Biblical data – New Testament – Mark and Matthew**; Luke and Acts**; Paul**; John**; Later writings**;
    • Holy Spirit – Theological data – Problems**; New Testament variety**; Resultant problems**; Trinity and filioque**; Open questions in modern ecumenical theology**;
      • Holy Spirit – Theological data – Resultant problems – Relation of the Spirit to the life and activity of Jesus**; Question of the Spirit's priesthood*;
  • Holy Week – Origins of Holy Week*; Palm Sunday or Passion Sunday**; Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday**; Holy Thursday or Maundy Thursday**; Good Friday**; Easter vigil**;
  • Homosexuality – Definitions**; Debates**; Dialogue**;
  • Honduras – History, society, economy, state**; Churches**; Ecumenical relations**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions**;
  • Hong Kong and Macao – Hong Kong**; Macao**;
  • Hope – The Bible**; Theology and ethics**; Present-day discussion**;
    • Hope – The Bible – Usage**; Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Hope – Theology and ethics – The Phenomenon**; Development of the Christian doctrine**; Determinants of the Christian view**;
      • Hope – Theology and ethics – Development of the Christian doctrine – Scholasticism*; Reformation*; Modern period**;
  • Hosea, Book of or Book of Hosea – Biography of Hosea*; Structure of the book*; Message*; Hosea's marriage**;
  • Hours, Canonical or Canonical hours – Term*; Elements*; History**;
  • Human dignity – Term**; Theological aspects**; Non-Christian ideas*; Philosophical concepts**; Questions and problems**;
    • Human dignity – Theological aspects – Roman Catholic view**; Protestant approaches**; Ecumenical discussion**;
  • Human sacrifice – General purposes and usage**; Old Testament*; Case of Isaac*;
  • Humanism – History**; Content**; Modern discussion**;
    • Humanism – History – Reformation**; Development of the individual human**; Third humanism*; Criticism of humanism**; Modern forms**;
  • Humanistic psychology – Source*; Theoretical presuppositions**; Content and objectives**; Significance for psychology**;
  • Humanity – Term*; Use from Rome on**; Problems and questions*; Ethics and humanity**;
  • Humility – History of the term*; Development as a Christian virtue**; Relevance**; Theology*;
  • Hungary – Historical survey**; History of the church**; Contemporary churches**; Interchurch relations*; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Hungary – Contemporary churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Reformed Church in Hungary**; Lutheran Church*; Unitarian Church*; Free Churches*; Orthodox Churches*;
  • Hussites – Background**; The Four Articles of Prague**; Legacy**;
    • Hussites – The Four Articles of Prague – Freedom of preaching the Word of God*; Communion in both kinds*; Poverty of the clergy and expropriation of church property*; Punishment of all public sinners*;
  • Hymn – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Hymn – New Testament – In the primitive church*; Jewish model*; In John and the Epistles*; Hymns to Christ**;
  • Hymnal – Europe***; Anglo-American sphere**; New hymnals**;
    • Hymnal – Europe – Germany, Lutheran**; Calvinism and Western Europe**; Scandinavia and Eastern Europe**; Roman Catholic Church*;
      • Hymnal – Europe – Germany, Lutheran – Before Luther*; Luther and to 1545**; Mid-16th to Late 17th centuries**; Pietism and the “springtime of hymns”*; Influence of rationalism*; 19th century restorationism*; 1994 on*;
  • Hymnody – Antiquity*; Early church*; Roman Catholic hymns*; German hymns*; Scandinavian hymns*; Reformed hymns*; Britain*; United States*; Canada*; Other places*; Ecumenical aspects*; Recent developments*;
    • Hymnody – Antiquity – Hellenism*; Non-European cultures*; Old Testament*;
    • Hymnody – Early church – New Testament*; Early Christian worship*; Syriac and Armenian hymns*; Greek hymns*; Latin hymns*;
      • Hymnody – Early church – Greek hymns – Gnostic-Hellenistic period*; Judeo-Hellenistic period*; Syrian-Hellenistic period*; Period of iconoclasm and schism**;
    • Hymnody – Other places – China and Southeast Asia*; Australia and New Zealand*; Africa*; Caribbean, Central and South America*; Eastern Europe*;

I[edit]

  • Iceland – Overview**; From earliest settlement**; The Modern era**; Evangelical Lutheran Church**; Other religious groups**; Church and state**;
  • Icon – Term and definition**; Rise*; Philosophical and cultural context*; Theological basis**; Aesthetics and typology**; Place and function**;
  • Iconography – The Study of images**; The Body of Christian imagery***; Christian iconography in architecture**;
    • Iconography – The Body of Christian imagery – Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation to modern times**;
  • Idealism – Meanings of “idealism”*; Platonism*; Descartes to Berkeley**; Kant*; Fichte*; The Early Schelling**; Hegel**; The Later Schelling**; Critics of German idealism*; Later idealism*; Idealism and Christian theology*;
  • Ideology – Term**; Ideologies in relation to theology and religion**;
    • Ideology – Term – Early use**; Marxist use**; Sociology of knowledge*; Late 20th century**;
    • Ideology – Ideologies in relation to theology and religion – Forms of ideology**; Secularization**; Modern ideologies*; In theological discussions**;
  • Illusion – Aesthetics*; Metaphysics and criticism of religion**;
  • Images – Early religion**; Judaism**; Christianity**;
    • Images – Judaism – Old Testament*; Late antiquity*;
    • Images – Christianity – Early period**; Byzantine iconoclastic controversy**; Reformation churches**; Present situation and theological evaluation**;
  • Images of Christ – Theoretical basis**; Historical trends**; Eastern church*; Outside Europe*;
    • Images of Christ – Historical trends – Earliest images**; Charlemagne to the Renaissance**;

Renaissance**; 19th and 20th centuries**;

  • Immanence and transcendance – The Terms*; Antiquity**; Christian theology**; Modern philosophy**; Modern theological discussion**;
  • Immortality – Term*; Early non-Christian views**; Christian views**; Post-Christian views**;
  • Immunity – In Roman law*; Medieval canon law*; Church's claims to immunity**;
  • Impressionism – Term*; Development*; Painting**; Sculpture*; Literature**; Music**; Theory*; Feeling for life**; Movement*;
    • Impressionism – Painting – Technique**; Criticism*; Models*; Impact*;
    • Impressionism – Literature – Literary technique**; Criticism**;
    • Impressionism – Music – Musical technique**; Definition**;
  • Incarnation – Religious aspects**; Theological aspects***; Controversial aspects***;
    • Incarnation – Religious aspects – Term*; Non-Christian examples**;
    • Incarnation – Theological aspects – Concept**; Development in Christian theology**; Significance*;
      • Incarnation – Theological aspects – Development in Christian theology – As a way to describe Jesus' nature and significance*; Early problems**; Arianism*; Antiochene theoligians*; Chalcedon and Scholasticism**; Reformation to 20th century**; 20th century**;
    • Incarnation – Controversial aspects – Chalcedonian definition**; Orthodox theology**; Roman Catholic theology**; Reformation theology**; Modern discussion**;
      • Incarnation – Controversial aspects – Orthodox theology – Divinizing of human nature*; Church as a divine-human organism*;
      • Incarnation – Controversial aspects – Roman Catholic theology – Self-objectivization of God's saving will in history*; Embraces the whole cosmos*; Church as the mystical body of Christ*; Differences and relations**;
      • Incarnation – Controversial aspects – Reformation theology – Christ's mediatorship presupposes the incarnation of the Logos*; Sola fide*;
  • Independent churches – Term*; Causes**; History**; Theology**; Spirituality**; Organization**; Ecumenism**;
  • India – General situation**; Religions***; Christian churches***; Church and society**;
    • India – Religions – Hinduism**; Islam**; Sikhs**; Jainism*; Buddhism**; Zoroastrianism*; Jews*;
    • India – Christian churches – Orthodox churches**; Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches and ecumenism**;
      • India – Christian churches – Orthodox churches – Syro-Malabar Church*; Syro-Malankara Church*; Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite) Church*; Mar Thoma Syrian Church*; Church of the East*; Malabar Independent Syrian Church of Thozhiyur*; St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India*; Travancore-Cochin Anglican Church*;
  • Individualism – Term*; History*; Modern development**; Questions**;
    • Individualism – Modern development – Contract theories of the 17th and 18th centuries**; Introcution of economic ideas**; End of the 19th century**;
  • Indonesia – Religions**; Churches**; Society and Christianity**; Islam and Christianity**;
    • Indonesia – Churches – Protestants**; Roman Catholic**;
  • Indulgence – Definition*; History**; Modern understanding**;
  • Industrial society – Definitions**; Capitalism, industrial society, modern age**; Chief problems**;
    • Industrial society – Capitalism, industrial society, modern age – Relation of home and work**; “Modern” society as an American alternate**;
  • Infallibility – Early use*; Infallibility of the church**; Papal infallibility**;
  • Information – Definition**; Historical background**; Information theory**; Information, creativity, access, and analysis**; Information explosion, information revolution, information processing**; Information overload**; Information rich and information poor**; Information and the church**;
  • Initiation rites – Religious**; Christian**;
    • Initiation rites – Religious – Term**; Categories**; Significance*;
    • Initiation rites – Christian – Term*; Basic statement and primary order: restoration and renewal of the catechumenate**; Development of a secondary form: confirmation**; Relation of baptism and confirmation**; Third World**;
      • Initiation rites – Christian – Development of a secondary form: confirmation – Early Roman Catholic Church**; Reformation churches**;
  • Innocence, State of or State of innocence – Biblical**; Church history**; Modern period**;
  • Inquisition – Presuppositions**; History**; Process**;
  • Inspiration – Jewish and early Christian understanding**; Early church**; Since the Middle Ages**; Significance*;
    • Inspiration – Since the Middle Ages – Scholasticism*; Reformation**; 19th century**; 20th century**;
  • Institution – Meaning**; Nontheological usage**; Theological usage**;
    • Institution – Meaning – Term itself**; Related concepts**;
    • Institution – Nontheological usage – Early usage**; 19th century to early 20th century**; Functional analysis**;
    • Institution – Theological usage – Problems**; In ecumenical theology*;
  • International law – History*; Subjects**; Sources*; Relation to national law*; Regulatory spheres**;
  • International Missionary Council – Formation**; World Conferences**; Integration with the World Council of Churches**;
    • International Missionary Council – World Conferences – 1928 Jerusalem conference*; 1938 Tambaram World Missionary Conference**; 1947 Whitby conference*; 1952 Willingen conference**;
  • Iona Community – Origin**; Aims**; Contemporary expression**;
  • Iran – Geography and recent history**; Christians in Iran**;
    • Iran – Christians in Iran – Groups**; Bible translation*; Muslim-Christian relations*;
      • Iran – Christians in Iran – Groups – Church of the East**; Armenian Apostolic Church**; Protestant churches**; Roman Catholic Church*;
  • Iranian religions – Definitions**; Original Iranians*; Western Iranians**; Northern Iranians*; Eastern Iranians*; Zoroaster**; Zoroastrianism**; Hellenism and syncretism**; Ancient Judaism and early Christianity*; Gnosticism*; Shiite Islam**;
  • Iraq – Geography and economy*; Political development**; Religion**; Religious policy*; Shiite rule**; Position of Christians*;
  • Ireland – Churches**; Interdenominational and ecumenical organizations**; Church and state*; Other religions*;
    • Ireland – Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Church of Ireland**; Presbyterian Church in Ireland**; Methodist Church in Ireland*; Other churches*;
  • Irrationalism – Term**; Various forms of irrationalism*; Irrational as subrational**; In philosophy**;
  • Isaac – Biblical tradition*; History of scholarship**; Isaac in the New Testament*;
  • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – Overall structure**; Trito-Isaiah**; Deutero-Isaiah**; First Isaiah**;
    • Isaiah, Book of or Book of Isaiah – Deutero-Isaiah – Suffering servant songs**; Other themes**;
  • Islam – Muhammad and the prophetic revelation**; Spread**; Cult and ritual**; Tradition and law**; Theology**; Confessions and movements**; The Hereafter and eschatology**; Popular customs, cult of the saints**; Modern developments, organizations**; Islam in America**;
    • Islam – Cult and ritual – Pilgrimate to Mecca**; Salat*; Saum*; Islamic sense of unity*;
  • Islam and Christianity – Context and historical sketch**; Islam as a challenge to Christian theology and practice of mission***; Christian-Muslim engagement today**;
    • Islam and Christianity – Context and historical sketch – Recent history**; History of opposition*; Competition between the two**;
    • Islam and Christianity – Islam as a challenge to Christian theology and practice of mission – Differences*; Western Christian views of Islam**; Arabic Christian views of Islam**; Islamic refutation of Christianity*; Issues raised in the early Christian West**; Christian missions to the Muslims**; Louis Massignon*;
    • Islam and Christianity – Christian-Muslim engagement today – Issues of conversion and cultural status**; Dialogue*; Complex situation**; Christian recognition of the challenges of Islam*; Christian evangelization efforts**;
  • Islamic philosophy – Basis and the various approaches to theology and law**; First movements of political and theological dissent**; Other influences**; Individual philosophers**;
    • Islamic philosophy – Individual philosophers – Al-Kindī; Al-Fārābī**; Ibn Sīnā or Avicenna**; Ibn Bājjah or Avempace*; Ibn Tufayl*; Ibn Rushd or Averroës and Averroism**;
      • Islamic philosophy – Individual philosophers – Ibn Rushd or Averroës and Averroism – Biography of Averroës**; Thought of Averroës**; Commentaries of Averroës**;
  • Israel – Historical Israel***; Modern state of Israel***; Christian groups in Israel and Palestine***;
    • Israel – Historical Israel – Name**; Prenational period***; Nation building**; David and Solomon**; Northern Kingdom until 722**; Judah until 586**; Exile and restoration**; Hellenism**; Roman rule**;
      • Israel – Historical Israel – Prenational period – The Biblical portrayal is equally reliable**; The “conquest” was actually a gradual and peaceful process**; The “conquest” actually represented a shift in social stratification**; The “conquest” was largely an inner-Canaanite process involving a shift in social stratification accompanied by an influx of nomadic and seminomadic elements**:
    • Israel – Modern state of Israel – History**; Society**; Economy and culture**; Constitution**; Religions**;
    • Israel – Christian groups in Israel and Palestine – Orthodox Churches**; Roman Catholic Churches**; Oriental Orthodox Churches**; Protestant churches**; Other Christian bodies and ecumenism**;
      • Israel - Christian groups in Israel and Palestine – Orthodox Churches – Greek Orthodox Church*; Russian Orthodox Churches*; Romanian Orthodox Church*;
      • Israel - Christian groups in Israel and Palestine – Roman Catholic Churches – Latin church*; Greek Catholic Church*; Maronites*; Armenian Catholics*; Syrian Catholic Church*; Coptic Catholic Church*; Chaldean Catholic Church*;
      • Israel - Christian groups in Israel and Palestine – Oriental Orthodox Churches – Armenian Apostolic Church*; Syrian Orthodox Church or Jacobites*; Coptic Orthodox Church*;
      • Israel - Christian groups in Israel and Palestine – Protetsant churches – Anglican church*; Lutheran church*; Church of Scotland*;
  • Italy – Roman Catholic Church***; Protestant churches; Foreign churches; Ecumenism**; Other religious groups**;
    • Italy – Roman Catholic Church – Roman Empire**; Papal States**; Teaching and culture**; Secularism and renewal**; Hierarchy*;
    • Italy – Protestant Churches – Waldeneses*; Methodist Church or Chiesa Evangelica Metodista*; Pentecostal churches*; Plymouth Brethren*; Baptists*; Apostolic Church*; Adventists*; Salvation Army*; Chiesa de Cristo*; Free churches*;
  • Ivory Coast – General situation**; Religious situation**;

J[edit]

  • Jacob – Biblical evidence**; History of scholarship**; Jacob in the New Testament*;
  • Jamaica – General situation**; Christians**; Other living faiths**;
    • Jamaica – Christians – Roman Catholics**; Anglicans**; Baptists**; Presbyterians and the United Church**; Methodists*; Other Protestant bodies*;
  • James – James the son of Zebedee and brother of John*; James the brother of Jesus*; James the son of Alphaeus*; James the father of Judas*; James the younger*;
  • Jansenism – Doctrine of grace**; Controversy**; Impact*; Evaluation**;
  • Japan – Overview**; Earliest Christian mission**; Second Christian period**; Christianity after 1945**; Religious freedom**; Other religions**;
    • Japan – Christianity after 1945 – Rebuilding**; Nonchurch Christianity**; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Japan – Other religions – Shinto and Buddhism**; New religions**;
  • Jehovah's Witnesses – Background**; Beliefs**; Organization*;
    • Jehovah's Witnesses – Beliefs – Radical separation from the churches*; Lay Bible study*; Apocalyptic plan of redemption*; Dualistic conflict between two kingdoms*; Hope on a new paradise*;
  • Jeremiah, Book of or Book of Jeremiah – Content**; Criticism and composition**; Jeremiah the Prophet;
    • Jeremiah, Book of or Book of Jeremiah – Criticism and composition – Criticism**; Composition**;
      • Jeremiah, Book of or Book of Jeremiah – Criticism and composition – Criticism – Source theory of S. Mowinckel**; W. Thiel's position*; H. Weippert's position*;
    • Jeremiah, Book of or Book of Jeremiah – Jeremiah the Prophet – Life and ministry**; The Suffering prophet**;
  • Jerusalem – Topography*; Pre-Israelite**; Preexilic**; Persian*; Hellenistic**; Roman**; Judaism, Christianity, and Islam**;
    • Jerusalem – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam – Judaism**; Chritianity**; Islam**;
  • Jesuits – Establishment and purpose**; Constitutions**; Founding (1540) to Suppression (1773)**; Restoration (1814) to the Present**; Statistics**; Current activities**;
  • Jesus – Sources**; Origins**; Jesus' life**; Jesus' mission; Messianic self-understanding**; Message in the church**;
    • Jesus – Sources – Lack of mention in ancient histories*; Christian sources**;
    • Jesus – Jesus' life – Public ministry**; Passion**;
    • Jesus – Jesus' mission – Preaching**; Deeds**;
  • Jesus People – Origins**; Characteristics**; Growth and decline**; Implications**;
  • Jesus Seminar – Founding**; Results**; Evaluation**; Significance**;
    • Jesus Seminar – Results – Jesus' sayings**; Jesus' deeds**;
  • Jewish Christians – Biblical and patristic period**; Historical development to the present**;
    • Jewish Christians – Biblical and patristic period – Term**; Sources and spread**; Theology**;
    • Jewish Christians – Historical development to the present – Development since antiquity**; Today**; Theological questions**;
  • Jewish mission – Biblical foundations*; Historical development**; Continuing the mission**; From mission to dialogue**;
    • Jewish mission – Historical development – Protestant churches**; Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches**;
  • Jewish philosophy – Definition**; Biblical period and antiquity**; Middle Ages***; Jewish mysticism**; The Enlightenment to Hermann Cohen**; Franz Rosenzweig to the contemporary period**;
    • Jewish philosophy – Middle Ages – Sa'adia ben Joseph*; Jewish Neoplatonism**; Aristotelianism**; Hasdai ben Abraham Cresas**;
    • Jewish philosophy – Jewish mysticism – Cabalism**; Hasidism**;
  • Jewish practices – Worship**; Festivals**; Fast days and days of commemoration**; Home and table rituals**; Life-cycle ceremonies**;
    • Jewish practices – Worship – Times of prayer*; Liturgy*; Ritual garments*; History*;
    • Jewish practices – Festivals – Sabbath**; Pilgrimage festivals: Passover, Weeks, Tabernacles**; Days of awe: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur**; Minor festivals: Hanukkah, Purim, Yom Ha-Atzma'ut**;
    • Jewish practices – Fast days and days of commemoration – Ninth of Av*; Yom Hashoah*;
    • Jewish practices – Home and table rituals – Grace after meals*; Mezuzah*;
    • Jewish practices – Life-cycle ceremonies – Birth**; Bar and Bat Mitzvah*; Marriage*; Death and mourning*;
  • Jewish theology – Rabbinic period**; Medieval thought**; Cabala and Hasidism**; Modern Jewish thought***;
    • Jewish theology – Cabala and Hasidism – Cabala**; Hasidism**;
    • Jewish theology – Modern Jewish thought – Key thinkers**; Issues**;
      • Jewish theology – Modern Jewish thought – Issues – Holocaust**; State of Israel**; Women's movement**; Jewish ethics**; Jewish law**; Postmodern theologies**;
  • Jewish-Christian dialogue – Overview*; Rethinking origins*; Overlapping histories and divergent memories**; Theological developments**; Organizational strategies*;
    • Jewish-Christian dialogue – Theological developments – Christian supersessionism*; Understandings of God*; Interpretation of sacred texts*; Religious significance of the state of Israel*; Mission and witness in a religiously plural world*;
  • Job, Book of or Book of Job – The Book and the man*; Prologue and epilogue**; Poem and problems**;
    • Job, Book of or Book of Job – Poem and problems – Job and his friends**; Yahweh and the whirlwind*; Text*; Wisdom and influences*; Interpolations*; Wisdom crisis**; Parallels*;
  • John, Epistles of or Epistles of John – 1 John**; 2-3 John**;
  • John, Gospel of or Gospel of John – Structure and contents**; Sources and message**; Composition**; Background*; Place and time**;
  • Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification – Background**; Development and ratification**; Content**; Debate and criticism**;
  • Jordan – Geography and economy*; Population*; Religions**; Political development*; Religious policy**;
  • Joseph – Joseph the patriarch*; Joseph the father of Jesus**; Joseph the son of Jonam*; Joseph the brother of Jesus*; Joseph of Arimathea*; Joseph Barsabbas*; Joseph the Levite or Barnabas*;
  • Josephinism – Meaning*; Origin*; Growth**; Limits*;
  • Joshua, Book of or Book of Joshua – The Man and his work**; Structure and redaction**; Relation to the Pentateuch*;
  • Joy – The feeling**; In theology*; Based on ability to differentiate and focus**; Everyday life*;
  • Judaism – Definition**; Core doctrines**; Historical overview of classical Judaism**; Features of classical Judaism**; Judaism in the 19th and 20th centuries**;
    • Judaism – Core doctrines – Covenant**; Torah**; Ethical monotheism*; Return*;
    • Judaism – Historical overview of classical Judaism – Hellenistic and Rabbinic ages**; Gaonic age*; To 1800**;
    • Judaism – Features of classical Judaism – Centrality of the moral life**; Absence of politics*; Messianism**; Persecution**;
  • Judges, Book of or Book of Judges – Title and office*; Contents**; Origin**; Theological intention*;
  • Julian of Norwich – Biography**; Short Text**; Long Text**; Reputation*;
  • Justification – New Testament***; Historical and systematic theology***;
    • Justification – New Testament – Proclamation and theology of justification*; Modern research**; Paul's theology of justification**; Forensic and participatory categories**; Effective history of Paul's theology in the New Testament**; The Proclamation of Jesus and Paul's theology of justification*; Significance of justification*;
    • Justification – Historical and systematic theology – Concept*; History of theology and doctrine***; Systematic issues**; Ecumenical theology**;
      • Justification – Historical and systematic theology - History of theology and doctrine - 2nd to 4th centuries*; Pelagius to Scholasticism**; Early Scholasticism**; Thomas Aquinas**; Later Scholasticism**; Martin Luther**; John Calvin**; Council of Trent*; After the Reformation**;
      • Justification – Historical and systematic theology – Systematic issues – Post Reformation**; Modern Protestant thought**; Modern Catholic thought**;
      • Justification – Historical and systematic theology – Ecumenical theology – Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification**; Remaining differences**; Controversy about the Declaration**:

K[edit]

  • Kantianism – Kant's philosophical achievement**; Reactions to Kant's philosophy**; Neo-Kantianism and other developments**;
  • Kazakhstan – General situation**; Nestorian history**; Russian and Soviet eras**; Current tensions for Christianity and Islam**;
    • Kazakhstan – Russian and Soviet eras - 16th century to Soviet Revolution**; Soviet era**;
  • Kenosis – Background*; Reformation and Orthodoxy**; Neo-Lutheranism**; Radical views*;
  • Kenya – General**; History, state, society, economy**; Religious situation**;
    • Kenya – Religious situation – History**; Current Christian churches**; Ecumenical cooperation**;
  • Kerygma – New Testament usage and background**; Summarizing the New Testament gospel proclamation**; Bultmann and Kerygmatic theology**; Subsequent concerns**;
  • Keys, Power of the or Power of the keys – Systematic introduction**; In church history**;
  • Kimbanguist Church – History**; Teaching**; Spread*;
  • Kindergarten – History**; Young children with disabilities**; Current situation**;
  • Kingdom of God – Old Testament**; New Testament**; History of theology***;
    • Kingdom of God – New Testament – Jesus**; Q source*; Mark*; Matthew*; Luke**; John*; Epistles**; Revelation*; Incomplete merger of concepts of the Kingdom of God in the New Testament*;
    • Kingdom of God – History of theology – Dogmatic range*; Development**; Systematic theology**;
      • Kingdom of God – History of theology – Development – Early fathers**; Augustine**; Middle Ages**; Reformers**; Cocceius, Pietism, Enlightenment**; 19th century**; 20th century**;
  • Kings, Books of or Books of Kings – Contents**; Origin**; Theological intention*; Historical place*;
  • Koinonia – Biblical foundations**; Applications through the centuries**; Ecumenical developments**;
    • Koinonia – Biblical foundations – Terms**; Paul*; Other New Testament*;
    • Koinonia – Applications through the centuries – Patristic*; The Fellowship versus the Papal church*; Protestant Gemeinschaft, Diakonia*; Other uses*;
    • Koinonia – Ecumenical developments – ARCIC*; Zizioulas*; Tillard*; Lutherans and Free church**; World Council of Churches**;
  • Krishna Consciousness, International Society for or International Society for Krishna Consciousness – Founder**; As Western movement of spiritual awakening*; Prehistory**; Indian sources**; Historical evaluation**;
  • Kulturkampf – Term and historical situations**; Course**; End and result*;
  • Kurds – Names**; Identity*; History**; Religion*; Present-day problems**;
  • Kuwait – Geography and economy**; Political development**; Religions**; Religious policy**;
  • Kyrgyzstan – General situation**; Ancient Christian history**; Modern Imperial and Soviet periods**; Contemporary crisis for Islam and Christianity**;
    • Kyrgyzstan – Modern Imperial and Soviet periods – Modern Imperial period**; Soviet period**;

L[edit]

  • Lamentations, Book of or Book of Lamentations – Name, place in canon, authorship**; Form and genre*; Message**; Origin**; Liturgical use*;
  • Language – General definitions**; Language in Greek philosophy**; Language in the Bible**; Medieval and early modern theories of language**; Modern linguistics**;
  • Language and theology – Basic dimensions of human life**; Forms of faith and religion (religious language)***; Place of revelation (Word of God)**; Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language)***; Medium of religious communication;
    • Language and theology – Basic dimensions of human life – The Ability to speak*; Language systems**; Oral and written speech**;
      • Language and theology – Basic dimensions of human life – Language systems – Origin of languages*; Multiplicity of languages*; Universal grammar of language*;
    • Language and theology – Forms of faith and religion (religious language) – Religion and language**; Prayer**; Myth and mythical language*; Historical and theological narratives**; Spoken and written word**;
      • Language and theology – Forms of faith and religion (religious language) – Religion and language – Bible*; Mysticism, ecstasy, and charismatic traditions**; Creative power of the divine word**;
      • Language and theology – Forms of faith and religion (religious language) – Spoken and written word – Early language was both spoken and lived out at one and the same time*; Development into Scripture and the Books of the Bible**; Mass media*;
    • Language and theology – Place of revelation (Word of God) – The Trinity*; Christology*; Linguistic models**;
      • Language and theology – Place of revelation (Word of God) – Linguistic models – Apophatic theology and analogical reference to God**; Two different worlds of discourse*; 19th century*; 20th century**;
    • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Understanding Scriptures**; Interpretation of scripture**; Theory of reason and language***;
      • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Understanding Scriptures – Augustine*; Descartes and Galileo*; Luther*; Linguistic knowledge, grammar, and rhetoric*;
      • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Theory of reason and language – Subject-oriented approaches**; Object-oriented approaches**; Religious use of language**;
        • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Subject-oriented approaches - Transcendental approaches*; Poetic approach*; Language as concrete communicative action**; Dialogue**;
        • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Object-oriented approaches – Hegel**; Barth**;
        • Language and theology – Medium and material of theological reflection (Theological language) – Religious use of language – Meaninglessness of religious language**; Methods of analytic philosophy**; Hermeneutical theology**;
  • Laos – Geography and demographics*; History**; Buddhism and Phi cult**; Churches**;
    • Laos – Churches – Roman Catholic*; Protestant**;
  • Last Judgment – Term*; Bible**; History of dogma**; Relevance and discussion today**;
    • Last Judgment – Bible – Old Testament*; New Testament**;
      • Last Judgment – Bible – New Testament – Paul*; John*; Hebrews*;
  • Latin America and the Caribbean – Latin America***; The Caribbean***;
    • Latin America and the Caribbean – Latin America – Term*; Indigenous religions**; Colonialism and mission**; Roman Catholicism and Protestantism in the 19th and 20th centuries**; Christianity and modern challenges**; Sects, syncretism, and other religions**;
      • Latin America and the Caribbean – Latin America – Indigenous religions – Least-developed cultural stage**; Intermediate cultural stage**; Developed culture**;
      • Latin America and the Caribbean – Latin America – Colonialism and mission – To the Treaty of Tortasillas**; Spanish requerimeiento of 1514**; Opposition between the mission church and the settlers' church**;
    • Latin America and the Caribbean – The Caribbean – Spanish colonization**; Slavery**; Protestant mission**; U.S. Involvement**; Ecumenism**; Religious pluralism**;
  • Latin American Council of Bishops – Origin*; Nature*; Structure*; Development*; Publications*; History**;
  • Latin American Council of Churches – History**; Present directions**;
  • Latin American Councils – Colonial period**; 19th and 20th centuries**;
    • Latin American Councils – Colonial period – Significance*; Church organization*; Mexican juntas**; First Mexican and Lima Councils**; Second Mexican and Lima Councils*; Junta Magna*; Third Mexican and Lima Councils**; San Salvador Synods*;
    • Latin American Councils - 19th and 20th centuries – Latin American Plenary Council*; Brazilian plenary councils*; Rio de Janeiro Conference*; Medellin*; Puebla**; Santo Domingo*;
  • Latin American theology – Origins**; Colonial Christendom (1492-1808)***; Christendom in Crisis (1808-1930)**; New Christendom (1930-1962)**; Liberationist and Pentecostal Christianity (1962-present)***;
    • Latin American theology – Colonial Christendom (1492-1808) – Spiritual conquest**; Spiritual decline**;
      • Latin American theology – Colonial Christendeom (1492-1808) – Spiritual conquest – 1492-1519**; 1519-1551**; 1551-1620**;
    • Latin American theology – Christendom in crisis (1808-1930) – Liberalism and wars of independence**; Rupture between church and state (1850-1929)**;
    • Latin American theology – Liberationist and Pentecostal Christianity (1962-present) -

Liberationist movement**; Pentecostalism**; Impact of the movements**;

  • Latvia – General situation**; Churches***; Interchurch relations**; Non-Christian religions**; Church and state**;
    • Latvia – Churches – Lutheran**; Roman Catholic**; Orthodox**; Old Believers**; Baptist**; Others**;
  • Lausanne movement – Background**; Lausanne Congress and Covenant**; Results**;
  • Law – Old Testament**; New Testament***; Dogmatics***;
    • Law – Old Testament – Term**; Book of the Covenant**; Prophets*; Deuteronomy**; Post-exilic period**;
      • Law – Old Testament – Book of the Covenant – Casuistic laws*; Capital offenses*; Prohibitions**;
    • Law – New Testament – Jesus**; The Hellenists*; Paul**; Post-Pauline theology**; Synoptists**; John*;
    • Law – Dogmatics – Early Eastern church**; Western church and Roman Catholicism**; Reformation**; Modern period**; Problems**;
      • Law – Dogmatics – Western church and Roman Catholicism – Tertullian and Augustine**; Struggle with Judaism**; Middle Ages**; Differentation between commandments and counsels**;
      • Law – Dogmatics – Modern period – Lutheran theonomous ethos*; Law and gospel**; Barth*; Gogarten & Tillich**; Attempted reconciliations of Luther's “law and gospel” and Barth's “gospel and law”**;
  • Law and gospel – Luther's and Melanchthon's distinction**; Use of the distinction in Lutheranism**; Law and gospel in other traditions**; 20th-century discussion**;
    • Law and gospel – Luther's and Melachthon's distinction – Proper distinction of law and gospel*; Different uses of law and gospel**; Distinction takes place in the mystery of evil**; Law and gospel not to be equated with sanctification and justification*;
    • Law and gospel – Use of the distinction in Lutheranism – To Formula of Concord**; Pietist use*; Enlightenment use**;
    • Law and gospel – Law and gospel in other traditions – Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism**; Calvin, Anabaptists, and Wesley**;
    • Law and gospel – 20th-century discussion – Barth*; Wingren*;
  • Law and legal theory – Definition**; Pre- and Post-Christian Rome**; The Papal Revolution**; The Protestant Reformation**; The Enlightenment**; Law and religion today**;
  • Lay apostolate – History**; Use today**;
  • Lay movements – Overview**; Key developments in Christian history***; The 20th-century advance***;
    • Lay movements – Key developments in Christian history – From the New Testament to the Council of Nicaea**; The Constantinian era**; The 16th century**; From the wars of religion to World War I**;
    • Lay movements – The 20th-century advance – Ecumenical organizations**; Protestantism**; Eastern Orthodoxy**; Roman Catholicism**; The Century's legacy**;
  • Lebanon – General situation**; Christian churches**; Mulsim and Jewish communities**; Religion and state**;
    • Lebanon – Christian Churches – Maronite Church**; Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch**; 19th century on**; Ecumenical relations*;
    • Lebanon – Religion and state – National Pact**; Aim and results of the National Pact**; Civil War and Taif Agreement**;
  • Lector – Jewish setting**; Christian setting**;
    • Lector – Christian setting – Early church**; To the Middle Ages**; Reformation to the present**;
  • Leisure – History**; Concepts**; Use**; Issues**;
  • Lesotho – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Leuenberg Agreement – History**; Content and method**; Results**; Ongoing work**;
  • Leviticus, Book of or Book of Leviticus – Title*; Contents**; Place in Pentateuch*;
  • Liberal theology – Term**; National developments***; Recent tendencies**;
    • Liberal theology – Term – In modern Judaism and Christianity**; As a doctrine of faith**; As a polemical concept**;
    • Liberal theology – National developments – England and Scotland**; North America**; France, Holland, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia**; Germany**;
      • Liberal theology – National developments – North America – Roots**; Unitarianism**; Universalism*; Evolution controversy*; Later developments and impact of liberal theology in North Ameica**;
      • Liberal theology – National developments – France, Holland, Switzerland, and Czechoslovakia - France*; Holland*; Switzerland*; Czechoslovakia*;
      • Liberal theology – National developments – Germany – Not yet fully researched*; Precursors and adoption of the term*; Tubingen School and Protestant Union**; History of religions school and Conservative theology**; 20th century**;
  • Liberalism – Overview**; Theoretical roots**; Relation to religion and the church**; Political development**; In the United States**;
  • Liberation theology – Origin and development***; Themes**; Reception**;
    • Liberation theology – Origin and development – Gestation and birth (1962-1971)**; Maturation and repression (1972-1978)**; Consolidation amid controversy (1979-1992)**; Shifts in response to global change (1993-present)**;
    • Liberation theology – Themes – God as liberator**; Solidarity with the poor**;
  • Liberia – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Liberia – Religious situation – Non-Christians*; Protestants**; Roman Catholics*; Ecumenical relations*;
  • Libya – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Life – Bible and theology**; Science and ethics**;
    • Life – Bible and theology – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Developments**;
      • Life – Bible and theology – Old Testament – Obedience and long life, and the converse**; Book of Job's dispute with that**;
      • Life – Bible and theology – New Testament – John and the Synoptics**; Paul**;
    • Life – Science and ethics – Science**; Systematic theology**; Ethics**;
      • Life – Science and ethics – Systematic theology – Reverence for life**; Peace in nature**; Integrity of creation**;
  • Life and Work Movement – Background**; Stockholm, 1925**; Oxford, 1937**; Legacy of social responsibility in the World Council of Churches***; Conclusion**;
    • Life and Work Movement – Legacy of social responsibility in the World Council of Churches – The World Council of Churches in process of formation**; Since 1948***;
      • Life and Work Movement – Legacy of social responsibility in the World Council of Churches – Since 1948 – Amsterdam, 1948*; Evanston, 1954*; Development of Church and Society*; Geneva, 1966*; Uppsala, 1968*; Commission on the Churches' Participation in Development*; Christian Medical Commission*; Program to Combat Racism*; SODEPAX, 1968-1980*; MIT, 1979*; Vancouver, 1983*; Ecumenical Decade of Churches in Solidarity with Women, 1988-1998*; Seoul, 1990*; Canberra, 1991*; Jubilee 2000*;
  • Lifestyle – Place**; Themes**; Significance of the church**; Helps**;
    • Lifestyle – Themes – Basic religious questions**: In pastoral care**; Debate about a natural lifestyle*;
  • Light – General*; Antiquity**; Christianity**;
    • Light – Antiquity – Near East and Old Testament**; Greek philosophy**;
    • Light – Christianity – New Testament**; Fathers**; Middle Ages**;
  • Linguistics – Language as a theme**; Linguistics and grammar**; Language in philosophy***; Language and theology**;
    • Linguistics – Linguistics and grammar – Beginnings of linguistics*; Modern study of linguistics**; Relevance of meaning*;
      • Linguistics] – Linguistics and grammar – Modern study of linguistics – Prague School**; Chomsky*;
    • Linguistics – Language in philosophy – Plato*; Aristotle**; Leibniz*; Enlightenment to modern era**; Modern era**; Speech-act theory**; Linguistic philosophy**;
      • Linguistics – Language in philosophy – Linguistic philosophy – Current approaches**;
    • Linguistics – Language and theology – Questions**; History**;
  • Literacy – Agents**; Methods**; Literacy and the ecumenical movement*;
    • Literacy – Methods – Traditional*; Functional*; Liberating**;
  • Literary criticism – Origins**; Medieval and Reformation methods**; Early Modern literary criticism**; Literary criticism and Biblical studies**; Formalist methods**; Critical social theory**; Modern criticism in English literature**; Structuralist literary theories**; Psychoanalytic literary theories**; Marxist literary criticism**; Reader-response, or reception, aesthetics**; Poststructuralist and deconstructinist literary theory**; Postcolonial theory**;
  • Literature, Biblical and early Christian or Biblical and early Christian literature – Old Testament***; New Testament***; Early church***;
  • Lithuania – Historical overview**; Current situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Liturgical books – Development and types**; Roman Catholic Church**; Eastern churches**; Protestant churches**; North America**; Third World churches in North America**;
    • Liturgical books – Development and types – The Bible**; Evangelaries, epistolaries, and lectionaries*; Church orders**; Pontificals*; Musical sources*; Hymnals, books of homilies, and martyrologies**; Missals**;
    • Liturgical books – Eastern churches – Euchologion and horologion**; Scripture readings*;
    • Liturgical books – Protestant churches – Earliest works**; Appearance of Protestant liturgical books*; 16th century slowdown in development**; Outline of the rite*;
  • Liturgical movement – Background**; 19th century**; Church architecture**; 20th century***;
    • Liturgical movement - 19th century – The Continent**; United Kingdom**; United States*; Scandinavia**;
    • Liturgical movement - 20th century - The Continent**; United Kingdom**; United States**; Scandinavia; Ecumenical efforts**;
  • Liturgical vessels – Vessels of the Word**; Vessels of the Lord's Supper**; Other sacramental vessels**; Other liturgical vessels**;
    • Liturgical vessels – Vessels of the World – Ark of the Covenant*; Mappah*; Capsa*;
    • Liturgical vessels – Vessels of the Lord's Supper – Paten*; Calix*; Smaller or individual cups**; Cibiorum*; Monstrance, crruet, and flagons*;
    • Liturgical vessels – Other sacramental vessels – Baptismal basins*; Chrismatories*;
    • Liturgical vessels – Other liturgical vessels – Aspergillium*; Thurible*; Lavabo*; Reliquary*; Ambry*;
  • Liturgics – Theological place*; Subject matter**; Task*; Method*; History**; Concerns*;
    • Liturgics – History – Primary sources**; Scholarly publications*;
  • Liturgy – Term and development**; Churches of the Reformation**; The Roman Catholic Church after the Reformation**; Orthodox Church**; Congregation-specific liturgies**; Feminist liturgy**;
    • Liturgy – Term and development – Term**; Development**;
      • Liturgy – Term and development – Development – Judaism*; New Testament and patristic**;
    • Liturgy – Churches of the Reformation – The West on the eve of the Reformation**; Luther and Lutheranism**; Reformed**; Anglican**; Free churches**;
    • Liturgy – The Roman Catholic Church after the Reformation – Council of Trent**; Vatican II**;
      • Liturgy – The Roman Catholic Church after the Reformation – Vatican II – New interpretation**; Sacrosanctum concilium**;
    • Liturgy – Orthodox Church – Byzantine Liturgy*; Liturgies used**; Structure and sequence**; Characteristics**; Other rites**;
      • Liturgy – Orthodox Church – Liturgies used – Liturgy of Basil*; Liturgy of Chrysostom*; Liturgy of Presanctified Gifts*;
    • Liturgy – Feminist liturgy – Basis**; Common characteristics**; Official responses*; Liturgical movement*;
  • Logic – General data**; Historical data**;
    • Logic – General data – Term**; Errors in logic**;
    • Logic – Historical data – Aristotelian approach**; Stoic approach**;
  • Logic and theology – History of the relation**; Current issues and relation**;
    • Logic and theology – Current issues and relation – General logic and applied logic*; Theology must follow the rules of general logic*; Nature of the logic of theology*; Logic of religion**; Formal systems*; Possible theological basis for logic*;
  • Lord's Prayer – The Different Versions**; Tradition and redaction**; Use**;
    • Lord's Prayer – The Different versions – Matthew, Luke, and the Didache**; In Q?*; Short and unadorned**;
  • Love – Roots**; Human models**; Platonic ascent**; The Election of Israel**; God as love (New Testament)**; European tensions**; High points of debate**; Hinduism and Buddhism**; Islam**;
    • Love – God as love (New Testament) – Biblical tradition**; Trinitarian views**;
    • Love – European tensions – Merging Biblical and Hellenistic views**; Renaissance on**;
  • Luke, Gospel of or Gospel of Luke – Author*; Structure**; Sources*; Texts*; Genre and style**; Theology**;
  • Martin Luther – Overview**; Birth, education, and early career**; The Evangelical breakthrough and early conflict with Rome**; Conflict among the reformers**; The Reformation established**; Final years**;
  • Luther research – German**; International**; Nontheological research**; Luther texts**, Congresses**;
  • Lutheran churches – General characteristics and statistics**; Europe***; North America**; Latin America**; Africa**; Asia and Oceania***; Lutheran churches today**;
    • Lutheran churches – Europe – Germany**; Northern Europe**; Western Europe**; Southeastern Europe**; Eastern and Northeastern Europe**;
      • Lutheran churches – Europe – Northern Europe – Sweden*; Norway*; Denmark*; Finland*; Iceland*;
      • Lutheran churches – Europe – Western Europe – United Kingdom*; Netherlands*; France*; Italy*; Switzerland*;
      • Lutheran churches – Europe - Southeastern Europe – Austria*; Hungary*; Slovak Republic*; Czech Republic*; Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, and Croatia*; Romania*;
      • Lutheran churches – Europe – Eastern and Northeastern Europe – Poland*; Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Central Asia, and Transcaucasia*; Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania*;
    • Lutheran churches – North America – Nonterritorial organization**; Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada*; Indepence*;
    • Lutheran churches – Latin America – Diaspora**; Descendants**; Converts**;
    • Lutheran churches – Asia and Oceania – Middle East**; South-Central Asia**; Eastern and Southeastern Asia; Australia and New Zealand;
      • Lutheran churches – Asia and Oceania – Middle East – Jordan*;
      • Lutheran churches – Asia and Oceania – South-Central Asia – India**; Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka*;
      • Lutheran churches – Asia and Oceania – Eastern and Southeastern Asia – China*; Hong Kong*; Taiwan*; Malaysia and Singapore*; Indonesia**; Papua New Guinea*; Japan*; Korea*; Philippines*;
      • Lutheran churches – Asia and Oceania – Australia and New Zealand – Australia*; New Zealand*;
    • Lutheran churches – Lutheran churches today – Lutheran churches in communion**; Lutheran churches in transition**; Lutheran churches in the Church Catholic**;
  • Lutheranism – Term**; Emergence of the movement***; Expansion***; The Future of Lutheranism**;
    • Lutheranism – Emergence of the movement – Political dimension**; Book of Concord**; Orthodoxy and Pietism**;
    • Lutheranism – Expansion – Europe**; North America**; Third World**;
      • Lutheranism – Expansion – Third World – Africa**; Asia**; Latin America**;
  • Luther's theology – Structure and influences**; Developments, 1513-1519**; Reformation theology, 1520-1521**; Controversial issues, 1522-1528**; Trinitarian basis of the Christian life**; Luther's place in the history of theology*;
    • Luther's theology – Developments, 1513-1519 – Early Biblical exposition*; Break with scholastic theology, 1515-1518**; Indulgence controversy**;
    • Luther's theology – Reformation theology – 1520-1521 – Freedom of a Christian**; Church and authority**;
    • Luther's theology – Controversial issues – 1522-1528 – Ministry*; Civil authority*; Word and spirit*; Bondage of the will*; Eucharist**; Law and gospel**;
    • Luther's theology – Trinitarian basis of the Christian life – Life in God's creation**; Life in the presence of Christ**; Life in the Spirit*;
  • Luxembourg – Geography and legal foundations**; Churches**; Ecumenical relations**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Luxembourg – Roman Catholic*; Protestant**; Expatriate congregations**; Free churches**;

M[edit]

  • Macedonia – Geography and independence**; History**; Religions**;
    • Macedonia – Religions - Macedonian Orthodox Church**; Islam**; Roman Catholicism and Protestants**;
  • Madagascar – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Madagascar – Religious situation – Christianity**; Tribal religions*; Islam*;
  • Magic – Term and meanings**; Paradigms**;
    • Magic – Paradigms – J. G. Frazer**; L. Lévy-Bruhl**; B. Malinowski*; E. E. Evans-Pritchard*;
  • Malachi, Book of or Book of Malachi – Name, author, form*; Contents*; Date*;
  • Malawi – General situation**; Christian churches**; Other religions**;
  • Malaysia – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Malaysia – Religious situation – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**; Ecumenical relations**; Church and state**;
  • Maldives – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Mali – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Malta – Christian missions**; Churches*; Church and state*; Other religions*;
  • Mandaeans – Term**; Basic views**; Development**; Literature**;
  • Manichaenism – Religious type and features**; Ethics and community life**; Writings*; Spread*; Relation to Christianity*;
  • Manipulation – Term*; Manipulation of nature*; Manipulation of people**; Ethics*; Defenses*;
    • Manipulation – Manipulation of people – Physical*; Psychological**; Social**;
  • Marcionites – Marcion*; Doctrines**; Relation to Gnosticism**; Significance*;
  • Marginalized groups – Definitions**; Examples**; The Role of institutions**; Causes**; The Role of the church**;
    • Marginalized groups – The Role of the church – Scripture, justice, and the marginalized**; The Credibility of the church**; Church statements**;
  • Mariavites – Origin and history**; Distinctives**;
  • Mariology – Content and problems***; Historical development***;
    • Mariology – Content and problems - Devotion to Mary and Mariology*; Traditions of Mariology**; Mariological dogmas**; Vatican II*; Ecumenical problems**;
      • Mariology – Mariological dogmas – Mother of God**; Virginity of Mary**; Immaculate Conception**; Assumption of Mary**;
    • Mariology – Historical development – Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation and Protestantism**; Post-Tridentine Roman Catholicism**; Vatican II**; Orthodox Church*; Mariology in ecumenical dialogue**;
  • Mark, Gospel of or Gospel of Mark – Origins**; Structure and contents**; Compositional features**; Theological themes**; Purpose**;
  • Marriage and divorce – Dogmatics and ethics***; Marriage and the family in Western tradition; Church law***; Practical theology**;
    • Marriage and divorce – Dogmatics and ethics – Historical data**; Biblical data**; In Christian history***; Current concepts of marriage; Tasks remaining**;
      • Marriage and divorce – Dogmatics and ethics – Biblical data – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
      • Marriage and divorce – Dogmatics and ethics – In Christian history – Early history**; Reformation**; Recent history**;
      • Marriage and divorce – Dogmatics and ethics – Tasks remaining - Celibacy**; Denominationally mixed marriages*; Social dimension of marriage*; Cohabitation*; Setting up a family*; Age for marriage*;
    • Marriage and divorce – Church law – History**; Roman Catholic Church**; Orthodox Church*; Protestant Churches**; Anglican Communion**; North American churches**;
  • Marxism – Historical development***; Marxism and ethics**; Present situation**;
    • Marxism – Historical development – Place in history**; Sequence of Marxisms***; Theories and doctrinal positions***;
      • Marxism – Historical development – Sequence of Marxisms – Marx and Marxist theory**; Marxism in the 19th century**; Marxism in the epoch of the World Wars**; Third World derivatives*; Marxisms after World War II**;
      • Marxism – Historical development – Theories and doctrinal positions – Proletariat**; Socialism and Communism*; Middle-class society and capitalism**; Philosophy**;
        • Marxism – Historical development – Philosophy – Dialectical materialism**; Historical materialism**; Rejection of all ideology**;
    • Marxism – Marxism and ethics – Ethics and class consciousness**; Justice*; Work*; Threefold alienation*; Economy and ethics*; Family*; Ideological criticism*; Categorical imperative*; Critical questions*;
  • Marxism and Christianity – Sources of conflict**; Christian positions**; Dialogue in Europe**; Dialogue in North America**; Dialogue in Latin America**; Conclusion*;
  • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – General***; Feminist theology**; Latin America;
    • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – General – In history***; In liturgy and prayer***; In literature, music, and art***; Religious orders**; Theology***; Orthodox Church**; Protestant churches***;
      • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – General – In liturgy and prayer - Liturgy**; Popular devotion**;
    • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – Feminist theology – Criticism of Mariology*; Current directions**; Theological issues*;
      • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – Feminist theology – Current directions – Alternative syymbols of motherhood and female discipleship**; Mary's potential as a goddess figure**;
    • Mary, Devotion to or Devotion to Mary – Latin America – Legacy of the conquest**; Religious orders**; Liberation theology*;
  • Mary in the New Testament – Overview**; Matthew**; Luke-Acts**; John**; Other references**;
    • Mary in the New Testament – Luke-Acts – Annunciation**; Mary being blessed by Elizabeth and another woman**; Other indications of the importance of Mary**;
  • Mary Magdalene – New Testament**; Patristic conflations**; Gnostic literature**; Feminist reconstructions of earliest Christianity**;
  • Masons – Values and organization**; History**; Relation with the churches**;
  • Masorah or Masoetes – Term*; Group**; Texts**;
  • Mass – Term**; History in the West***; After Vatican II**;
    • Mass – History in the West – To Gregory the Great**; Middle Ages**; Trent to Vatican II**;
      • Mass – History in the West – To Gregory the Great - Apostolic and postapostolic period**; Regional variations**; The Mass in Rome**;
      • Mass – History in the West – Middle Ages – Liturgical development**; Theology and piety**; Luther**;
      • Mass – History in the West – Trent to Vatican II – Roman Missal (1570)**; The Liturgical movement and Vatican II**;
    • Mass – After Vatican II – Roman Missal (1970)**; The Churches*; Ecumenical perspectives**;
      • Mass – After Vatican II – Roman Missal (1970) – Congregational Mass**; Settings*; Special forms*;
        • Mass – After Vatican II – Congregational mass – Introduction*; Liturgy of the Word*; Eucharist**; Conclusion*;
        • Mass – After Vatican II – Roman Missal (1970) – Congregational Mass – Introduction*; Liturgy of the Word*; Eucharist*; Conclusion*;
  • Mass media – General**; Historical differences**; Alternative systems**; Theory of effect**; Mediators of reality and agents of socialization**; Social functions of media: responsibility and accountability**; Importance for the church and religions**; Communication revolution and information society: current trends**;
    • Mass media – General – Term*; Current situation*; Premodern situation**;
    • Mass media – Historical differences – Books*; Newspaper*; Film*; Radio and television*; Internet and the World Wide Web*;
    • Mass media – Alternative systems – Competitive, or free market, system*; Public utility, or social responsibility, model*; Development model*;
  • Mass, music for the or Music for the Mass – Origins**; The Ordinary of the Mass**; The Proper of the Mass*; Monophony**; Polyphony**; Settings of the Proper; Settings of the Ordinary**; The Requiem Mass**; After the Reformation**; Other post-Reformation traditions**; Other forms**;
  • Masses, The or The Masses – Term**; Main use*; Freud to Mao**; Industrialized society*; Mass culture*; Recent usage*;
  • Materialism – Term**; Earliest Greek views**; 17th century materialism**; French Enlightenment materialism**; German debates**; Variants*;
  • Matthew, Gospel of or Gospel of Matthew – Origin**; Relation to Judaism*; Composition**; Contents**; Theology**;
  • Mauritania – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Mauritius – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Mauritius – Religious situation – Churches**; Ecumenical tendencies**; Church and state*;
  • Meaning – Overview**; Meaning in philosophy**; Meaning in the social sciences and cultural studies**; Meaning in theology**;
    • Meaning – Meaning in philosophy – General and continental philosophy**; Analytic philosophy**;
      • Meaning – Meaning in philosophy – Analytic philosophy – Ideational theory*; Referential theory*; Propositional theory*; Use of language**; Verification theory*;
  • Mediating theology – Early history**; Since Schleiermacher**; 1828 on*; Decline**;
  • Medical ethics – Problem**; Methodology**; Present-day tasks**; Future therapeutic ethics**;
    • Medical ethics – Methodology – Competence**; Isolation*; Universalization**; Framework and basis of decisions**;
    • Medical ethics – Present-day tasks – Centers and institutes**; Research*; Patient-related problems**;
  • Medical missions – Background**; Expansion**; Concentration***; Devolution**; Current issues**;
    • Medical missions – Concentration – Mission hospitals**; Missions and medical education**; Women in medical mission**; Supporting structures**;
    • Medical missions – Current issues – Primary health care**; The Church as a healing community**;
  • Meditation – Meaning**; Eastern religions**; Aid to faith**; Aid to health*;
  • Menno Simons – From priest to anabaptist leader**; Writings**; Conflict and assessment**;
  • Mennonites – History***; Theology and ethics**;
    • Mennonites – History – Genesis**; Development**; Immigration**; Organization**; Current trends**;
      • Mennonites – History – Development – Early history**; Persecution and Hutterian schism**; Congregations and worship**; Dislocation*; Disputes and Amish schism;
    • Mennonites – Theology and ethics – Pastoral writing**; Growth of theology**;
  • Messianism – Religious aspects**; Messianic movements**; Rituals*;
  • Metaethics – Metaphysical issues**; Epistemological issues**;
    • Metaethics – Epistemological issues – Rationalism*; Naturalism*; Intuitionism*; Noncognitivism*;
  • Metaphysics – Term and concept**; History***; Issues for theology**;
    • Metaphysics – History – Ancient and medieval thought**; Modern period**; 20th century**;
  • Methodism – Origins and spread**; Ecclesial characteristics**; Soteriological concentration**; Doctrinal norms**; Ecumenical spirit**;
    • Methodism – Ecclesial characteristics – Koinonia**; Leitourgia**; Martyria*; Diakonia*;
    • Methodism – Doctrinal norms – Holy scripture*; Church tradition*; Experience*; Reason*;
  • Methodist churches – Origins**; Churches**; Doctrine and church life**; Patterns of worship, discipline, and discipleship**;
    • Methodist churches – Churches – England*; United States*; Divisions**; Unions**;
    • Methodist churches – Doctrine and church life – Common foundations**; Distinctives**; Doctrinal basis**;
    • Methodist churches – Patterns of worship, discipline, and discipleship – Organization**; Mission**; International bodies**; Ecumenism**;
  • Mexico – General situation**; Christian churches**; Ecumenical aspects**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions*;
    • Mexico – Christian churches – Roman Catholics**; Protestants**; Pentecostals**;
  • Micah, Book of or Book of Micah – Man and date*; Contents and redaction**; Theology and message*;
  • Middle Ages – Church history***; Culture***;
    • Middle Ages – Church history – Terminology**; Early Middle Ages (late 4th-mid 11th centuries)**; High Middle Ages (mid-11th-early 13th century)***; Late Middle Ages (early 13th-late 15th centuries)**;
      • Middle Ages – Church history - Early Middle Ages (late 4th-mid 11th centuries) – Foundations*; Political development**; Church**; Everyday life*;
      • Middle Ages – Church history - High Middle Ages (mid-11th-early 13th century) – Foundations**; Political development**; Church**; Laity**;
      • Middle Ages – Church history – Late Middle Ages (early13th-late 15th centuries) – Foundations**; Political development**; Church**; Everyday life**;
    • Middle Ages – Culture – General features**; Early Middle Ages (late 4th-mid 11th centuries)**; High Middle Ages (mid-11th-early 13th centuries)**; Late Middle Ages (early 13th-late 15th centuries)**;
      • Middle Ages – Culture - Early Middle Ages (late 4th-mid 11th centuries) – Change in worldview**; Structures of mentality**;
      • Middle Ages – Culture - High Middle Ages (mid-11th-early 13th centuries) – Differentiation*; Spiritual and secular spheres*; Rationalism**; Individualism**; Emotion**; Consensus thinking*; Desacralizing of the world*; Summary**;
      • Middle Ages – Culture – Late Middle Ages (early 13th-late 15th centuries) – Crisis**; Death**; Lay religious culture*; Philosophy**; Piety*; Mysticism**; Realism**;
  • Middle East Council of Churches – Formation*; Membership**; Assemblies and themes*; Aims*; Recent tasks**; Structure*;
  • Military chaplaincy – General**; National developments**; Problems**;
    • Military chaplaincy – National developments – Europe**; United States**;
      • Military chaplaincy – National developments – Europe – Germany*; France*; Netherlands and Belgium*; United Kingdom*; Sweden*; Denmark*; Norway*; Finland*; Russia and Ukraine*; Poland*; Romania*;
    • Military chaplaincy – Problems – Chaplains' involvement in military operations**; Approaches to ethical questions relating to the military**; Changes resulting from German reunification**; Martin Niemöller's suggestion;
  • Millenarianism – New Testament**; Early church**; Islam*; Western Middle Ages*; Reformation*; Western Modern period**;
  • Ministry or Ministerial offices – Roman Catholicism**; Orthodoxy**; Protestantism**; Scripture**; Current issues**;
    • Ministry or Ministerial offices – Protetantism – Lutheranism**; Calvinism**; Anglicanism*; More recent Protestant groups**;
    • Ministry or Ministerial offices – Current issues – Ministry or Ministries**; Ordination**; Candidates**; Oversight or episkopē**; Apostolic succession and historic episcopate**; Papacy*;
  • Minorities – In sociological perspective**; Variations**; Discrimination and tolerance**; In theological perspective**;
  • Miracle – Basic considerations; New Testament**; Practical theology**;
    • Miracle – Basic considerations – Distinctions**; Concept**; Approach*; Criterion and interpretations**; Definitions**; Limitations**; Miracle workers and witnesses*;
    • Miracle – New Testament – Jesus**; Apostles*; The Devil and his servants*; Theological meaning**;
    • Miracle – Practical theology – Personal piety**; Tension*; Reformulation**; Church practice**;
  • Missio canonica – In Roman Catholic canon law**; Legal recognition in many countries*;
  • Missiology – Roots**; Formal study**; Nonacademic contributions**; Redefinition**; Networking**;
  • Mission – Theology of mission: historical development***; Theology of mission: a maturing scientific discipline***; History of mission***;
    • Mission – Theology of mission: historical development – Definition**; Biblical, patristic, and medieval perspectives**; Early modern approaches**;
      • Mission – Theology of mission: historical development – Biblical, patristic, and medieval perspectives – Biblical period**; Patristic period**; Medieval period**;
    • Mission – Theology of mission: a maturing scientific discipline – Territorial principle of Christendom**; Relationship of church to mission**; Meaning of salvation**; Interfaith witness**;
    • Mission – History of mission – Methodology**; Mediterranean development and Asian outreach**; Western concentration and expansion**; Global spread and differentiation**; Crisis and transformation: end of the 20th century and after**;
      • Mission – History of mission – Methodology – Objectives of written history**; Recent methodology*; Theological and demographic considerations**;
      • Mission – History of mission – Mediterranean development and Asian outreach – Early period**; Expansion**; Constantine to northern European expansion**; Nestorian mission in India**;
      • Mission – History of mission – Western concentration and expansion – Arabia and the Saxons**; Slavic mission and Crusades**; Peaceful mission**;
      • Mission – History of mission – Global spread and differentiation – End of the 15th century**; Reformation churches**; Orthodoxy*; Roman Catholic efforts**; Independent missions of the awkening**; Church missionary organizations**; Colonialist missions**; Missions working for the development of nationalist churches**;
      • Mission – History of mission – Crisis and transformation: end of the 20th century and after – Changes in the churches*; Challenges*; Third World development**; Western mission agencies**; Future pf mission?*;
  • Mission schools – History**; Operation**; Present situation**;
    • Mission schools – History – Goals**; Protestant schools**; Roman Catholic schools**;
    • Mission schools – Operation – Finances*; Priorities*; Statistics*; Emphases**;
      • Mission schools – Operation – Emphases – Universities**; Education of women*; Training of church leaders*; Medical schools*; Professional and trade schools*;
  • Missionary – Biblical usage*; Early church to World War II**; Changes after World War II**; Present situation**; Other religions*;
  • Missionary conferences – Early history**; Ecumenical conferences**; Evangelical conferences**;
    • Missionary conferences – Ecumenical conferences – Edinburgh, 1910*; Jerusalem, 1928*; Tambaram/Madras, 1938*; Whitby, Canada, 1947*; Willingen, West Germany, 1952*; Accra, Ghana, 1958*; Mexico City, 1963*; Bangkok, 1973*; Melbourne, 1980*; San Antonio, Texas, 1989*; Salvador, Brazil, 1996*;
    • Missionary conferences – Evangelical conferences – Wheaton, Illinois, 1966*; Berlin, 1966*; Lausanne, Switzerland, 1974*; Pattaya, Thailand, 1980*; Manila, 1989*; Singapore, 1989*; Seoul, South Korea, 1995*; Pretoria, South Africa, 1997*;
  • Missionary training – Protestant***; Roman Catholic**; Orthodox**;
    • Missionary training – Protestant – Europe**; United States**; Third World**;
      • Missionary training – Protestant – United States – Mainline denominations**; Evangelicals**; Mission centers**;
  • Mixed marriage – In Roman Catholicism*; Requirements for recognition in Catholicism, and conditions of other churches**; In Judaism*; Ecumenical dialogue**; Mixed marriages in Germany**;
  • Modern church history – Europe***; United States***; Eastern churches***; Mission and Third World churches;
    • Modern church history – Europe - 17th century**; 18th century: enlightenment**; Modernity***; 20th century**;
      • Modern church history – Europe - 17th century – Absolutism*; Pietism**; Puritanism**, Precisianism, Jansenism**;
      • Modern church history – Europe - 18th century: enlightenment – Britain**; France**; Germany**; Roman Catholicism**;
      • Modern church history – Europe – Modernity – Churches around 1800**; Social context*; Industrialization**; Church reactions**; Christian Unions**;
      • Modern church history – Europe - 20th century – Churches**; Ecclesiastical and religious developments**; National Socialism**; Late 20th century**;
    • Modern church history – United States – Survey*; Colonial era**; American Revolution and religious tolerance**; Revival and sects**; Consequences of the Civil War**; 19th and 20th centuries**; Black churches*; Roman Catholic Church*; Prospect*;
      • Modern church history – United States – Colonial era – Spanish and French colonialism*; Church of England, Puritanism, and denominational pluralism**; The Great Awakening*;
        • Modern church history – United States – Colonial era – Church of England, Puritanism, and denominational pluralism – Southern colonies**; Northern colonies**; Middle colonies*;
      • Modern church history – United States – Revival and sects – Second Great Awakening**; Sects**;
      • Modern church history – United States - 19th and 20th centuries – Challenges of the modern period and fundamentalism**; Christian Science and related movements*; Liberal Protestantism**;
    • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Orthodox Church***; Interchurch relations**;
      • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Orthodox Church – Ecumenical Patriarchate**; The Other ancient patriarchates**; Russian Orthodox Church**; Younger autocephalous churches**;
        • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Orthodox Church – The Other ancient patriarchates – Alexandria*; Antioch*; Jerusalem*;
        • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Orthodox Church – Younger autocephalous churches – Serbia*; Romania*; Bulgaria*; Others**;
          • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Orthodox Church – Younger autocephalous churches – Others – Church of Greece*; Church of Poland*; Church of Albania*; Church of Georgia*; Church in Czechoslovakia*; Orthodox Church in America*; Church of Finland*; Church of Estonia*;
      • Modern church history – Eastern churches – Interchurch relations – With Roman Catholics**; With Protestants**; Involvement in ecumenism**;
  • Modern period – Basic structures**; Political aspects**; Economic aspects**; Social aspects**; Ecclesiastical and religious aspects**;
  • Modernism – Term, contents, goals**; Range**; Antimodernism**;
    • Modernism – Range – Germany**; France**; Britain*; Italy**; Austria, Bohemia, Moravia**;
    • Modernism – Antimodernism – Integralists**; Pius X**; Germany**;
  • Modernity – The Term: history and problems**; Modernity around 1900**; Modernity from Baudelaire to the present**; Modernity as an Enlightenment project**;
    • Modernity – The Term: history and problems – The Adjective**; Denoting an Epoch**;
    • Modernity – Modernity around 1900 – Literature**; Other spheres**; Essential features**;
    • Modernity – Modernity from Baudelaire to the present – Links with tradition**; Classical and avant-garde modernity**;
    • Modernity – Modernity as Enlightenment project – Essential features**; Countertrends**; Christianity and modernity**;
      • Modernity – Modernity as Enlightenment project – Christianity and modernity – Protestantism**; Roman Catholicism**;
  • Moldova – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Moldova – Religious situation – Orthodoxy**; Evangelical Christians-Baptists and Pentecostals**; Religious diversity**;
  • Molinism – Theology of Molina**; Debate about grace**;
    • Molinism – Theology of Molina – Gratia efficiens*; Scientia media*;
  • Monarchy in Israel – Israelite monarchies**; Ideology and theology of monarchy**; Ideas of the Kingdom of God*; Messianic expectations**;
  • Monastery – Term**; Development**; Architecture**; Function**; Legal status**; New trends**;
    • Monastery – Architecture – Cluniac**; Carthusian*; Dominican and Franciscan**; Germanic abbeys*; Baroque abbeys**;
    • Monastery – Function – Points of crystallization of social life**; Economic importance*;
  • Monasticism – Definition and range*; Christian monasticism**; Rise**; Eastern monasticism**; Western monasticism***; Reformation and monasticism**;
    • Monasticism – Rise – Motives**; Egyptian beginnings**;
      • Monasticism – Rise – Egyptian beginnings – Anchorites**; Cenobites**; Spread*;
    • Monasticism – Eastern monasticism – Palestine**; Syria**; Asia Minor**; Constantinople**; Balkans and Russia**; Relations to church and society**;
      • Monasticism – Eastern monasticism – Relations to church and society – Monasticism and the church*; Basic orientation*;
    • Monasticism – Western monasticism – Organization and reform**; Differences in monasticism*; Monasticism under the sign of confessional Catholicism**;
      • Monasticism – Western monasticism – Organization and reform – Forms and rules**; Reform movements**;
      • Monasticism – Western monasticism – Monasticism under the sign of confessional Catholicism – New societies*; Renewal and decline of classic monasticism**; Monasticism in Uniate churches**; Monasticism in the 19th and 20th centuries**; Monasticism according to Vatican II**;
    • Monasticism – Reformation and monasticism – Continuities*; Criticism of monasticism**; Social and religious consequences*; Forms of Protestant monasticism*;
  • Money – Economic theory**; Establishment of the ideo of capitalist industrial society**;
  • Mongolia – General situation**; Religious situation**; State and religion**;
  • Monophysites – Origin*; Theology**; Development**;
  • Monotheism – Term**; Historical definitions**; Monotheism as a normative concept**; Monotheism in religious history**; Monotheism as a total outlook*;
    • Monotheism – Monotheism as a normative concept – No exclusion of plurality**; Partial satisfaction of the Christian norm**;
    • Monotheism – Monotheism in religious history – In Judaism*; In Christianity*; In Islam*;
  • Montanism – Oracles*; Prophecy**; Decline**;
  • Moral education – Definition**; History**; Current status**;
  • Moral theology – Term**; Content*; Basis**; Christian content*; Universal relevance**; Sin**;
  • Moravian Church – Ancient Moravian Church, 1457-1621**; Decline, 1621-1721**; Renewed Moravian Church, 1722-Present**;
    • Moravian Church – Renewed Moravian Church, 1722-Present – Zinzendorf**; Names**; Ecumenical relations**;
  • Mormons – Rise and development**; Propagation and organization**; Self-understanding*; Special teachings**; Assessment*;
    • Mormons – Special teachings – Understanding of God*; Salvation and exaltation**; Temple rituals*;
  • Morocco – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Morocco – Religious situation – Muslims**; Christians**; Jews and others*; Church and state*;
      • Morocco – Religious situation – Christians – Early Christian presence**; Modern era**;
  • Moses – Name*; Career**; Historicity**; Roles**; Interpretations**;
  • Mother goddesses – History**; Sociocultural context**;
    • Mother goddesses – History – Early Paleolithic and Ancient Greece**; Ancient Near East**; Hinduism**; Other Eastern religions**; Judaism**; Christianity**;
  • Motives, ethics of or Ethics of motive – Term*; Problems**;
  • Mozambique – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Mozambique – Religious situation – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**; Ecumenical contacts**; Islam*;
  • Myanmar – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Myanmar – Religious situation – Buddhists**; Christians**; Ecumenical relations**; Church and state**;
      • Myanmar – Religious situation – Christians – Roman Catholics**; Protestants**;
  • Mystery religions – Term*; Phenomenology**; History**; Types**; Relation to Judaism and Christianity**;
    • Mystery religions – Relation to Judaism and Christianity – Hellenistic Judaism**; Analogies of the Imperial era*; Christianity**;
  • Mystical union – Experience**; Theological reflection**;
    • Mystical union – Theological reflection – Roman Catholic**; Protestant**; Orthodox**;
  • Mysticism – History of religion***; Church history***;
    • Mysticism – History of religion – Definition in religion**; Main trends in religious history***;
      • Mysticism – History of religion – Definition in religion – General definition**; Physiology, psychology, theory of perception**; History of religion**;
      • Mysticism – History of religion – Main trends in religious history – Native cultures of America and of Northern and Central Asia*; Indus culture**; Hinduism**; Chinese mysticism*; Buddhism**; Greece**; Judaism, Christianity, and Gnosis**; Christianity and Islam**;
    • Mysticism – Church history – Concept and research**; New Testament**; Early Church**; Middle Ages**; Protestantism**; Roman Catholicism from the 16th to the 20th century**; Theological appraisal**;
      • Mysticism – Church history – Early church – Postapostolic era*; Eastern church**; Western church and Augustine;
      • Mysticism – Church history – Middle Ages – Early**; High**; Late**;
      • Mysticism – Protestantism – Luther and the Reformation era**; Heterodox Protestants**; Orthodoxy and pietism**; Enlightenment in the 20th century*;
  • Myth or Mythology – Forms**; Relations to Religion, society, and knowledge**; Demythologizing, symbolic function**;
    • Myth or Mythology – Forms – Term**; Time and place*; Presentation of the ground of being**;
    • Myth or Mythology – Relations to religion, society, and knowledge – Myth and religion**; Myth and society**; Myth and knowledge**;

N[edit]

  • Nag Hammadi – Discovery and general features**; Types**; Literary Genres and relation to the New Testament**;
  • Namibia – General situation**; Missionary churches**; Independent churches**; Ecumenical situation**; Church and state**;
    • Namibia – Missionary churches – Early missions to Namibia**; Roman Catholic*; Anglican*; Methodist*;
  • Narrative theology – The Nature of narrative**; Frei and the eclipse of Biblical narrative**; Ricoeur and the phenomenology of human experience**;
    • Narrative theology – Frei and the eclipse of Biblical narrative – Frei's concept**; Possible reemergence?**; Dialectic**;
    • Narrative theology – Ricoeur and the phenomenology of human experience – Ricouer**; Challenges from the Frei school**; David Tracy's responses**; Issues**;
  • Nation or Nationalism – Concept and development*; Social and historical development**; Nation and nationalism**; Nationalism and theology**;
    • Nation or Nationalism – Concept and development – Concept; Social and historical development;
    • Nation or Nationalism – Nation and nationalism – Before 1989**; After 1989**;
      • Nation or Nationalism – After 1989 – Eastern bloc changes**; Return of a religious conception of a nation**; Dual model**; Redefinition*;
  • National Association of Evangelicals – Origins**; Growth**; Current issues**;
  • National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. - Origins**; Self-understanding**; Function and funding**; Members**;
  • National Councils of Churches – Definition**; History**; Issues**;
  • Natural law – Term*; History**; Knowledge, content, and basis**; In Protestantism**; In Roman Catholicism**; Recent critique and constructions***;
    • Natural law – History – In antiquity**; In Christianity**; Modern period and critical natural law**;
    • Natural law – Knowledge, content, and basis – Knowledge*; Content**; Basis**;
  • Natural theology – Term**; Function**; Problem**;
    • Natural theology – Function – In the history of thought**; Reception of the church**; Contemporary ethics**;
  • Nature – History of the term**; Modern understanding**; Theological significance**;
    • Nature – History of the term – Greek philosophy**; Christian thinking**; Humanism and the Renaissance**;
  • Nature religion – Philosophical*; Theological*; Epistemological*; Anthropological*; Chronological*; Psychological*; Classificatory*;
  • Nazarene – Jesus as Nazarene**; Jewish Christian group**;
  • Neighbor – Biblical teaching**; Lifestyle*; Basic human relation*; Christian usage**;
  • Neology – Term*; Historical development**; Dogmatic position**; Supporting factors*; Theological significance**;
  • Neoscholasticism – Early history**; Franzelin and Scheebin on**;
  • Nepal – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Nepal – Religious situation – Christianity**; Other religions*;
  • Nestorians – Founding and expansion**; Situation today**; Theology and worship**;
  • Netherlands – Religious and social trends**; Protestant Churches uniting**; Other Protestant denominations**; Roman Catholic Church**; Old Catholic Church**; Migrant churches**; Ecumenical agencies**; Church and state**; Other religious groups**;
    • Netherlands – Protestant Churches uniting – Netherlands Reformed Church**; Reformed Churches in the Netherlands**; Evangelical Lutheran Church**; “Together on the Way”**;
    • Netherlands – Other Protestant denominations – Reformed**; Non-Reformed**;
      • Netherlands – Other Protestant denominations – Reformed – Christian Reformed churches**; Old Reformed congregations*; Reformed Churches (Liberated)*, Dutch Reformed churches*; Remonstrant Brotherhood**; Covenant of Free Evangelical Congregations*;
      • Netherlands – Other Protestant denominations – Non-Reformed – Mennonites*; Baptists*; Quakers*; Salvation Army*; Anglican Church*; Seventh-day Adventists*;
    • Netherlands – Migrant churches – Moravian Church**; Moluccan Evangelical Church**; Indonesian-Dutch Christian Church*; Samen Kerk in Nederland*;
    • Netherlands – Ecumenical agencies – Council of Churches in the Netherlands**; Netherlands Missionary Council**; Interchurch Contact in Government Affairs*;
    • Netherlands – Other religious groups – Muslims*; Hindus*; Buddhists*; Jews*;
  • Neurosis – Definitions**; Forms, structures, genesis**; Treatment*; Neurosis and Christian faith**;
    • Neurosis – Forms, structures, genesis – Classic conflict neuroses**; Postclassic neuroses**;
  • New religions – Term*; Continued formation**; Social and psychological reasons for creation**;
  • New self – Presuppositions*; Biblical and theological bases**; Secular analogies and psychoanalysis**; Personal identity*;
    • New self – Biblical and theological issues – Biblical**; Medieval**; Systematic theology**;
  • New Testament era, History of the or History of the New Testament era – Term, tasks, limits**; Basic features***; Missionary presuppositions in the diaspora**; Double historical effect of Destruction of the Temple**;
  • New Thought – Origins*; Rapid growth**; Theology**;
  • New Zealand – Pre-Christian**; Early mission period**; White settlement and the churches**; Maori religion after 1840**; Other 20th-century developments**;
  • Nicaea, Councils of or Councils of Nicaea – Geography and history*; First Council (325)**; Second Council (787)*;
  • Nicaragua – Colonial age**; Political emancipation**; Sandanista Revolution and the Roman Catholic Church**; Protestantism**; Ecumenical relations**;
  • Niger – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Nigeria – General situation**; Religious situation***;
    • Nigeria – Religious situation – Traditional religions*; Islam**; Christianity**; Ecumenism and dialogue**; Church and state**;
      • Nigeria – Religious situation – Christianity – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestants**; African Independent Churches**;
  • Nomads – Definition*; Major types**; Modifications**; Contemporary manifestations*;
    • Nomads – Major types – Nomadic hunters or gatherers*; Pastoral nomads*; Tinker or trader nomads*;
  • Nominalism – Origin and nature of nominalism**; Nominalism in philosophy**; Nominalism in theology**;
  • Norms – Definitions**; Philosophical norms**; Moral norms**; Theological norms**;
  • North American missions – Background*; Beginnings**; New developments**; Since 1950**;
  • North American theology – Theology as a practical discipline**; Calvinism: reactions and defense**; Rational orthodoxy**; Critical reactions**; New theological approaches**; Conservative developments**; Theological realism**; Secular theologies*; Christian thought in the secular world**; Theologies of particularity**; Theological study and publication**;
    • North American theology – Theology as a practical discipline – Samuel Willard*; Jonathan Edwards*; Responses to Edwards**; Cahrles Chauncy*;
    • North American theology – Calvinism: reactions and defense – Rejection of Calvinism**; Revise Calvinism**; Defense of Calvinism*; Other issues*;
    • North American theology – Critical reactions – Transcendalists*; Reaction against Baconian rational orthodoxy*; “Mercersburg theologians”**; Horace Bushnell*; Issues of slavery**;
    • North American theology – New theological approaches - “New theology”*; “Social gospel” theology**; Criticism of the older conception of reason**; Liberal theologies**;
    • North American theology – Conservative developments – J. Gresham Machen and Lewis S. Chafer**; C. F. H. Henry*; Cornelius van Til*;
    • North American theology – Theological realism – Term**; Others**;
    • North American theology – Christian thought in a secular world – Revision of earlier views of secularity*; Criticism of secularity*; Dialogue between secularism and faith*; Process theologians**; Definition of Christian identity**; Liturgical practice as a source for reflection*; Definitions of Christian identity from historic traditions*;
    • North American theology – Theologies of particularity – James Cone and black theology*; Feminist theology**; Diversity of new views*;
  • North Korea – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • North Korea – Religious situation – Non-Christian religions*; Roman Catholics**; Protestants**; Ecumenical contacts**;
  • Northern America – United States-Canada-Mexico**; North American distinctives***; Canadian counterpoint**; Ecumenism and mission**;
    • Northern America – North American distinctives – Space**; The Bible**; Race and ethnicity**; Pluralism***; Significance of region**;
  • Norway – Evangelical Lutheran Church (Den norske Kirke)***; Other churches**; Interchurch relations**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Norway - Evangelical Lutheran Church (Den norske Kirke) – Reformation to 1814**; Basic order**; Church movements**; Theology**; Practice**;
      • Norway - Evangelical Lutheran Church (Den norske Kirke) – Basic order – Reform**; Since 1984**; Organization*;
    • Norway – Other churches – Religious legislation*; Specific groups**;
  • Number – General*; Specific numbers**; Mystical meanings and gematria**;
    • Number – Specific numbers – One*; Two*; Three*; Four*; Five*; Six*; Seven*; Eight*; Nine*; Ten*; Eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen*; Forty*; Seventy or Seventy-two*;
  • Numbers, Book of or Book of Numbers – Title*; Contents**; Meaning and role*;

O[edit]

  • Oath – Concept and origin**; Greece and Rome**; Old Testament**; New Testament**; Judaism*; Middle Ages*; Church doctrine**; Modern law**; Problems**;
    • Oath – Church doctrine – Roman Catholic Church*; Protestant churches*;
  • Obedience – Concept**; Biblical views**; From the patristic period to the Counter-Reformation**; Modern ethical reflection**;
  • Oberammergau – History**; Anti-Judaism**; Reform**;
    • Oberammergau – Reform – The 1984 play**; The 2000 play**;
  • Occasional services – Development**; Theological problem**; Insights from the humanities**; Pastoral responsibility**;
    • Occasional services – Development – Early church and Middle Ages**; Reformation to the present**;
    • Occasional services – Theological problem – Drop in attendance**; Conditions on occasional services**;
  • Oceania – Overview**; Background**; Church and society**; Church expansion**; Church independence**; Ecumenical relations**; Relation to other religions*;
    • Oceania – Church expansion – Roman Catholic missions**; Protestant missions*; London Missionary Society and national churches*; Methodist missions*; Other Protestants*; Papua New Guinea*; Marshall Islands*; Sectarian groups*;
  • Offices – Ecclesiastical offices**; Liturgical offices*;
  • Old age – Perspectives**; Aging as a lifelong process**; Questions for the future**; An opportunity for the church**;
    • Old age – Perspectives – Biblical perspectives**; Modern concerns**;
  • Old Catholic churches – Self-understanding**; Ecumenical experience**; History**; Doctrine**; Practice*; Statistics**;
    • Old Catholic churches – Ecumenical experience – Similarities to Anglican path*; 19th century Bonn conferences**; Lateral conversations**;
  • Oman – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Ontology – Term and concept*; Ontology in the history of philosophy**; Ontology and Christian theology**;
  • Optimism and pessimism – Origin and meanings*; Conceptual problems*; Philosophy and metaphysics**; Theology and religion**;
  • Opus Dei – Origin and development**; Structure and leadership**; Work and goals**;
  • Order of salvation – General sense**; Particular sense**;
    • Order of salvation – General sense – Eastern developments**; Western developments**;
    • Order of salvation – Particular sense – Lutheran orthodoxy**; Pietism**; The 19th and 20th centuries**;
  • Ordination – Terminology**; Ecumenical dialogues**; Juridicial interpretations**; Epicletic/sacramental interpretations**; Ordination rites***; Effects of ordination**; Validity of ordination; Ordination as an ecclesial act**;
    • Ordination – Terminology – Latin**; Greek**; Germanic languages*;
    • Ordination – Juridicial interpretations – Enfeoffment**; Delegation*; Recognition*; The Calling of the church**;
    • Ordination – Epiclectic/sacramental interpretations – Middle Ages**; Ecumenical developments**;
    • Ordination – Ordination rites – Imposition of hands*; Symbols**; Vestments**; Anointing*; The Ordinance**;
    • Ordination – Effects of ordination – Absolute and relative ordination**; Succession**;
    • Ordination – Validity of ordination – Defectus*; Reordination**; Recognition of ordinations**; Ordination of women**;
    • Ordination – Ordination as an ecclesial act – Baptism**; Priesthood of all baptized believers**;
  • Organ and Organ music – The Pipe organ*; History**; Music**;
  • Organism – Term*; Biology and natural philosophy**; Political and religious analogies**;
    • Organism – Biology and natural philosophy – Teleological view**; Mechanistic view**; Kant*; Schelling*; Hegel*; 19th century mechanistic view of life**;
    • Organism – Political and religious analogies – In antiquity**; Paul*; Augustine**; State and machine*; Organization*; “Absolute organism”**; Romanticism*; Possibility of development*; 19th and 20th century views**; German sociology**;
  • Oriental Orthodox churches – Background and beliefs**; Ecumenical relations**;
  • Origenism – Term*; Origen**; Later Origenism**;
    • Origenism – Origen – Life and work**; Exegesis**; Theology**; Spirituality**;
    • Origenism – Later Origenism – A disputed legacy**; Origen and monasticism*;
  • Orthodox Christianity – Eucharistic ecclesiology**; Scripture**; Tradition**; The Teaching office**; Theological anthropology and Christology**; The Importance of images**; The Hesychast controversy*; The Holy Trinity**; Current trends**;
  • Orthodox Church – Terminology and self-understanding**; History***;
    • Orthodox Church – Terminology and self-understanding – Names**; Meaning**; Approach**; Singular versus plural**;
      • Orthodox Church – Terminology and self-understanding – Names – Orthodox Church*; Orthodox Catholic churches*; Eastern Orthodox Church*; Eastern Church*; Greek Orthodox Church*; Catholic church*; One, holy, catholic, and apostolic church*;
    • Orthodox Church – History – Structural development**; New horizons**; The East-West schism**; Reorientation and restructuring**; The Diaspora**; Orthodoxy and the oikumene**;
  • Orthodox missions – Early efforts**; Decline**; Russian contributions**; Archbishop Yannoulatos**;
    • Orthodox missions – Russian contributions – Early involvement**; 19th century*; Alaska**; Nicholas Kasatkin**;
  • Orthodoxy – Lutheran orthodoxy***; Reformed orthodoxy***; Eastern Orthodoxy;
    • Orthodoxy – Lutheran orthodoxy – Epoch**; Political context*; Cultural aspects*; Piety and theology**;
      • Orthodoxy – Lutheran orthodoxy – Piety and theology – Piety**; Theology**; Doctrinal development**;
    • Orthodoxy – Reformed orthodoxy – General character**; Early orthodoxy (ca. 1565-1640)**; High orthodoxy (ca. 1640-1725)**; The Close of the era of orthodoxy**;
      • Orthodoxy – Reformed orthodoxy – Early orthodoxy (ca. 1565-1640) – Institutionalization and theology**; Doctrinal development**; Polemical side*;
      • Orthodoxy – Reformed orthodoxy – High orthodoxy (ca. 1640-1725) – Overview**; Controversies**; Subralapsarian and infralapsarian debate**; Cocceian federalism debate*;
  • Oxford Movement – Background**; Significance**; Periods**; Legacy**;

P[edit]

  • Pacific Conference of Churches – Origin**; Organization**;
  • Pacifism – Term and usage**; Christian pacifism***; Modern pacifism (1815-1945)**; After World War II**; Ethical assessment**;
    • Pacifism – Christian pacifism – Christian origins**; Pre-Reformation pacifism**; Anabaptists and Mennonites**; Humanism and Anti-Trinitarians**; Quakers and Brethren**; Religious pacifism in America**; Modern pacifism**;
      • Pacifism – Pre-Reformation pacifism – Heretical groups*; Waldensians, Hussites, and Moravians**;
  • Paganism – Term**; Historical examples**; Modern paganism**;
    • Paganism – Modern paganism – Characteristics**; Critique**;
  • Pakistan – History**; Religion**;
    • Pakistan – Religion – Islam**; Minority religions**;
      • Pakistan – Minority religions – General situation**; Christianity**; Hinduism**;
  • Palestine – Early and Middle Bronze Ages**; The Iron Age**; From Alexander to the Ottomans**; World War I, partition, and a peace process**; The Christian presence in Palestine;
  • Panama – Historical and social context**; Church and state*; Roman Catholic Church**; Other Christian churches**; Other religious groups*; Ecumenical developments**;
  • Panentheism – History of the term**; History of the idea**; Definition***; Potential**;
    • Panentheism – Definition – The Nature of evil**; Metaphors of “in”**; Love and mutuality**; Degree Christology**;
  • Pantheism – Term**; In the history of philosophy**; In the history of theology**; In world religions*;
  • Papal States – History**; Criticism*;
  • Papua New Guinea – Christian missions and churches**; Ecumenical cooperation**; Church and state*;
  • Parable – General**; Jesus' parables***;
    • Parable – Jesus' parables – Definition and classification**; A list**; Features**; Message**; Interpretation**;
      • Parable – Jesus' parables – Features – Direct address*; Direct messages*; Common metaphors*; Surprise endings*;
      • Parable – Jesus' parables – Message – God*; Kingdom of God*; Conduct*; Wisdom and eschatology*;
  • Paradise – General*; As garden**; As island*; As mountain*; Other views*; Features*;
  • Paradox – Logic*; Theology**;
  • Paraguay – General and historical account**; Christian churches***; Interchurch relations**; Other religious groups*; Church and state**;
    • Paraguay – Christian churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Other churches**;
      • Paraguay – Christian churches – Other churches – Evangelical Church of La Plata and others**; Anglican Church in Paraguay*; Christian Church (Disciples of Chrsit)*; Baptists*; Mennonites*; Others**; Protetant statistics*;
  • Parallels and harmonies, Gospel or Gospel parallels and gospel harmonies – Early Church**; Middle Ages to the Enlightenment**; Modern period**;
  • Paraments – Definition*; On altars**; With other objects*;
    • Paraments – On altars – Roman Missal (1970)*; 19th Protestant changes**; Byzantine rite*;
  • Parapsychology – Concept**; In history**; In theology**;
  • Pariahs – Term**; In independent India**; Beyond India**;
  • Parousia – Concept**; Greek term**; New Testament development**; Conclusion*;
    • Parousia – New Testament development – Paul**; Others**;
  • Partnership – Definition*; As a general model of relationship**; As a modern form of marriage relationship**; As a modern form of male-female relationship**; Levels of partnership*; Stability of partnership**; International partnership**;
  • Passion, accounts of the or Accounts of the Passion - “Passion” as a term in the church**; The Reshaping of traditions**; Paul's accounts**; Mark's account (11:1-15:47)**; Matthew's account (21:1-27:66)**; Luke's account (19:28-23:56)**; John's account (11:45-19:42)**;
  • Passover – Name*; Origin**; Development**; In Christianity**;
    • Passover – Development – After the fall of the Temple**; Divergences**;
  • Pastor – Term**; Usage**; Current issues**;
  • Pastoral care – Historical perspective**; Present practice**; Theology and pastoral care**; The Verbal and visible Word**; Practical considerations**;
    • Pastoral care – Historical perspective – Healing*; Sustaining*; Guiding*; Reconciliation*;
  • Pastoral care of the dying – Pastoral care redefined**; Terminal care**; Significant 20th-century developments**; Practical issues**;
  • Pastoral care of the sick – Biblical, theological, historical concepts**; In the hospital: pastors and chaplains**; Functions**;
    • Pastoral care of the sick – In the hospital: pastors and chaplains – Implications of technological changes**; Non-parish clergy working in hospitals**;
  • Pastoral epistles – Origins**; Church order**; Theology**; In history**;
  • Pastoral theology – Protestant tradition***; Roman Catholic tradition***;
    • Pastoral theology – Protestant tradition – Term*; Classical period**; Modern period**; 20th century***;
      • Pastoral theology – Protestant tradition – 20th century - Broadening focus**; Narrowing focus**; Four frameworks**; Contemporary developments and debates**;
        • Pastoral theology – Protestant tradition - 20th century – Four frameworks – Personalist care and counseling*; Clinical theology*; Psychology of religion*; Clinical Pastoral Education or CPE*;
    • Pastoral theology – Roman Catholic tradition – Term*; Modern period to Vatican II**; After Vatican II***;
  • Patriarch or Patriarchate – Biblical usage*; Jewish history*; Orthodox Church**; Nestorian and Oriental Orthodox churches*; Roman Catholic Church**; Eastern Catholic churches*; Czechoslovak Hussite Church*;
  • Patriarchal narrative – History of composition***; Final form of the narrative***;
    • Patriarchal narrative – History of composition – Gunkel**; Von Rad**; Challenge to the hypothesis of early sources**; The Priestly source**;
    • Patriarchal narrative – Final form of the narrative – The First generation: Abraham**; The Second generation: Isaac**; The Third generation: Jacob**; The Fourth generation: Joseph**;
      • Patriarchyal narrative – Final form of the narrative – The First generation: Abraham – Content**; Variant forms**; Stories of blessing and protection**; Promises of child and land**; Primary characters*;
  • Patristics or Patrology – Term**; History**; Ecumenical significance**;
  • Patronage, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical patronage – Term*; Origins**; Catholic and Protestant*; Recent developments**;
  • Paul – Sources**; History***; Theology**; Influence**;
    • Paul - History – Chronology**; Background and development**; Missionary work**; Death*;
      • Paul – History – Background and development – Before conversion**; After conversion**;
    • Paul – Theology – Paul and Jesus**; Christology**; Justification**; New being**;
  • Peace – Sociology**; Theology and ethics***;
    • Peace – Sociology – Problems of definition*; Western ideas**; Peace in the nuclear age*; International law*; East-West and North-South problems**; Peace and ecology*; Peace efforts**; International organizations*;
      • Peace – Sociology – Peace efforts – Limit armaments to make them purely defensive*; Resolve tensions between states*; Promote unilateral disarmament*;
    • Peace – Theology and ethics – Biblical understanding**; Historical development**; Modern discussion**;
      • Peace – Theology and ethics – Biblical understanding – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
      • Peace – Theology and ethics – Histsorical development – Early fathers*; Augustine*; Middle Ages*; Peace of God and Peace of the land**; Martin Luther**; Post-Reformation*;
      • Peace – Theology and ethics – Modern discussion – Weapons of mass destruction can no longer be justified*; Military service and conscientious objection, and strategy of nuclear deterrence, acceptable*; Gaudium et spes*; Nonviolent peace*;
  • Peace education – Perspective and origins**; Emphases**; Concerns**; Program growth**; Optimism*;
    • Peace education – Concerns – International and global studies**; Bases of peace**; Conflict studies**;
  • Peace movements – Identification and classification**; Since 1815**; Impact**;
  • Peace research – Philosophy of war and science of peace**; Academic and governmental initiatives**; Negative and positive peace**; Journals**; Worldwide human solidarity**;
  • Peasants' War – Course**; Standard interpretations**; New perspectives**;
    • Peasants' War – New perspectives – Causes**; Goals**; Results**;
  • Pedagogy – Term**; History**; Modern academic pedagogics**;
    • Pedagogy – History – Antiquity**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Baroque period**; Enlightenment**; “German movement”**;
    • Pedagogy – Modern academic pedagogics – Pedagogy as a science**; Relation with other disciplines**; Comparative pedagogics**;
      • Pedagogy – Modern academic pedagogics – Pedagogy as a science – Scientific approach*; Empirical emphasis*; Critical theory of the Frankfurt school*; Realistic pedagogies*; Critically rational science of education*;
  • Pelagianism – Definition*; Pelagius' teaching**; Two phases of the controversy**; Semi-Pelagianism**; Pelagianism in church history**;
    • Pelagianism – Two phases of the controversy – 411-18**; 418-31*;
  • Penitence – History***; Dogmatic and ethical aspects**; Roman Catholic understanding and practice**;
    • Penitence – History – Jesus and the primitive community**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Modern period**;
    • Penitence – Dogmatic and ethical aspects – Concept**; Modern teaching and preaching**; Ethical relevance**;
    • Penitence – Roman Catholic understanding and practice – Teaching**; Sacrament**; Structural sin**; The Churches and penitence**;
  • Pentateuchal research – Sources**; Oral stage**; Modern views**;
    • Pentateuchal research – Sources - 19th century*; Later*;
    • Pentateuchal research – Sources – Oral state – von Rad and Noth**; Recent views*;
    • Pentateuchal research – Sources – Modern views – Alternative theories**; Opposition to von Rad*; P never independent?*; Limitations of new theories**; Possible hard limitations*;
  • Pentecost – Old Testament*; Early Judaism**; New Testament**; Liturgical development*;
  • Pentecostal churches – Distinctive characteristics**; Origins**; Early groupings**; Early 20th-century developments**; Later 20th-century developments**; Summary and projections**;
    • Pentecostal churches – Early groupings – Holiness-Pentecostal churches*; By race**; By theology**;
    • Pentecostal churches – Early 20th-century developments - Wesleyan pentecostal churches**; “Finished work” churches**; Oneness churches**;
    • Pentecostal churches – Later 20th-century developments – Charismatic movement**; Third Wave movement*; Nondenominational movement**; Indigenous churches movement**;
  • Pentecostalism – Term**; Historical developments***; Evaluation**;
    • Pentecostalism – Historical developments – Roman Catholic and Holiness roots**; Black and oral roots**; Types of spirituality**; Organizational evolution**; Worldwide trends and ecumenism**;
    • Pentecostalism – Evaluation – Missiology**; Hermeneutics**; Pneumatology**; Wider interactions*;
  • People of God – The Bible**; Church history**; Systematic theology**;
    • People of God – The Bible – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • Perfection – Term**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Early modern church**; Recent expressions**;
    • Perfection – Recent expressions - 19th century**; New denominations**; Bonhoeffer*;
  • Persecution of Christians – Term**; Roman Empire**; Middle Ages and Modern times**; 20th and 21st centuries***;
    • Persecution of Christians – Term – Significance**; Martyrdom and mission**; Christians as persecutors*;
    • Persecution of Christians – Roman Empire – Early animus against Christians**; Roman law**; Empirewide persecution**; Figures**;
    • Persecution of Christians – Middle Ages and modern times – Disappearing churches**; Persecution of heretics**; French Revolution**;
    • Persecution of Christians - 20th and 21st centuries – The USSR and Eastern Europe**; Latin America**; The New century**;
      • Persecution of Christians - 20th and 21st centuries – The USSR and Eastern Europe – Early years**; After World War II**;
      • Persecution of Christians - 20th and 21st centuries – The New century – Communist countries**; South Asia**; Muslim world**; Elsewhere**;
  • Persons with disabilities – Terms and statistics**; Approaches to caregiving**; Opportunities for the church**;
  • Peru – Historical context**; Religious context***; Interchurch relations**; Other religious groups**;
    • Peru – Historical context – Early years**; Recent years**;
    • Peru – Religious context – Roman Catholicism**; Protestantism**;
  • Peter – Before Easter**; After Easter**; In tradition**; The Papacy**;
  • Peter, Epistles of or Epistles of Peter – First Peter**; Second Peter**;
  • Pharisees – Sources*; History**; Distinctives**;
  • Phenomenology – Term*; Husserl**; Development**;
  • Phenomenology of religion – Term and beginnings**; Religious phenomena**; Features of religion**; Tasks**;
  • Philadelphian Society – History**; Beliefs*;
  • Philippians, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Philippians – General features**; Content**; History of reception and the Philippians hymn**;
  • Philippines – General situation**; Religious situation***;
    • Philippines – Religious situation – Christianizing**; Protestant churches**; Roman Catholic Church**; Social role of the churches**; Non-Christian religions**;
  • Philocalia – Basil of Caesarea*; Macarius Notarus**; 1978 Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies philocalia**;
  • Philo-Semitism – Term**; Jewish evaluation**; National socialism**; After 1945*; Anglo-Saxon use*; Original use*;
  • Philosophy – Introduction**; Western philosophy***; Asian philosophy**; Philosophies of distinctive groups**; Feminist approaches**;
    • Philosophy – Western philosophy – Eras**; Topics***;
      • Philosophy – Western philosophy – Topics – Logic**; Metaphysics and epistemology**; Philosophy of science*; Philosophy of mind*; Ethics**; Aesthetics**; Philosophy of religion*; Philosophy of human nature*; Social and political philosophy**; Other**;
        • Philosophy – Western philosophy – Topics – Logic – Deductive logic*; Inductive logic*; Informal logic*;
        • Philosophy – Western philosophy – Topics – Ethics – Moral philosophy*; Applied ethics*;
        • Philosophy – Western philosophy – Topics – Social and political philosophy – Philosophy of social science*; Philosophy of history*;
    • Philosophy – Philosophies of distinctive groups – Black philosophy*; Feminist philosophy*; Latin American philosophy*;
    • Philosophy – Feminist approaches – Critical perspective**; Goal of feminist philosophy**;
      • Philosophy – Feminist approaches – Critical perspective – Applied to texts that do not seem to have any bearing on sexual discrimination*; Applied to texts that do have a bearing on sexual discrimination*;
  • Philosophy and theology – New Testament background*; Early Christianity**; Middle Ages and Reformation**; Modernity**; Theology and analytic philosophy**;
    • Philosophy and theology – Middle Ages and Reformation – Logic and Aristotle**; Reformation*;
    • Philosophy and theology – Modernity – Priority of philosophy**; Theology turning to philosophy*; Rejection of modern philosophy*; Separate territories**; Priority of theology*;
  • Philosophy of history – Antiquity and Christianity**; Enlightenment**; The Problem of freedom**; Modern period**;
  • Philosophy of nature – Term and concept**; Philosophies of nature in Western thought***;
    • Philosophy of nature – Philosophies of nature in Western thought – Ancient*; Medieval to early modern*; British Empiricism*; Kant and the 19th century*; 20th century*;
  • Philosophy of religion – The Field**; Monotheism***; Faith and reason**; Other questions about monotheism**; Words and their limits**; Conclusion**; Problems**;
    • Philosophy of religion – Monotheism – Anselm, Aquinas, Scotus**; Teleological arguments**;
    • Philosophy of religion – Problems – Proper orientation of the field**; Conflicting ultimate claims**; Focus on the field of thought**;
  • Philosophy of science – Historical development**; Modern approaches**; Scientific methods*;
  • Physicotheology – Roots**; Developments**; Evaluation**;
  • Pietism – Term, movement, time span**; History***; Evaluation;
    • Pietism – History – Roots and heritage*; 17th-century movements of piety**; Reformed and Lutheran pietism in the second half of the 17th century**; Halle pietism**; Radical pietism*; Zinzendorf and the Moravians*; Württemberg pietism**; Pietism beyond Germany**; Post-Enlightenment pietism**; Pietism in the 19th and 20th centuries**;
    • Pietism – Evaluation – Theology*; Social aspects*; Effects*;
  • Pilgrimage – Religious data**; Christian pilgrimages**;
    • Pilgrimage – Religious data – Term**; Old Testament**; Islam*;
    • Pilgrimage – Christian pilgrimages – History**; Theology**;
      • Pilgrimage – Christian pilgrimages – History – Pre-Reformation**; Protestant**; Postreformation Catholic**;
      • Pilgrimage – Christian pilgrimages – Theology – Cult of the martyrs**; Age of polemics**; Role of prayer**; Mass pilgrimages**;
  • Platonism – Term**; Plato's philosophy***; Neoplatonism**; Christian Platonism**; Renaissance Platonism and Platonism Today**;
    • Platonism – Plato's philosophy – Dialogues**; Main theses**; Influence**;
      • Platonism – Plato's philosophy – Dialogues – Socratic dialogues*; Middle dialogues*; Later dialogues*;
      • Platonism – Plato's philosophy – Main theses – Ideas**; Archetypes**; Republic**; Cosmology**;
      • Platonism – Plato's philosophy – Influence – Beginnings**; Criticism of Stoicism**; Poseidonius, Neopythagoreans, and Ammonius Saccas;
    • Platonism – Neoplatonism – Plotinus and successors**; Proclus and systematization*;
    • Platonism – Renaissance Platonism and Platonism Today – Renaissance*; In Germany**; In Britain**;
  • Play – Anthropological sense**; References in practical theology**;
    • Play – References in practical theology – In religious socialization*; Play and cult, ritual, liturgy**; Role in pastoral care**; Possible vs. real**;
  • Pluralism – Political and social aspects**; Religious and theological aspects***; Ecumenical aspects**;
    • Pluralism – Political and social aspects – Pluralism and democracy**; Criticism of pluralism**;
    • Pluralism – Religious and theological aspects – Its many facets**; Within the church and theology**; Opportunities and limitations; God, revelation, truth, and paradox**;
      • Pluralism – Religious and theological aspects – Its many facets – Role of the church**; Third World societies**;
      • Pluralism – Religious and theological aspects – Within the church and theology – Pluralism opens the way for dissonances and discords**; In the New Testament**; Pluralism of theologies**;
      • Pluralism – Religious and theological aspects – Opportunities and limitations – Theology no longer determined or limited by denomination**; Balancing of opportunities and limits**;
      • Pluralism – Religious and theological aspects – God, revelation, truth, and paradox – Revelation and truth involve contingency and complexity**; Comparison and interpretation of divergent positions**;
  • Poland – Change*; Churches**; Church relations and cooperation**; Church and state**; Non-Christian groups**;
    • Poland – Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Orthodox Church*; Uniates**; Historic Protestants**; Old Catholic churches*; Free churches and marginal groups**;
    • Poland – Church relations and cooperation – Polish Ecumenical Council**; Roman Catholic efforts**; Steps of cooperation**; Christian Theological Academy*;
    • Poland – Church and state – Roman Catholic Church**; Minority churches**;
    • Poland – Non-Christian groups – Jews**; Muslims**; Karaites*; Others*;
  • Political parties – Term**; Historical roots**; Tasks**; Problems of structure and function**; Rapid contemporary changes*; Christian political parties**;
  • Political theology – Origins**; Augustine through the Reformation**; The Trend toward statism**; Recasting the term: Schmitt and Bloch**; Metz and Moltmann**; New turns in political theology**;
  • Politics – Term**; The Rise of Western political philosophy**; The Role of the priestly class**; Polity and policy as the human exercise of power**; 20th-century violations of just law**; 21st-century challenges**;
  • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Overview**; Protestant***; Roman Catholic***; Anglican**;
    • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Protestant – The Connectional role of polity**; The Disciplinary function of polity**; Matters of dispute**;
    • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Roman Catholic – Roman Catholic Church**; Twin foci of authority; Tensions between the universal church and particular churches**; Intermediate levels of authority**; Church property**; Dispute resolution**; Church-state relations**;
      • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Roman Catholic – Roman Catholic Church – A Communion of churches**; A Visible society*;
      • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Roman Catholic – Twin foci of authority – Supreme authority*; Episcopal authority in the local churches*;
        • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Roman Catholic – Twin foci of authority – Supreme authority – College of Bishops*; Roman Pontiff*;
      • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Intermediate levels of authority – Metropolitans or archbishops*; Patriarchs*; Primates*; Episcopal conferences*;
    • Polity, ecclesiastical or Ecclesiastical polity – Anglican – The Problem of jurisdiction**; The Global communion**; Instruments of unity**; “Bonds of affection” and growing tensions**;
  • Polytheism – Term**; Religious studies**;
  • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects***; Systematic and ecumenical aspects***;
    • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – General**; Roman Empire**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Modern period**; Papalism**; Papal election**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – General – Philosophy of history*; Self-understanding and claim**; Term and customs*; Biblical appeals of the Roman church*;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – Roman Empire – Early years**; Leo I to Byzantine Empire**; Byzantine period**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – Middle Ages – Franks**; Nicholas I to Leo IX**; Leo IX to Council of Florence**; Investiture Controversy**; Innocent III to Bonfiace VIII, “century of the papacy”**; Avignon Papacy to Reformation**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – Reformation – Luther* and Reformers**; Counterreformation**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – Modern period – To the French Revolution*; To Pius IX**; Pius IX**; Leo XIII on**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Historical aspects – Papal election – Historical development**; 1983 Code of canon law**;
    • Pope or Papacy – Systematic and ecumenical aspects – Denominational discussion**; Supreme office of unity**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Systematic and ecumenical aspects – Denominational discussion – Protestant and Roman Catholic positions**; Ecumenical discussion**; Perspectives**;
      • Pope or Papacy – Systematic and ecumenical aspects – Supreme office of unity – Jurisdicational primacy**; Infallibility**; Perspectives**;
  • Popular Catholicism – Pre-Vatican II*; The Ordinary person**; Outward forms, inner dimensions**; Social history**;
  • Popular religion – Sociological data**; Third World data***;
    • Popular religion – Sociological data – History of the term**; Religion of the elite and of the masses*; Representatives**; Forms**;
    • Popular religion – Third World data – Popular religion and mission**; Asia**; Africa*; Latin America*; Theological debates**;
      • Popular religion – Sociological data – Forms – Veneration of saints*; Religious festivals*; Marginal religious practices*;
  • Portugal – General situation**; Churches**; Interchurch relations**; Church and state*; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Portugal – Churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**; Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons*;
    • Portugal – Interchurch relations – Groups**; Difficulties resulting from Catholic majority**;
  • Porvoo Common Statement – Background**; Issues**; Developments**; Questions**;
  • Positivism – Nature and origins**; 19th century**; 20th century**;
    • Positivism - 20th century – Natural science and philosophy**; Law, religion, and social science**;
  • Postmodernism – Terms***; Critics of postmodernism**; Postmodern and postliberal challenges to modern liberal Christian theology***; What comes after postmodernism?**;
    • Postmodernism – Terms – Modernity**; Modernism**; Western Marxism and modernism**; Postmodernism**;
    • Postmodernism – Postmodern and postliberal challenges to modern liberal Christian theology – The Neoorthodox theology of Karl Barth**; Postliberal theology**; Radical orthodoxy**; Deconstructive theology*;
      • Postmodernism – Postmodern and postliberal challenges to modern liberal Christian theology – Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations*; Holmer's The Grammar of Faith*; Lindbeck's The Nature of Doctrine**; Alastair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas**;
  • Poverty – A Global phenomenon**; Response**; Approaches of theology**; Biblical teaching**; Voluntary poverty**;
    • Poverty – A Global phenomenon – The Vicious cycle**; Definition**; Measurement**;
    • Poverty – Response – United Nations*; Ecumenical movement**;
    • Poverty - Approaches of theology – Systematic theology*; Liberation theology*; Practical theology*;
  • Power – Sociological aspects***; Theological aspects**; Ecclesiological aspects**;
    • Power – Sociological aspects – Term*; Definition**; Organization*; Community*; Politics**; Modern developments**;
      • Power – Sociological aspects – Modern developments – Power elites*; Power and violence*; Recent popularization*;
    • Power – Theological aspects – Anthropological definition**; Political theories**; Biblical tradition**; Theological tradition**; Tasks**; Church tradition**; Social ethics**;
    • Power – Ecclesiological aspects – Theology and power*; Use in denominations**; Power, law, truth, and love*; Church government**; Ecclesiological implications**; Tasks*; Ultimate responsibility*;
  • Practical theology – Development in Protestant Germany***; Anglo-American developments**; Roman Catholicism***;
    • Practical theology – Development in Protestant Germany – Historical development**; Present situation**;
      • Practical theology – Development in Protestant Germany – Historical development – Term**; Rise**; After Schleiermacher**;
      • Practical theology – Development in Protestant Germany – Present situation – Issues**; Main problems**;
    • Practical theology – Anglo-American developments – Initial reception**; Transformations**; New developments**;
    • Practical theology – Roman Catholicism – Term*; After Vatican II**; Specific questions and problems**;
      • Practical theology – Roman Catholicism – After Vatican II – Change from pastoral theology to practical theology*; Practical theology's understanding of itself**; Fresh discussion**;
      • Practical theology – Roman Catholicism – Specific questions and problems – To be in accord with threefold schema of seeing, judging, and acting*; Link between practical theology and the social and humane sciences*; Different methodologies for the various forms of practical theology*; Wisdom or science?*; Deepening of the theoretical paradigm of action and more pronounced phenomenological or aesthetic foundation*; Post Vatican II*;
  • Pragmatism – Origin*; Development**; Evaluation**;
  • Prayer – Religious aspects**; Dogmatic aspects***; Pastoral aspects**; Liturgical aspects**;
    • Prayer – Religious aspects – General**; Terminology and typology**; Content and purpose**; Gestures and means**; Times and places**; Christian*;
    • Prayer – Dogmatic aspects – Biblical understanding**; Present situation**; Theology of prayer**; Ecumenical perspectives**;
      • Prayer – Dogmatic aspects – Biblical understanding – Old Testament**; New Testament**;
      • Prayer – Dogmatic aspects – Theology of prayer – Presupposition of a doctrine of God*; Mystical approach**; Modern discussion**;
      • Prayer – Dogmatic aspects – Ecumenical perspectives – Roman Catholic Church*; Reformation**; Orthodox*; Charismatic*; Ecumenical*; Interreligious or multireligious prayer?*;
    • Prayer – Pastoral aspects – Secular crisis**; Basic forms**; Traditional and new forms**; Ecumenical stimulus**; Sociological insights**; Lifelong learning**;
    • Prayer – Liturgical aspects – Historical basis*; Liturgical development**; Theological evaluation**; New forms**;
  • Preaching – Basis**; Historical perspective***; Ecumenical problems**; Modern discussion**; Theology**;
    • Preaching – Historical perspective – Early church**; Augustine**; Middle Ages**; Reformation**; To the 19th century**;
    • Preaching – Ecumenical problems – Orthodox Church**; Roman Catholic Church**; American Protestantism**;
    • Preaching – Modern discussion – Diminished interest in rhetoric*; Changes in emphasis**; Urgent problems**;
      • Preaching – Modern discussion – Urgent problems – Liturgical place of preaching*; Language of preaching**;
    • Preaching – Theology – Gospel**; Word of God**; Holy Spirit**;
  • Precepts of the church – Term*; History**; Purpose*; Binding character*;
  • Predestination – Antiquity**; Middle Ages**; The Reformation**; Modern Period**;
  • Prejudice – Term*; Pathology**; Approach*;
  • Priest or Priesthood – Religion**; Old Testament**; Roman Catholicism**; Priesthood of all believers**;
    • Priest or Priesthood – Religion – Definition**; Personal characteristics**; Priesthood**; Priestesses*; Hostility to priests*;
    • Priest or Priesthood – Old Testament – Premonarchic era**; Under the monarchy**; Exilic era*; Postexilic era*;
    • Priest or Priesthood – Roman Catholicism – Biblical data**; Historical data**; Vatican II**; Ecumenical considerations**;
      • Priest or Priesthood – Roman Catholicism – Historical data – Third century to Reformation**; Reformation on**;
    • Priest or Priesthood – Priesthood of all believers – New Testament**; Middle Ages*; Luther**; Development in Protestant churches**; Anglican Communion**; Ecumenical aspects**;
  • Primeval history (Genesis 1-11) – History of composition**; Final form**;
    • Primeval history (Genesis 1-11) – History of composition – J and P sources**; Other sources**; Redaction**;
    • Primeval history (Genesis 1-11) – Final form – Creation and sin**; Genealogies*; The Flood**; The Tower of Babel**; Theme and function*;
  • Primitive Christian community – Sources**; Expectation of the Parousia**; Development**; Self-understanding**; Gentile and Jewish Christians**;
  • Prison ministry – Basic data**; Issues of church and state in prison**; Social conflicts and the United States**; Developments in penal law and practice*;
  • Process philosophy – The Task of philosophy**; Two kinds of process**; Panexperientalism and the mind-body relation**; Perception and prehension**; Reconciling science and religion**; Development and influence**;
  • Process theology – Whitehead and Hartshorne**; Process theology as philosophical theology***; Process theology as distinctively Christian theology**;
    • Process theology – Process theology as philosophical theology – Divine dipolarity and perfection**; Naturalistic theism and the problem of evil**; Creation and evolution**; Religious pluralism**; Ecological and feminist theology**;
    • Process theology – Process theology as distinctively Christian theology – God as trinitarian**; Incarnational Christology**; Salvation**;
  • Processions – Term**; Biblical models*; In church history**;
    • Processions – In church history – Early forms**; Reformation and subsequent**;
  • Proclamation – Term**; Context*; Event**; Trinitarian structure*; The Church and proclamation**;
    • Proclamation – Event – Speaker**; Audience**; Message*;
  • Program to Combat Racism – Early history**; Content and implementation**; Ecumenical discussion**;
  • Progress – Concept**; Antiquity**; Christian tradition**; Renaissance and Enlightenment**; Criticism**;
  • Promise and fulfillment – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Church history*; Dogmatics**; Ethics**;
  • Property – Concept**; Development**; Property in the theological tradition**; Present discussion**; Future tasks**;
    • Property – Development – Prior to liberal concept**; Liberal concept**; Constitutional protection and ambivalent results**; Marxist socialism**;
    • Property – Property in the theological tradition – Old Testament and New Testament**; Christian ethics**; Theological basis**;
    • Property – Present discussion – Roman Catholic and Protestant teaching**; Social and ethical problems**;
    • Property – Future tasks – Relation to world economic order**; Ecumenical discussion**;
  • Prophet or Prophecy – Religions**; Old Testament***; New Testament***;
    • Prophet or Prophecy – Religions – Definition**; Old Testament background**; Iran*; Gnosticism*; Islam**; Developments**; Crisis cultures**;
    • Prophet or Prophecy – Old Testament – Term**; Stories**; Writing prophets**; Prophetic speech**; Prophets and other groups (Cult, Wisdom, Deuteronomists)**; End of prophecy**;
      • Prophet or Prophecy – Prophets and other groups (Cult, Wisdom, Deuternomists) – Cult**; Wisdom**; Deuteronomists*;
    • Prophet or Prophecy – New Testament – Old Testament prophets in the New Testament**; John the Baptist and Jesus as prophets**; Prophetic aspects of the apostolate**; Itinerant and community prophets**; False prophets*; Early church**;
  • Protestantism – Term and history of meaning**; Social phenomenon**; Dogmatic elements**; Global Protestantism**; Ecumenicity**;
    • Protestantism – Term and history of meaning – Term*; Early use**; Troeltsch**;
    • Protestantism – Social phenomenon – Multifacted nature*; Close relation to middle-class societey and culture**; Post World War II Germany**;
    • Protestantism – Dogmatic elements – Doctrinal and cultural diversity**; Impact of ecumenical movement**;
    • Protestantism – Global Protestantism – Beyond the historic Reformation churches**; Commonality of Calvinist and Methodist approaches**; Pentecostalism*;
    • Protestantism – Ecumenicity – Early impact*; Modern ecumenical movement**; Recent developments**; Task of Protestantism in an ecumenical world*;
  • Protevangelium – Regarding Genesis 3:15**; As title for the Protevangelium of James*;
  • Proverbs, Book of or Book of Proverbs – Description**; Structure**; Place in the canon*; Contents**;
    • Proverbs, Book of or Book of Proverbs – Structure – Fatherly instruction**; Solomon collection*; Egyptianizing teaching*; Hezekiah collection**; Agur*; King Lemuel of Massa*;
  • Providence – Source and history of the idea**; Modern problems**;
    • Providence – Structure and history of the idea – God's relation to the world as active caring*; In Greek philosophy**; In Hellenistic Judaism*; In the New Testament**; Augustine and Aquinas**; Reformation**; Leibniz**;
    • Providence – Modern problems – Problem of theodicy*; Barth*; Pneumatological approach**;
  • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Old Testament***; Liturgical use**;
    • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Old Testament – Terms and place in canon**; Arrangement, series, and part collections**; Authorship, transmission, use**; Form and style**; Grouping and classification**; Headings**; Near Eastern analogies*; Relations to cult, wisdom, and prophecy**; Theology**;
      • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Authority, transmission, use – Individual prayers*; Hymns*; Wisdom songs*; Final verses*; Royal YHWH hymns*;
      • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Form and style – Meter*; Parallelism*; Alliteration of consonants and assonance of vowels*;
    • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Liturgical use – Assumptions*; Decline**; Revival in the Reformation**; Liturgical movements**; Questions*;
      • Psalms, Book of or Book of Psalms – Liturgical use – Decline – Canonical hours**; Eucharistic**;
  • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha***; New Testament pseudepigrapha and apocrypha;
    • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Apocalyptic literature and related works**; Testaments**; Expansions of the Old Testament and legends**; Wisdom and philosophical literature**; Prayers, psalms, and odes**; Fragments of lost Judeo-Hellenistic works**; Addenda**; Conclusion**;
      • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Apocalyptic literature and related works – 1 Enoch or Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch*; 2 Enoch or Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch*; 3 Enoch or Hebrew Apocalypse of Enoch*; Sibylline Oracles*; Treatise of Shem*; Apocryphon of Ezekiel*; Apocalypse of Zephaniah*; Fourth Book of Ezra*; Greek Apocalypse of Ezra*; Vision of Ezra*; Questions of Ezra*; Revelations of Ezra*; Apocalypse of Sedrach*; 2 Baruch or Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch*; 3 Baruch or Greek Apocalypse of Baruch*; Apocalypse of Abraham*; Apocalypse of Adam*; Apocalypse of Elijah*; Apocalypse of Daniel*;
      • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Testaments – Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs*; Testament of Job*; Testament of the Three Patriarchs**; Testament of Moses*; Testament of Solomon*; Testament of Adam*;
        • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Testaments – Testament of the Three Patriarchs – Testament of Abraham*; Testament of Isaac*; Testament of Jacob*;
      • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Expansions of the Old Testament and legends – Letter of Aristeas*; Book of Jubilees*; Martyrdom of Isaiah and Ascension of Isaiah*; Joseph and Aseneth*; Life of Adam and Eve*; Pseudo-Philo*; Lives of the Prophets*; Ladder of Jacob*; 4 Baruch*; Jamnes and Jambres*; History of the Rechabites*; Eldad and Modad*; History of Joseph*;
      • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Wisdom and philosophical literature – Ahiqar*; 3 Maccabees*; 4 Maccabees*; Pseudo-Phocylides*; The Sentences of the Syriac Menander*;
      • Pseudepigrapha – Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Prayers, psalms, and odes – More Psalms of David*; Prayer of Manasseh*; Psalms of Solomon*; Hellenistic synagogal prayers*; Prayer of Joseph*; Prayer of Jacob*; Odes of Solomon*;
      • Pseudepigrapha - Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Fragments of lost Judeo-Hellenistic works – Philo the Epic Poet*; Theodotus*; Orphica*; Ezekiel the Tragedian*; Fragments of Pseudo-Greek poets*; Aristobulus*; Demetrius the Chronographer*; Aristeas the Exegete*; Eupolemus*; Pseudo-Eupolemus*; Cleodemus Malchus*; Artapanus*; Pseudo-Hecataeus*;
      • Pseudepigrapha - Old Testament pseudepigrapha – Addenda – Book of the Giants*; Apocalypse of Elkesai*; Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius*; Pseudo-Philo: On Jonah*; Pseudo-Philo: On Samson*; The Ethiopic History of Joseph*; Mani Codex*;
    • Pseudepigrapha – New Testament pseudepigrapha and apocrypha – Definition and background**; Gospels and related writings*; Acts*; Letters*; Apocalypses*; Others*;
  • Psychiatry – Definitions**; The Psychiatric interview**; Diagnosis**; Psychiatric treatment**; Psychiatry and theology**;
    • Psychiatry – Psychiatric treatment – Psychotherapy*; Medication*; Electroconvulsive therapy*; Hospitalization*;
  • Psychoanalysis – Terms and definitions**; Development of Freud's thought**; Beyond Freud**; Culture*;
    • Psychoanalysis – Terms and definitions – Psychoanalysis*; Repression*; Transference*; Infantile sexuality*; Dreams*;
    • Psychoanalysis – Development of Freud's thought – Libido theory**; Metapsychology*; Theory of aggression**; Structural theory*; Religion and culture**;
  • Psychology – Definition**; History**; Methods**; Fields and trends**; Psychology and theology**;
    • Psychology – Fields and trends – General psychology*; Personality psychology*; Applied psychology*;
  • Psychology of religion – The Discipline and its projects**; Describing religious experience and expression**; Explaining religious phenomena**; Tracing out the consequences of religion**; The Status of the psychology of religion today;
    • Psychology of religion – Explaining religious phenomena – Biological perspective**; Freudian psychoanalysis**; Object relations theory**; Analytical psychology**; Other explanatory perspectives**;
  • Psychosis – Definitions**; Changes in understanding**; Types of psychotic disorders**; Etiology*; Treatment*; Creative illness**; Pastoral care**;
  • Psychotherapy – Definition*; Basis and goals**; Methods and settings**; Indications*; Chances and possibilities of healing**; Confidentiality**; Finances*; Pastoral care**;
    • Psychotherapy – Methods and settings – Psychoanalysis**; Group psychotherapy**; Family therapy*; Couples therapy*; Behavior therapy**; Cognitive therapy**; Pastoral counseling*; Other methods**;
  • Public health – Critical Christian contributions**; Environment, sanitation, and demography**; Reorientation**; Relevance and challenges**;
    • Public health – Critical Christian contributions – Valuing all humanity equally*; Community health**;
  • Public theology – Term**; Development of the concept**; Politics and public theology**; Contributions of Roman Catholicism**; The Emerging global civil society**; Christianity and public theology**;
  • Punishment – Legal aspects***; Ethical and theological aspects**; Pedagogical aspects**;
    • Punishment – Legal aspects – Sanctions**; Aims and justification**; Types of punishment past and present**; International perspectives**;
      • Punishment – Legal aspects – Aims and justification – As a fulfillment of justice*; As expiation*; As a deterrent**;
    • Punishment – Ethical and theological aspects – Place in the system**; Recent criminological research**; Modern ethical and theological thinking**;
      • Punishment – Ethical and theological aspects – Recent criminological research – Labeling theory*; Foucault**;
    • Punishment – Pedagogical aspects – Definition and types of corrective punishment**; In history**; Problems**; Theological considerations**;
  • Purgatory – Before the Reformation**; Reformation and Council of Trent**; New developments in Roman Catholic understanding**;
  • Puritans – Term**; History***; In colonial America**;
    • Puritans – History – Elizabeth**; James I**; Civil War**; Cromwell**; Restoration**; End of the Puritans**;

Q[edit]

  • Q – And the two-source theory**; Modern research**; In 20th century research**;
  • Qatar – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Qatar – General situation – Independent history**; Regional impact**; Economy and population**;
  • Quantum theory – The Quantum principle**; Schrödinger's wave mechanics**; Interpretations of quantum theory**; Quantum field theory**;
  • Qumran – General data**; Significance for the Old Testament*; Significance for early Judaism*; Significance for early Christianity**;
    • Qumran – General data – Texts*; Archaeology*; Paleography*; Library**; Historical identification**; Faith and life**;
  • Qur’ān – Etymology**; Reception**; Compilation**; Language and style**; The Qur’ānic message**; The Impact of the Qur’ān**;

R[edit]

  • Rabbi or Rabbinism – Definition**; History**; Women rabbis**; Rabbinism**;
    • Rabbi or Rabbinism – History – Second Temple Period to the Middle Ages**; Since Jewish emancipation**;
      • Rabbi or Rabbinism – History – Second Temple Period to the Middle Ages – Immediate impact*; Talmudic period to the Middle Ages**; Middle Ages**;
  • Racism – Sociological aspects***; Theological and ecumenical aspects***; Case studies**;
    • Racism – Sociological aspects – Term and types; Racism and nation**; Sociopsychological explanations**;
      • Racism – Sociological aspects – Terms and types – State racism*; Economic racism*; Political-ideological racism*; Scientific racism*; Racism of public opinion*; Everyday racism*; Violent racism*;
    • Racism – Theological and ecumenical aspects – Theological reflection**; U.N. Statements**; Engagement of the World Council of Churches**; Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed responses**;
    • Racism – Case studies - The United States**; South Africa**;
  • Rastafarians – Background**; Beliefs and practices**;
  • Rationalism – Term**; In philosophy**; In theology**;
  • Readings, scripture or Scripture readings – Background; History***; Theology*;
    • Readings, scripture or Scripture readings – Background – Terminology**; Function*; Selection**;
    • Readings, scripture or Scripture readings – History – Early development**; 4th-century patterns**; Medieval form**; Reformation solutions**; Modern developments**;
  • Realism – Term and concept**; In the history of philosophy**; Types**;
  • Reason – Term and issues**; In Western thought***; Reason and religious faith**;
    • Reason – In Western thought – Ancient to early modern**; Kant and afterward**; Critics of rationality**;
  • Reception, ecumenical or Ecumenical reception – Term and usage**; Classical reception**; Second Vatican Council*; Recent practice**;
    • Reception, ecumenical or Ecumenical reception – Classical reception – Biblical usage**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Protestant Reformation and after**;
  • Reconciliation – Term**; Meaning**; History of theology**; New interpretations**; Shift of meaning**;
  • Reductions – Caribbean and Central America**; South America**;
  • Reform councils – Term and prior history**; 15th-century reform councils**; Results**;
    • Reform councils – 15th-century councils – Pisa*; Constance**; Basel**;
  • Reformation – Term**; Pre-Reformation movements**; The Protestant Reformation***; Course***; Impact**;
    • Reformation – The Protestant Reformation – Message and doctrine**; Propagation**; Introduction**; Establishment**; Revolution?**;
    • Reformation – Course – Germany**; Switzerland***; France**; The Netherlands**; England**; Scotland**; The Nordic countries**; The Baltic countries**; Eastern Europe**; Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia**; Hungary**; Slovenia and Croatia**; Italy**; Spain**;
      • Reformation – Course – Germany – Development of the message*; Start of the movement**; Founding of churches*; Emergence of “Protestantism”**;
      • Reformation – Course – The Nordic countries – Denmark**; Norway*; Iceland*; Sweden**; Finland**;
      • Reformation – Course – The Baltic countries – Livonia (Latvia and Estonia)**; Lithuania*;
      • Reformation – Course – Eastern Europe – Prussia*; Poland**;
      • Reformation – Course – Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia – Bohemia**; Moravia*; Silesia**;
  • Reformation principles – Early Reformation exclusion of concept of potential justification by works**; 19th century on concept of sola fide and sola scriptura as “material” or “formal” principles of Protestantism*;
  • Reformed and Presbyterian churches – Term and origins**; Distinctive doctrines**; Confession**; Range***; Unity and diversity**;
  • Reformed tradition – Terms**; Development of Reformed churches**; Reformed Christians in Britain**; Reformed Christians in America***; Global mission among Reformed Christians**; Reformed Churches today**;
    • Reformed tradition – Reformed Christians in America – Early settlers**; Through the War of Independence**; Growth and division**; 20th century**;
  • Reformers – Term**; Characteristics**; Groups***; Conclusion*;
    • Reformers – Groups – Lutheran**; Reformed***; Radical**; Reformers in Eastern Europe**; Anglican**;
      • Reformers – Groups – Lutheran – Luther and Melanchthon**; In Scandinavia**;
      • Reformers – Groups – Reformed – French Reformers**; Scottish Reformers**; Dutch Reformers**;
  • Refugees – History and definition**; Present situation**; Response of churches*;
  • Regeneration – New Testament**; History**; Systematics*;
    • Regeneration – New Testament – Primitive Christianity**; Reformers**; Post-Reformation**; Modern situation*;
  • Rehabilitation – Term and general survey**; Restorative justice**;
  • Reincarnation – Term*; History of religion**;
    • Reincarnation – History of religion – Eastern thought**; Early church**; Cyclic view of time*;
  • Relativism – Epistemological**; Normative-ethical**; Criticism*; In theology**;
    • Relativism – Epistemological – Epistemological relativism**; Linguistic relativism*; Scientific relativism*;
    • Relativism – Normative-ethical – Cultural relativism*; Ethical or Meta-ethical relativism*;
  • Relativity theory – Galilean relativity**; Special theory of relativity**; General theory of relativity**; Cosmological implications**;
  • Relics – Christian history**; Church regulations*; Motives*; Piety*;
  • Relief and development organizations – The Christian tradition of service**; World Wars and reconstruction***; Third World***; Political involvement, advocacy**;
  • Religion – Study of religion**; Theological factors**;
    • Religion – Study of religion – Term*; Religion and culture**; Research*; Typology**;
    • Religion – Theological factors – Universality and anthropology**; Historicism and subjectivity**; Rejection of the term**; Theological rehabilitation of concept and reality**; Roman Catholic developments**; Anglo-American theology**; Theology of religion*;
  • Religion, criticism of or Criticism of religion – In philosophy**; In theology**;
    • Religion, criticism of or Criticism of religion – In philosophy – Basic problems**; Issues**;
      • Religion, criticism of or Criticism of religion – In philosophy – Issues – Anthropomorphism**; Theism*; Miracles*; Support of the religious establishment**; Existence of evil**; Summary**;
    • Religion, criticism of or Criticism of religion – In theology – Polytheism*; Monotheism**; The Religions**; Civil religion*; Analytic philosophy**;
      • Religion, criticism of or Criticism of religion – In theology – Monotheism – To the Reformation**; Reformation and Protestantism**; Roman Catholic Church**;
  • Religion, Personal sense of or Personal sense of religion – General concept**; Theories of origin**; Forms of expression**;
  • Religionless Christianity – Background**; Understanding of religion*; Nonreligious interpretation*; Impact*;
  • Religious drama – Origin*; Development**; Rejection by the Reformers**; Modern revival**;
    • Religious drama – Development – Early negative attitude*; Later acceptance**;
  • Religious educational theory – Protestant***; Roman Catholic**;
  • Religious instruction – Historical data**; Social and legal data**; Conceptional and didactic factors**;
  • Religious liberty (Foundations) – Overview**; The First millennium**; The Papal revolution**; The Protestant Reformation***; Religious establishment versus religious freedom***;
  • Religious liberty (Modern period) – A Modern consensus**; The Church-state consensus of 1750**; 1750-1800: Breakdown of the 1750 consensus***; 1800-1940: Trends toward religious freedom***; The International situation before World War II**; 20th Century: From genocide to international norms**; Continuing challenges for religious freedom**;
    • Religious liberty (Modern period) – The Church-state consensus of 1750 – Religion is necessary for the good order of society*; The Functions of church and state should be closely connected*; State religions (or confessions) should be established in political territories*; The Head of state should be an adherent of the state religion*; The church and the state should be visible in each other's domains*; The state religion and its institutions should have responsibility for many of the important social and civic functions of society*; There is a deep correlation between national identity and religious identity*; For a citizen to openly reject the state religion is, to some extent, a mark of disloyalty to the state*;
    • Religious liberty (Modern period) – 1750-1800: Breakdown of the 1750 consensus – The Enlightenment**; Reforms of the “Enlightened Absolutists”**; American experiments**; The French Revolution**;
      • Religious liberty (Modern period) – 1750-1800: Breakdown of the 1750 consensus – American experiements – Quebec Act of 1774**; State constitutions in the United States**; Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom**; United States Constitution**;
    • Religious liberty (Modern period) – 1800-1940: Trends toward religious freedom – Conflict between church and state**; Incremental political compromise and reform**;
      • Religious liberty (Modern period) – 1800-1940: Trends toward religious freedom – Conflict between church and state – French Anti-Catholic Revolution of 1789-1799**; German and Italian unity conflicting with Catholic interests*; Spanish conflict between Catholicism and state*; Truces*;
      • Religious liberty (Modern period) – 1800-1940: Trends toward religious freedom – Incremental political compromise and reform – Belgian and Dutch unity under William I*; English conflicts**;
    • Religious liberty (Modern period) – Twentieth century: From genocide to international norms – International commitments**; Roman Catholic involvement**; National constitutions*; Elaborating and questioning the modern consensus**;
    • Religious liberty (Modern period) – Continuing challenges for religious freedom – Increasing religious pluralism*; Increasing irreligion*; Increasing pressures on governments by extremist religious movements*; Significant likelihood of internal changes in states under Communist rule*;
  • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic***; Orthodox**; Anglican**; Church of Sweden***;
    • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – Definitions**; The Evolution of orders***; Reform movements***; Crisis, regeneration, and decline**; Global expansion (16th-20th centuries)**; Vatican II and after**;
      • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – The Evolution of orders – Early monastic groupings**; Medieval monastic orders**; New formations**;
      • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – Reform movements – Late medieval reforms**; The Protestant Reformation*; Orders of the Catholic Reformation***;
        • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – Reform movement – Orders of the Catholic Reformation – Restored monasticism**; Apostolic congregations**; Charitable congregations**;
      • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – Crisis, regeneration, and decline – The Ancien Régime and the orders**; The French Revolution and the orders*; Napoleanic Europe**; 19th- and 20th-century expansion**;
      • Religious orders and congregations – Roman Catholic – Global expansion (16th-20th centuries) – The Americas**; Asia**; Africa**;
    • Religious orders and congregations – Orthodox – Forms**; Branches**;
    • Religious orders and congregations – Anglican – Statistics**; History**; Organization**; Orientation**;
    • Religious orders and congregations – Church of Sweden – History**; Development**; Role**;
      • Religious orders and congregations – Church of Sweden – Development – Societas Sanctae Brigittae*; Sodaitium Confessionis Apostolicae*; Sisters of the Holy Spirit*; Sisters of Mary, the Mother of Jesus*; Brotherhood of the Holy Cross*; Congregation of the Servants of Christ*; Benedictine cloister in Östanbäck*; Congregation of the Daughters of Mary of the Evangelical Way of Mary*; Sisters of St. Mary Magdalene*; Brotherhood of St. Francis and Sisterhood of St. Francis*;
  • Religious socialism – Beginnings**; 19th century**; Blumhardt and Kutter**; Ragaz**; After 1918**; After 1945*; Developments in the United States and France**; Effects**;
  • Religious studies – Term**; Subject and definition**; Philosophy of religion*; Religious studies and theology**;
  • Renaissance – Term and problem**; Research after Burckhardt**; Socioeconomic context**; Relation to antiquity**; Literature and art**; Philosophy and science**; Religion**; Reception of the Italian Renaissance in Europe*;
    • Renaissance – Literature and art – Literature**; Plastic arts**; Music*;
  • Representation – Legal*; Sociological**; Theological**;
  • Reproduction technology – Overview**; Fertility assistance**; Prevention of defects, selection of desired characteristics**; Benefits to other children*; Societal backdrop**;
  • Requiem – Term and form**; Practices**; Musical settings**;
    • Requiem – Term and form – Term*; Origin*; As votive Mass*; Form*; Roman Catholic liturgy of death*;
    • Requiem – Practices – Orthodox*; Reformation**; Other revisions*;
    • Requiem – Musical settings – Notable requiems*; Nonliturgical settings*;
  • Resistance, right of or Right of resistance – Legal considerations**; Theological-ethical considerations***;
    • Resistance, right of or Right of resistance – Legal considerations – States that employ unlawful means**; States based on the rule of law**;
    • Resistance, right of or Right of resistance – Theological-ethical considerations – Theological premises**; Exemplary conflicts**; Civil disobedience*;
      • Resistance, right of or Right of resistance – Theological-ethical considerations – Theological premises – Resistance in the name of Yahweh*; Resistance against attacks by a governmental coreligionist or on the freedom of the church**;
      • Resistance, right of or Right of resistance – Theological-ethical considerations – Exemplary conflicts – Nazism**; South Africa*; Communist states*;
  • Responsibility – Term**; Scripture and theology; Ethics of motive and ethics of responsibility**; Philosophy and sociology**; A Responsible society**; Open questions**;
    • Responsibility – Scripture and theology – In the Bible**; Later history**;
  • Restoration – Term and concept**; The English restoration**; Reaction to revolution**; Political**; Social; Ecclesiastical**;
    • Restoration – Political – France*; Germany**; Britain*; Russia*;
    • Restoration – Ecclesiastical – Roman Catholic Church**; German Protestant churches**; Theology**; British churches**;
  • Restoration movements – In Great Britain**; In the United States***;
    • Restoration movements – In Great Britain – Glas and Sandeman**; The Haldane brothers**;
    • Restoration movements – In the United States – Disciples of Christ**; Landmark Baptists**; Mormons**; Assessment*;
      • Restoration movements – In the United States – Disciples of Christ – Stone*; The Campbells**; Beliefs**; Divisions**;
  • Resurrection – New Testament***; Theology***;
    • Resurrection – New Testament – History of research**; Texts**; Issues and options**; History, faith, and eschatological existence**;
      • Resurrection – New Testament – Texts – Kerygma tradition*; Summary tradition*; Heavenly radiance tradition*; Empty-tomb tradition*; Appearance-story tradition*;
      • Resurrection – New Testament – Issues and opinions – No dependent relationship between the Keryygma tradition and the Gospels*; Cannot reduce the resurrection of Jesus to the pat history of an idea appropriated from the Old Testament*; Gospel texts as primary sources regarding postresurrection appearance stories*;
    • Resurrection – Theology – Meanings of the resurrection**; Resurrection and empirical verifiability**; Resurrection and incarnation**; Resurrection and the cross**; Resurrection and Christian hope**; Common motif*; Elements of motif*; Unprecedented nature of this motif*; Conclusion*;
      • Resurrection – New Testament – History, faith, and eschatological existence – Contemporary preference for symbolic and metaphoric interpretation*; Belief of resurrection in the church**; Dialog over the foundations of eschatological existence**;
  • Revelation – Religious aspects**; Theological aspects***;
    • Revelation – Religious aspects – Judeo-Christian source**; Features**; Non-Christian religions**;
      • Revelation – Religious aspects – Non-Christian religions – Jainism, Buddhism, and Confucianism*; Hinduism*; Zoroastrianism, Manichaenism and Islam*; Sikhism, Bahai, and new religions*;
    • Revelation – Theological aspects – Origin of the term*; Causes of complexity; Apocalyptic and revelation**; Revelation and authority**; Institutional-sacramental model**; Personal-experiential model**; Criticism**;
      • Revelation – Theological aspects – Causes of complexity – Narrative character of God's agency**; Human ignorance and fallibility**; Faith and responsibility**;
  • Revelation, Book of or Book of Revelation – Genre and place in religious history**; Historical locus**; Contents**; Theological emphases**; Influence**;
  • Revivals – Definition**; History***;
    • Revivals – History – North America**; Great Britain**; Switzerland and France**; Netherlands**; Germany**; The Nordic lands**;
  • Revolution – Term**; Historical development**; Theories**; Contradictory 20th-century revolutions**; The Church and revolution**;
    • Revolution – Historical development – Middle Ages**; Reformation*; 17th and 18th centuries**; French Revolution**; As a principle of world history*;
    • Revolution – Theories – Socialist theory**; Various theories and controversies**;
      • Revolution – Theories – Socialist theory – Marxist theory**; Lafargue and Bernstein**; Lenin*; 1949 Chinese Revolution*; New Left*;
      • Revolution – Theories – Various theories and controversies – Arendt*; Rosenstock-Hussey*;
    • Revolution- Contradictory 20th-century revolutions - “Conservative revolution”**; National Socialism**; Islamic revolution**; Anti-Soviet “catch-up” revolution*;
    • Revolution – The Church and revolution – J. von Stahl's theory**; Theology of revolution*;
  • Rhetoric – History of rhetoric**; Practice and theology**;
    • Rhetoric – History of rhetoric – Rhetoric and the New Testament**; Biblical interpretation and rhetoric**;
    • Rhetoric – Practice and theology – Definition*; Rhetoric and homiletics**; Rhetoric and practical theology**; Evaluation*;
      • Rhetoric – Practice and theology – Rhetoric and practical theology – Teaching and learning processes*; Pastoral care and counseling*; Worship*;
  • Righteousness or Justice – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Dogma and ethics***;
    • Righteousness or Justice – Old Testament – Term*; God's righteousness**; Human righteousness***; Righteousness in early Judaism**;
      • Righteousness or Justice – Old Testament – Human righteousness – Human*; Society*; Individuals*; Prophets*;
    • Righteousness or Justice – New Testament – New Testament linguistic usage*; Jesus**; Paul**; Matthew**;
      • Righteousness or Justice – New Testament – Paul – Justification and baptism**; Recent issues**;
    • Righteousness or Justice – Dogma and ethics – Divine righteousness***; Human righteousness;
      • Righteousness or Justice – Dogma and ethics – Divine righteousness – Early church and Middle Ages**; Protestant tradition**; Roman Catholic tradition**; Orthodox tradition*; Dogmatic significance**;
      • Righteousness or Justice – Dogma and ethics – Human righteousness – Ethics**; The Reformers and their descendants**; Modern concerns**;
  • Rights – Term and distinctions**; Classical formulations**; Medieval formulations**; Protestant Reformation**; Enlightenment**; Modern Age**;
  • Rite – Religious history**; Liturgy**;
    • Rite – Religious history – Variant academic views*; Rites and meanings**; As a threshold between times and realities**; Threshold conditions*; Myth or description*;
    • Rite – Liturgy – Liturgical and ecclesiastical context*; Psychological views**; Worship as an act of human expression**;
  • Roman Catholic Church – The Church's developing self-understanding**; Sacramental character**; Liturgical life**; Secular context and pastoral mission**; Organization and discipline**; Image and presence**; Ecumenical and interreligious relations**;
    • Roman Catholic Church – The Church's developing self-understanding – Apostles and early church**; Early to late Middle Ages**; 19th and 20th centuries**;
    • Roman Catholic Church – Sacramental character – The Church as sacrament**; The Eucharist**;
    • Roman Catholic Church – Liturgical life – Holy scripture**; Eucharist**; Prayer**; Other**;
    • Roman Catholic Church – Secular context and pastoral mission – Engaging the world**; Approaches**; Moral concerns*; Education and evangelization**; Recognition of culture*;
    • Roman Catholic Church – Organization and discipline – Basis**; Value and exercise of discipline**;
    • Roman Catholic Church – Ecumenical and interreligious relations – Approach**; Results**;
  • Roman Empire – Age of the Republic**; Age of the principate: emperors**; Late antiquity**; Empire**; Society**; Economy**; Law**; Rome as an idea**;
    • Roman Empire – Age of the Republic – Rise of Rome**; Society and constitution**; Revolutionary period**;
  • Roman religion – Definition**; Epochs**; Theology**; Evaluation**;
    • Roman religion – Definition – Distinctions**; Scholarly definitions**; Historical approaches**;
    • Roman religion – Epochs – Pre-Republic*; Republic**; Empire*; After prohibition*;
    • Roman religion – Theology – Subject matter**; Threefold division**; View of history**;
  • Romania – General features**; Churches***; Other religions**; Church and state**; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Romania – Churches – Romanian Orthodox Church**; Catholic churches**; Protestant churches**; Other churches**; Newer Protestant churches**;
      • Romania – Churches - Catholic churches – Roman Catholic Church**; Greek Catholic Church**;
      • Romania – Churches - Protestant churches – Reformed Church of Romania**; Unitarian churches in Romania*; Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession**; Evangelical Lutheran Synodal Presbyterial Church of the Augsburg Confession*;
      • Romania – Churches – Other churches – Old Rite Followers or Lipovenes*; Armenian-Gregorian Church*;
      • Romania – Churches – Newer Protestant churches – Baptists*; Pentecostal church and Adventists*;
      • Romania – Other religions – Jewish community*; Islam*;
  • Romans, Epistle to the or Epistle to the Romans – General features**; Historical situation**; Contents**; Theological importance*;
  • Romanticism – Religious controversy***; France***; Germany***; Britain and the United States**; Conclusion*;
    • Romanticism – Religious controversy – Poetic participation in divine creativity**; Critique of Christianity**;
      • Romanticism – Religious controversy – Critique of Christianity – Social criticism**; Intellectual challenge**;
    • Romanticism – France – First generation**; Second generation**;
      • Romanticism – France – Second generation – Bankruptcy of traditional religion**; Dark supernaturalism**;
    • Romanticism – Germany – The Devil and damnation**; Redemption**; The Religious visionary**; Ecstatic art-religion**;
  • Rome – Concept*; History**; St. Peter's**;
    • Rome – History – Pre-Christian period**; Christian period**; Middle Ages**;
    • Rome – St. Peter's - Old St. Peter's**; New St. Peter's**; Furnishings**;
  • Rosary – Form**; History of religion**; Prayer*; Piety**;
  • Rosicrucians – Older Rosicrucians**; Relations with freemasonry**; Modern descendants**;
    • Rosicrucians – Modern descendants – Groups using the word Rosicrucian**; Transfiguration at the core of modern occult doctrines**;
  • Rule of faith – Early church**; Reformation**;
  • Russia – 19th-century reforms***; Transition to communism**; The Soviet Union and its collapse**; The Russian Federation***;
    • Russia – 19th-century reforms – The Political background**; Foreign policies**; Internal policies**;
    • Russia – The Soviet Union and its collapse – Lenin**; Stalin**; Khrushchev**; Gorbachev**;
    • Russia – The Russian Federation – Yeltsin**; Economic problems**; The War in Chechnya**; Putin**;
  • Russian Orthodox Church – Beginnings**; Under the Ruriks (862-1598)***; The Time of troubles (1598-1613)**; Under the Romanovs (1613-1917)***; The Communist era (1917-1991)***; End of repression**; Post-Soviet Russia**;
    • Russian Orthodox Church – Beginnings – The Baptism of Russia**; Domination by Byzantium**;
    • Russian Orthodox Church – Under the Ruriks (862-1598) – Relations with the Mongol-Tatars**; Hesychastic spirituality**; Heresies and disputes**;
    • Russian Orthodox Church – Under the Romanovs (1613-1917) – Nikon and the Old Believers**; Peter the Great and Feofan**; Nicholas I and the Uniates**; Alexander II**; Nicholas II and Cries for Reform**; Restoration of the patriarchate**;
    • Russian Orthodox Church – The Communist era (1917-1991) – Persecution**; Lenin, Trotsky, and the renovationists**; Stalin and Khrushchev**;
  • Ruth, Book of or Book of Ruth – Narrative elements**; Historical-critical matters**; Central concepts**; Theological implications*; Function**;
    • Ruth, Book of or Book of Ruth – Narrative elements – Characterization**; Setting*; Plot**;
    • Ruth, Book of or Book of Ruth – Central concepts – Redeemer*; Levirate marriage*;
  • Rwanda – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Rwanda – Religious situation – Roman Catholic Church*; Protestants**; Church and state*;

S[edit]

  • Sabbatarians – Definition**; Seventh-day Adventists**; Doctrinal issues*;
  • Sabbath – Term*; Origin**; Biblical evaluation and regulations**; Developments in Judaism**; Ramifications for Christianity**;
    • Sabbath – Developments in Judaism – Importance of the Sabbath*; Role in struggles with the non-Jewish world**; Middle Ages on**;
  • Sacrament – Problem of definition**; Historical development***; Systematic and ecumenical aspects***;
    • Sacrament – Historical development – Biblical aspects**; Early church**; Early and High Middle Ages**; Reformation age**; Modern period**;
      • Sacrament – Historical development – Reformation age – Lutheran tradition**; Reformed tradition**; Council of Trent**; Eastern Orthodoxy*;
    • Sacrament – Systematic and ecumenical aspects – Theological concepts**; Dialogue**; Ecumenical perspectives**;
      • Sacrament – Systematic and ecumenical aspects – Theological concepts – Roman Catholic thought**; Protestant thought**; Sacrament as word-event**;
  • Sacramentality – Term**; Roman Catholic view**; A Basic theological structure**; View of liberation theology*; Resacralizing of reality**; Criticism**;
  • Sacred and profane – Religious and Biblical aspects**; Theological aspects**;
    • Sacred and profane – Religious and Biblical aspects – Religious, psychological, and sociological**; Biblical**;
      • Sacred and profance – Religious and Biblical aspects – Religious, psychological, and sociological – Definitions**; Psychological explanations**;
  • Sacred Heart of Jesus – Development**; Iconographic forms*; Theological basis*; Relevance to piety*; Devotion to the Heart of Mary*;
  • Sacrifice – General**; Old Testament**; New Testament**;
    • Sacrifice – General – Words and concept**; Phenomenology**; History*; Theories of origin**;
      • Sacrifice – General – Phenomenology – Primary elements**; Link of action and result by way of rites*;
        • Sacrifice – General – Phenomenology – Primary elements - Regular action with customary objects**; Occurrences surprising in some way**;
        • Sacrifice – General – Phenomenology – Link of action and results by way of rites – Regular results**; Special results**; Presumptive extraordinary results*;
    • Sacrifice – Old Testament – Sources and theories**; Historical development**; Terminology and systematics**; Later history*;
    • Sacrifice – New Testament – Jerusalem cult**; Sacrifice in ecclesiology and parenesis**; Christological reception**; Eucharist and sacrifice**;
  • Saints, veneration of or Veneration of saints – Religious roots**; Biblical origins**; Historical development**; Dogmatic significance**; Denominational forms**; Popular aspects*; Patron saints**; Auxiliary saints**;
  • Salvation – Overview**; Biblical understanding of salvation**; Jewish tradition**; The Orthodox tradition**; Roman Catholic tradition**; Reformation tradition***; Asia, Africa, and Latin America***; Ecumenical aspects**; Political and legal significance**;
    • Salvation – Biblical understanding of salvation – General; Old Testament**; New Testament**;
      • Salvation – Biblical understanding of salvation – New Testament – Jesus of Nazareth**; Power and theocentricity**; Corporeality*; Tension between the present and the future*; Eschatological aspect*;
    • Salvation – Jewish tradition – Types of Jewish expectation**; Covenant and Torah**; Blessings of salvation*; Public and material dimension*; Experience and actualization**; Salvation history*;
    • Salvation – The Orthodox tradition – Biblical interpretation*; Church fathers**; Experiences of the saints**;
    • Salvation – Roman Catholic tradition – Patristics**; Middle Ages and modern period**; 20th century*; The Present*;
    • Salvation – Reformation tradition – Basic distinctions in fundamental theology**; Luther**; Developments**; Calvin and the 17th century**; Pietism and awakening*; Enlightenment*; 20th century**; Continuing problems**;
    • Salvation – Asia, Africa, and Latin America – General**; Asia**; Africa**; Latin America**;
    • Salvation – Ecumenical aspects – Presuppositions*; Developments**; Various accents**; Ecumenical discussion**;
  • Salvation Army – Founding and development**; Spread and modern situation*; Theological tradition**; Life and practice*; Self-understanding**; Organization*; Ecumenical relations**;
  • Salvation history – Terms and concept**; Development and ascendancy**; Biblical data and theological reflections after the New Testament**; More recent trends**;
    • Salvation history – Development and ascendancy – Oscar Cullmann**; Ecumenical impact**;
    • Salvation history – Biblical data and theological reflections after the New Testament – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Among later theologians**;
    • Salvation history – More recent trends – Cullmann's type of salvation history**; Roman Catholic acceptance of Heilsgeschichte*; Wolfhart Pannenberg**; Modified revivals**; Under other names*;
  • Samuel, Books of or Books of Samuel – Name, contents, text**; Origin**; Message**; Influence**;
  • Sanctification – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Dogmatics**;
    • Sanctification – Old Testament – Term*; In space and time**; Expansion and reinterpretation*;
    • Sanctification – Dogmatics – Range and biblical references**; Forms**; Theological order**; Historical development**;
  • Sanctuary – In religion**; Old Testament**; Modern usage**;
    • Sanctuary – Modern usage – In the United States*; Biblical background**; Ecumenical perspectives**;
  • Santiago cult – James's life and burial**; Political influence*; Pilgrimages**; James as warrior saint**; Current emphases*;
  • Saudi Arabia – History and features**; Legal status of non-Islamic religions**; Position of Christians**;
  • Scandinavian missions – History***; Cooperation**; Present and future**;
  • Schleiermacher's theology – Schleiermacher and the birth of modern Protestant theology**;

On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (1799)***; The Theological system***; Trajectories in Schleiermacher scholarship**;

    • Schleiermacher's theology – On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (1799) – Importance and setting**; Major themes**;
      • Schleiermacher's theology – On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (1799) – Major themes – The Theory of religion**; Doctrines, ideas as secondary*; A Pluralistic theory*; Religion as social*; Supernaturalism**; Christianity**;
    • Schleiermacher's theology – The Theological system – The Organization of theology as a positive science**; Schleiermacher's dogmatics: The Christian Faith***;
      • Schleiermacher's theology – The Theological system – The Organization of theology as a positive science – Principles of organization**; Historical theology**; Philosophical theology**; Practical theology*;
      • Schleiermacher's theology – The Theological system – Schleiermacher's dogmatics: The Christian Faith – Introduction**; Part 1: The Relation of God and the World**; Part 2, First Aspect: The Consciousness of Sin**; Part 2, Second Aspect: The Consciousness of Grace**;
  • Scholasticism – Basic features***; History***;
    • Scholasticism – Basic features – Term**; Authority**; Reason**;
    • Scholasticism – History – Dialectics**; Faith seeking understanding**; The quaestio method**; Theology as a science**; Conflicts and shifts**; William of Ockham**; Renaissance critique**; Post-Renaissance developments**; 19th-century neoscholasticism**;
  • School and church – History**; Present situation**; Church views**;
  • Science and theology – Historical approaches**; Simplicity, complexity, modesty**; Historical developments***; Recent developments**; Contemporary proposals**;
    • Science and theology – Simplicity, complexity, modesty – Scientists finding support for their science in their theological beliefs*; Historical relationships of science and religion**; Paradigms of sciences arose in an intellectual context of a theological understanding of the world as God's creation*;
    • Science and theology – Historical developments – Classical period**; Middle Ages**; Reformation period**; Enlightenment**; Modern period**;
    • Science and theology – Recent developments – Three movements arising out of World War I**; Influence of process philosophy**; Thomas Kuhn's Structures of Scientific Revolutions*;
    • Science and theology – Contemporary proposals – Science falsifies theology*; Scientific explanation needs theological completion*; Science and theology are independent*; Science and theology need to be in dialogue*; Science and theology should move toward integration*;
  • Scotism – Duns Scotus***; Scotus's followers;
    • Scotism – Duns Scotus – Theology, metaphysics, and religious language**; God's existence and nature**; Individuation, universals, and the Trinity**; Freedom and morality**;
    • Scotism – Scotus's followers – History**; Philosophy**;
  • Scriptural proof – Judaism**; New Testament**; The Fathers and the Middle Ages**; Reformation**; Critical scholarship and modern discussion**;
  • Seafarer's Mission – Settings**; Approaches**; History***; Contemporary issues facing seafarers**; International Christian Maritime Association**;
    • Seafarer's Mission – Approaches – Ecclesial evangelism*; Individual evangelism*; Worker-welfare evangelism*;
    • Seafarer's Mission – History – New Testament*; Early ministries*; Roman Catholic Apostolate of the Sea**; Protestant efforts***;
      • Seafarer's Mission – History – Protestant efforts – British**; North American**; German and Scandinavian**; Indigenous ministries**;
    • Seafarer's Mission – Contemporary issues facing seafarers – Unregulated shipping**; Port security and shore leave*; Fishing a vulnerable ocean*;
  • Sect – Term**; Typology**; Evaluation**;
  • Secularism – Definition**; History**; Culture**; Christian reception and criticism**; Modern discussion**;
  • Secularization – Church history**; Sociological aspects***; Josephinism**;
    • Secularization – Church history – Background**; Reformation period**; Jesuit suppression**, France and Germany**; 20th century**;
    • Secularization – Sociological aspects – Definition**; Causes**; Universality and irreversibility**;
      • Secularization – Sociological aspects – Definition – Sociologically meaning**; Term coined in a specifically Christian context**;
  • Self – Term**; Historical development**; Modern psychology**; Postmodern concerns**; Implications for Christian theology**;
  • Senegal – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Senegal – General situation – Economy**; History**;
    • Senegal – Religious situation – Islam**; Christianity**;
  • Separatism – Political**; Ecclesiastical**;
    • Separatism – Ecclesiastical – Protestant forms of separatism*; Left wing of the Reformation**; English Dissenters**; Pietism*; Free churches*; Different conceptions of community*;
  • Septaugint – Overview**; Translation process**; Reception**; Composition**; Example**;
  • Sermon on the Mount – Title*; Contents**; Origin**; Influence**; Modern approach**;
    • Sermon on the Mount – Content – Beatitudes*; Old Testament ethical commands**; Blessing and curse*; Basic focus**;
      • Sermon on the Mount – Content – Old Testament ethical commands – Basis, 5:17-20*; Six antitheses as examples, 5:21-48*; Guidelines for implementation, 6:1-7:12*;
  • Servant of the Lord – Old Testament usage*; Deutero-Isaiah**; New Testament**;
    • Servant of the Lord – Deutero-Isaiah – Israel as servant of the Lord**; 42:1-4*; Prophetic and royal features of the servant*; Mowinckel's thesis and implications*;
  • Service society – Term**; Critical discussion**;
    • Service society – Critical discussion – Expansionist thesis**; Social amelioration thesis**; Social transition thesis*;
  • Sex education – Basic issues**; History**; Contemporary debate**; Risk factors**; Christian perspective**;
    • Sex education – Contemporary issues – Goals*; Institutional responsibility*; Effectiveness*; Values*;
    • Sex education – Christian perspective – Needs*; Values*; Beliefs*; Skills*; Supports*;
  • Sexism – Sexism and gender stereotyping**; Religion and sexism**; Contributions of the ecumenical movement**; Issues**;
    • Sexism – Issues – Violence against women**; Increasing racism and xenophobia*; Economic obstacles**;
  • Sexual ethics – Concept and concerns**; Roman Catholic**; Reformation*; Modern Protestant**; Issues**;
  • Sexuality – Definitions**; Historical and cultural perspectives**; In the history of Christianity**; In the Bible and its interpretation**; In science**; Interactions of science and theology**; Current issues***;
    • Sexuality – In science – Evolutionary perspectives**; Biological perspectives**; Psychosocial perspectives**;
    • Sexuality – Current issues – Homosexuality**; Same-sex marriage**; Abortion**;
  • Shame – Term, forms**; Functions**; Shame and sin**;
    • Shame – Term, forms – Anxiety of shame*; Complex emotion in reference to a depressive core felling*; Inner boundary of sin in human beings**;
    • Shame – Functions – Watches over the boundaries between privacy and intimacy*; Horizontal model of boundaries**; Double function of shame**;
  • Shariۢۥa – Term**; The Sources of law**; Ijtihād and the schools of law**; The Substantive law**; Islamic law in practice**; The Shariۢۥa in modern times**;
  • Shia or Shiites – Term**; Origins**; Shiite ideology**; Religious ramifications of Shiite opposition**; Other Shiite factions**; Suffering, martyrdom and Shiite culture*; Shiite theology and jurisprudence*;
  • Shinto – Term**; History**; Cult**; Shinto and the state**; Shinto and Christianity**;
  • Sierra Leone – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Sierra Leone – General situation – Current status**; Early history**; Hut Tax War to 1991 Civil War*; 1991 Civil War**;
    • Sierra Leone – Religious situation – Traditional African religion*; Islam*; Protestantism**; Roman Catholic*; Growth of Christianity*;
  • Sign – Term**; Philosophical aspects**; Theological aspects**;
    • Sign – Philosophical aspects – Aristotle and Plato**; Leibniz**; Modern period**;
      • Sign – Philosophical aspects – Structuralism*; Poststructuralism*;
    • Sign – Theological aspects – Biblical*; Augustine**; Aquinas**; Reformation**; Modern period**;
  • Sign of the Cross – Earliest, personal, form**; Use as a a blessing by clerics**;
  • Sikhs – Origin**; Scripture**; Teachings**; The Khalsa**; Military and political significance**;
  • Simony – Definition and meaning**; Writings against simony*; Protestant steps to prevent it*;
  • Simul iustis et peccator – Bible**; Augustine and medieval theology**; Luther and the Reformation debate**; Modern and ecumenical discussions**;
  • Sin – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Doctrine***; Practical theology**; The Seven deadly sins**;
    • Sin – Old Testament – Terms**; Broken relationship with God**; The Opposites of sin*; Sin, guilt, and punishment**;
    • Sin – New Testament – Paul**; Jesus**; The Johannine literature**; Hebrews**;
    • Sin – Doctrine – Term and distinctions**; The Fall**; Original sin**; The Reformation**; The Modern period: protest and revival**; Sin and salvation;
      • Sin – Doctrine – Term and distinctions – Various meanings**; Distinctions**;
      • Sin – Doctrine – Original sin – Augustine**; Pelagius**; The Augustinian legacy**;
    • Sin – Practical theology – Sin as rebellion**; The Deceits of sin**; Pastoral care*;
      • Sin – Practical theology – Pastoral care – Comfort and affliction*; Sin and the crucified Christ**; Goal*;
  • Singapore – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Singapore – Religious situation – Precolonial and colonial era religion**; Social problems of expansion*; “Japanese time”**; 1950 on**;
  • Skepticism – Antiquity**; Christian approaches*; Modern period**; Hegel and positivism**;
  • Slavery – Overview**; Sociological aspects**; History**; Theological and ethical aspects**;
    • Slavery – Sociological aspects – Various forms of slavery*; Slave societies**; Resistance to slavery*;
    • Slavery – History – Antiquity*; Israel**; New Testament**; Early Christianity**; Reformation on**;
    • Slavery – Theological and ethical aspects – Christian acceptance of slavery in some cases*; Claim Christian masters treated their slave brothers better**; Black refusal to accept that idea**;
  • Slavic mission – Beginnings*; 9th century**; Cyril and Methodius**; Kiev**; West Slavs**;
  • Slovakia – History**; Churches**; Jewish community*; Ecumenical relations**; Theological training*; Church and state**;
    • Slovakia – Churches - Roman Catholic Church*; Greek Catholic Church*; Orthodox Church of the Czech lands and Slovakia*; Slovak Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession*; Reformed Church of Slovakia**;
  • Slovenia – General situation**; Religious situation**;
    • Slovenia – General situation – Current state**; Early history**; World War I to World War II*; Yugoslavia**; Slovenian independence**;
    • Slovenia – Religious situation – Roman Catholic Church**; Other religious communities**;
  • Social education – Term and theme**; Historical development**; Fields of work**; As a science**;
  • Social encyclicals – Catholic social movement**; Social teaching of the Catholic Church**;
    • Social encyclicals – Catholic social movement - Rerum novarum*; Quadragesimo anno*; Mater et magistra*; Populorom progressio*; Laborem exercens*;
    • Social encyclicals – Social teaching of the Catholic Church – Octogesima adveniens*; John Paul II*;
  • Social ethics – General***; North America***; Latin America***; Africa***; Asia**;
    • Social ethics – General – Term**; Task; Basis**; Development***; Themes**;
      • Social ethics – General – Task – Hermeneutic function*; Directing function*; Public function*; Interdisciplinary function*;
      • Social ethics – General – Development – Roman Catholic**; Eastern Orthodox**; Protestant**; European churches and social responsibility**;
      • Social ethics – General – Themes – Justice**; Globalization*; Peace**; Integrity of creation**; Medical ethics**;
    • Social ethics – North America – Development and methodology**; Society of Christian Ethics*; Issues**; Role of the churches*;
    • Social ethics – Latin America – History**; Thought of liberation**; Debate and dialogue**; New challenges**;
      • Social ethics – Latin America – Debate and dialogue – The Continued necessity for liberation*; The Triumph of neoliberalism*; The Primacy of Eurocentric thought*; The Accusation of being Marxist*; The Lack of feminist perspectives*;
    • Social ethics – Africa – Three traditions: African indigenous religions, Islam, and Christianity***; The Impact and legacy of colonialism**; The Emerging African feminism**; Three crises**; Contributions to a global ethic**;
      • Social ethics – Africa – Three traditions: African indigenous religions, Islam and Christianity – Marriage**; Human nature**; Moral authority**;
      • Social ethics – Africa – Three crises – Poverty**; HIV/AIDS*; The Ecological crisis**;
    • Social ethics – Asia – Situation**; Religious organizations**; Theological influences and directions**; Themes**;
  • Social gospel – History**; Theology**; Assessment**;
    • Social gospel – History – Basic data*; Beginnings**; Forms*; Literary expression*;
    • Social gospel – Theology – Key persons**; Content**; Practice*;
    • Social gospel – Assessment – Niebuhrs**; American criticism**; Lasting influence*;
  • Social history – Theme, questions, and methods**; Development of research**; Social and economic activity**; Religion and religious societies as themes**; Cultural history**; History of society*;
    • Social history – Cultural history – Ways of thinking*; Everyday history**;
  • Social movements – Term*; History**; Motives, goals, agents**; Movements after 1945**;
    • Social movements – Motives, goals, agents – Middle Ages*; Reformation*; Puritans*; 1830's workers and anarchist movements**; Middle road status**; Post World War I totalitarian variant**; Fascism*;
    • Social movements – Movements after 1945 – Sweden and Britain*; 1960's students and peace movements**;
  • Social psychology – Background**; Topics**; Critique**;
    • Social psychology – Topics – Social influence and obedience**; Attitudes**; Attribution theory*; The Self and relationships**; Social problems*;
  • Social science – Historical development**; Data collection and research methods**; Academic controversy**; Empirical social science and theology**;
  • Social systems – Term and history**; Problem**; Religion and church*;
    • Social systems – Term and history - “System”** in philosophy**; “System” in social sciences**; “System” in everyday speech*;
  • Socialism – Background**; European Socialist parties**; Communist movements**; Resurgence of Socialist parties**; U.S. Socialists**;
  • Socialization – General**; Religious**;
    • Socialization – General – Origins of concept**; Reception**; Research*;
    • Socialization – Religious - “Religious socialization”**; Concerns regarding breadth and narrowness of definition*; Empirical research**;
  • Society – Term**; History**; Sociology**; Philosophical and social ethics**; Problems**;
  • Socinianism – Fausto Sozzini**; Doctrines**; Evaluation and development**;
  • Sociohistorical exegesis – General**; Old Testament**; New Testament**;
  • Sociology – Concept and criteria**; Historical overview***; Contemporary directions**;
    • Sociology – Concept and criteria – Concept*; Criteria*;
    • Sociology – Historical overview – The Genesis of sociology and its problems**; 18th and 19th centuries**; Classic period**;
      • Sociology – Historical overview – The Genesis of sociology and its problems – Social order**; Social change*; Social inequality*; Pluralistic*;
      • Sociology – Historical overview - 18th and 19th centuries – England*; France**; Germany*; Evolutionism**;
      • Sociology – Historical overview – Classic period – Marx*; Durkheim*; Tönnies, Simmel, Weber**; Sociology in the United States**;
    • Sociology – Contemporary directions – Academic*; Increasing specialization*; Levels and methods of sociology**; Variant forms**; Summary*;
  • Sociology of churches – Definition*; History**; Theory**; Research fields**; Institutes*;
  • Sociology of knowledge – Term and tasks*; History of knowledge**; Scheler and Mannheim**; Recent trends**;
  • Sociology of religion – Theme and methods**; History**; Fields of research**;
    • Sociology of religion – Theme and methods** - Theme of religion as a social phenomenon**; Methods of study**;
    • Sociology of religion – History – Earlier forms or criticism of religion**; Durkheim and Weber**; Sociology of the churches**;
    • Sociology of religion – Fields of research – Lack of consensus on new definition*; Structural features**; New religious movements**; Secularization*; Ongoing interest in traditional religions**; Relationship of theory and research*;
  • SODEPAX – Inception*; Development**; Achievements and demise**;
  • Nathan Söderblom – Early life**; Theological publication**; Archbishop**; Life and Work Movement**; Other ecumenical initiatives**;
  • Solidarity – Term**; Social movements**; Social policy**; Social law**; Theology**; Churches*;
  • Solipsism – Term**; Modern problem**;
    • Solipsism – Term – Epistemological solipsism*; Metaphysical solipsism*;
  • Solomon Islands – Pre-Christian society**; Early missionary contact**; Colonization and Christianization**; The Second World War and after**; Independence and after**;
  • Somalia – Population and history***; Religion and Somali society**;
    • Somalia – Population and history – Before independence**; From independence (1960) to collapse of the central government (1991)**; Somaliland and Puntland**; From 1991 to the present**;
    • Somalia – Religion and Somali society – Islam**; Christianity**; Cultural and religious critique**;
  • Song of Solomon – Contents and form**; Origin*; Time and place*; History of exposition**;
  • Soteriology – Biblical aspects**; Systematic aspects**;
    • Soteriology – Biblical aspects – Place within theology**; Central theme**; New Testament aspects**;
    • Soteriology – Systematic aspects – Early attempts at synthesis**; Anselm, Aquinas, Abelard**; Reformation**; Legacy of the Reformation**; Liberal Protestantism**;
  • Soul – Religious history**; Theology and philosophy***; Practical theology**;
    • Soul – Religious history - Variety of terms and views**; Soul-body problem*;
    • Soul – Theology and philosophy – Concept**; Greek and Biblical views**; Church tradition**, Arab philosophy, and Thomas Aquinas**; Descartes and subsequent positions**; God and the soul in church usage**;
    • Soul – Practical theology – Not an express theme*; The Empirical sciences**; Transmigration and esotericism*;
  • South Africa – General situation**; Christian churches**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • South Africa – Christian churches – Early mission history**; Development of schools**;
  • South Korea – General situation**; Religion and state**; Development of Christianity**; Characteristics of South Korean Christianity**;
  • Soviet Union – Background**; The Bolshevik, or Communist, Revolution**; The Soviet State**; The Stalin era**; The Soviet Union after Stalin**;
  • Spain – The Roman Catholic Church and other churches***; Ecumenical relations**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Spain – The Roman Catholic Church and other churches – Historical development**; Freedom of worship**; Roman Catholics***; Protestants**; Orthodox**;
      • Spain – The Roman Catholic Church and other churches – Roman Catholics – Administrative and educational units and church personnel**; Church life**;
        • Spain - The Roman Catholic Church and other churches – Roman Catholics – Administrative and educational units and church personnel – Statistics*; Evangelization and mission*; Education*; Health and social welfare*;
      • Spain – The Roman Catholic Church and other churches – Protestants - Anglicans**; Reformed**; Baptists*; Others*;
    • Spain – Church and state – Roman Catholics**; Protestants*;
    • Spain – Non-Christian religions – Judaism**; Islam**; Other groups**;
  • Speculative theology – Origin of term*; Hegelianism*; Its dynamic ontology*; In Roman Catholic theology*; Heidelberg and Berlin**; Central role between rationalistically flattenend theology and Herrnhut theology**;
  • Spinozism – Term*; Key features**; Development**;
  • Spiritism – Forms**; Earlier forms**; Role of paranormal phenomena*; Christian views*;
  • Spiritual direction – Setting**; History**; The Ministry of direction**;
  • Spiritualism – Term**; In antiquity**; Middle Ages**, Reformation and Pietism**; Early modern period**; Classic German philosophy**; 19th and 20th centuries**;
  • Spirituality – Overview***; Old Christendom***; African***; Latin American and Caribbean**; North American***; Feminine**;
    • Spirituality – Old Christendom – Content and theological location**; Geographic-cultural typology**; 20th century**; Today and tomorrow**;
      • Spirituality – Old Christendom – Geographic-cultural typology – Greek**; Roman**; Celtic**; Germanic**; Modern Western**; Coptic-Syrian*; Russian**; Anabaptists*;
    • Spirituality – African – Cosmology**; Mother Earth**; Human weakness and religious ritual**; Characteristics**; Christianity and African spirituality**;
      • Spirituality – African – Cosmology – Transcendent realities**; Lesser deities*; Human finiteness, impurity, and weakness*; Divine source and sanctity of human life*; Whole community*;
      • Spirituality – African – Characteristics – Dependence on the transcendental*; Both vertical and horizontal*; Guided by African conviction that religion is a means to an end**; Moral dimension*;
    • Spirituality – Latin American and Caribbean – Early history**; 1980s on**;
    • Spirituality – North American – Framework**; Puritanism**; Pietism and Evangelicalism**; Hispanics**; African Americans**; Pentecostals and Charismatics**; Quakers**;
    • Spirituality – Feminine – Various approaches**; Sources**;
  • Spirituals – Term*; Origins*; Forms**;
  • Sports and faith – Europe**; United States***;
    • Sports and faith – Europe – Early Europe*; Bible*; Theological anthropology**; Recent cooperation of church and sports**;
    • Sports and faith – United States – Biblical metaphors**; Colonial conflicts**; Victorian convergences**; Contemporary collaboration**; Theological significance**;
  • Sri Lanka – General situation*; Ethnic conflict**; Religious situation**;
    • Sri Lanka – Ethnic conflict – Early history**; Since colonization**;
    • Sri Lanka – Religious situation – History**; Education and health work**; Lay and ecumenical organizations**; Church and state**;
  • State – Definition**; Historical development**; Modern states**; Liberal representative states**; Constitutional states*; States and economics*; States and society*; National states and the world market**; State problems in the Third World*; The Future of the state*;
  • State church – Overview**; The Early church and the Roman Empire**; Developments in Orthodoxy**; The West through the Middle Ages**; The Reformation**; Religious freedom and the separation of church and state**;
  • State ethics – Terminology**; Relation between the state and ethics**; Ethics of rulers**; The State and morals**; Contrary tendencies**; 20th-century problems**; The State and its citizens**;
    • State ethics – 20th-century problems – Society no longer recognizes state ethics**; The bridging of the distance between general postulate and conrete individual situations and state ethics*; Reappearance in the judiciary**;
    • State ethics – The State and its citizens – Citizen imposition of ethics on the state**; Civil virtues as the basis for state ethics**;
      • State ethics – The State and its citizens – Civil virtues as the basis for state ethics – Duties*; Activity*;
  • Status confessionis – Term**; Reformation concerns**; Contemporary discussion**;
    • Status confessionis – Contemporary discussion – Controversy**; Direct linkage of church and state?**; “Special confessing of faith”*; Dirk J. Smit's views**;
  • Stoicism – Survey**; Teaching**; Methods and problems**; Influence**;
    • Stoicism – Teaching – Physics**; Ethics*; Logic and grammar**;
  • Structuralism – Term*; Linguistic structuralism**; Structuralism and ethnology**; Theological impact of structuralism**;
  • Student Christian movements – Early history**; Late 19th and early 20th centuries**; Rise of American evangelical groups**; Current scope and prospects**;
  • Subculture – Term*; Sociological research**; Possible involvement of social regression*; Decline of national cultures**;
  • Subjectivism and objectivism – Terms**; Subjectivism versus objectivism**; Ways beyond the impasse**;
  • Substance abuse – Alcohol**; Tobacco**; Drugs**;
  • Sudan – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Suffering – Term**; Religious explanations**; Theological data**; Pastoral aspects**;
    • Suffering – Theological data – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Church history**; Third World theologies**;
      • Suffering – Theological data – Third World theologies – African*; Asian*; Latin American*;
  • Sufism – Early Islamic mystics**; The Sufi path to friendship with God**; Spread and growth**; Spiritual lineages and orders**; Expansion of influence**;
  • Suicide – Basic insights**; Paradigm shift**; Suicidological theories**; Motives**; Evaluations and implied norms**; Why live?**;
  • Summa – Term**; The Classic questions-summa**; The Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas**;
  • Sunday – History and development**; Present situation and problems*;
  • Sunday school – History**; Spread**; Later development**; Ecumenical engagement**;
  • Sunnism or Sunnis – Term**; Historical overview**; Theology**; Institutions**; Scholars**; Modern developments**;
    • Sunnism or Sunnis – Historical overview – Formative period**; Sufi brotherhoods*; 14th century on*;
    • Sunnism or Sunnis – Institutions – Caliphate**; Madrasa*; Canonical hadith collections*;
    • Sunnism or Sunnis – Scholars – al-Tabarī*; Ibn Hazm*; al-Ghazālī*; Ibn ۢArabī*; Rūmī*; al-Nawawī*; al-Taftāzānī*;
  • Superstition – Term**; Source*; In religious life**; Psychoanalytic theories**; Pastoral care**;
  • Supervision – Term*; Theme, goals, and methods**; In the church*; Administrative vs. clinical supervision*; Associations**;
  • Suriname – Historical context**; Churches**; Other religions**;
  • Swaziland – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Sweden – Church and nation**; Roman Catholic and Lutheran***; Revival movements**; Immigration**; Church and ecumenism**; Church and state**;
    • Sweden – Roman Catholic and Lutheran – Early history**; 17th and 18th centuries**; Lutheran orthodoxy when Sweden was a great power**; Mid 19th century**; Recent history**;
    • Sweden – Revival movements – Early history and 19th century peak**; Pentecostalism in 20th century**;
    • Sweden – Immigration – To World War II**; After World War II**; Immigration and growth of the Roman Catholic Church**; Recent influx**;
    • Sweden – Church and ecumenism – Nathan Söderblom**; Swedish Ecumenical Council**; After World War II**;
    • Sweden – Church and state – Recent decades**; 1980s partial separation of church and state**; 1993 on**; Church of Sweden role**;
  • Switzerland – General situation**; Churches**; Ecumenism**; Other groups*; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Switzerland – General situation – Structure of the state**; Religious profiles**; Church-state relationships**;
    • Switzerland – Churches – Roman Catholic**; Evangelical Reformed**; Orthodox**; Christian Catholic*; Free and minority churches**;
    • Switzerland – Non-Christian religions – Judaism*; Islam**; Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism**;
  • Symbol – Term**; In philosophy**; In theology**; Liturgical aspects**;
    • Symbol – In theology – Pre-Reformation**; Post Reformation*: 20th century**;
  • Symbolism of animals – Cultural history**; Old and New Testaments**; Early church**; Middle Ages**; Catalog of symbols**;
  • Synagogue – Term**; Origins**; Temple and synagogue**; Function*; Architecture**; Furniture**; Worship**; Synagogue and church*;
  • Syncretism - Term**; Symbolic and synthetic syncretism**; Christianity and syncretism**;
    • Syncretism – Symbolic and synthetic syncretism – Symbolic syncretism**; Synthetic syncretism**;
  • Synergism – Concept*; Early church**; Reformation and 17th century**; Methodism**; Ecumenical relations**;
  • Synod – Term**; Historical presuppositions**; Place in denominations**; Synods in church unions**; Problems in the theology of the church**;
    • Synod – Place in denominations – Roman Catholic Church*; Orthodox Church**; Reformed churches**; Lutheran churches**; Anglican communion**; Free churches*;
    • Synod – Problems in the theology of the church – Synod and ministry*; Synod and law*; Synod and doctrine*;
  • Synoptics – The Problem*; Solutions**; The Two-source theory**; The Synoptic gospels**;
    • Synoptics – Solutions – Two-source theory**; Griesbach hypothesis*;
    • Synoptics – The Two-source theory – Length*; Language*; Patterns of agreement*; Narrative sequence*;
  • Syria – History, population and religious communities**; Christian churches**; Non-Christian religions**; The State and religion**;
    • Syria – Christian churches - Greek Orthodox Church*; Oriental Orthodox churches*; Uniate churches*; Nestorian church*; Roman Catholic Church and Protestant groups*; Interchurch tensions*;
    • Syria – Non-Christian religions – Muslim**; Druze*; Jewish community*;
    • Syria – The State and religion – Separation of church and state**; Arab Socialist Resurrection Party*; Governmental relations with minorities**; Recent regional upheavals with religious overtones*;
  • Syrian Orthodox Church – History**; Faith and worship**; Ecumenical relations**;
    • Syrian Orthodox Church – History – Origins**; 6th to 13th centuries**; 13th to 20th centuries**; 1980 on*;
    • Syriac Orthodox Church – Faith and worship – Basic beliefs*; Rejection of monophysitism**; Sacraments*;
  • Syrian Orthodox Churches in India – Organization**; History**; Liturgical worship*; Ecumenical relations*; Institutions**;
  • Systematic theology – Term**; Legitimacy***; Rise and development of themes**; Types***; Task**;
    • Systematic theology – Term - “System”**; In modern Roman Catholicism**;
    • Systematic theology – Legitimacy – Summary*; Are systematizations legitimate?**; Protestantism**; Postreformation**; In modern Roman Catholicism**;
    • Systematic theology – Rise and development of themes – Early history*; Postreformation**;
      • Systematic tyheology – Rise and development of themes – Early history - Connectedness of Biblical stories**; Church fathers**;
      • Systematic theology – Rise and development of themes – Postreformation – Protestant*; Pre-Vatican II Roman Catholic*; Post Vatican II Roman Catholic**;
    • Systematic theology – Types – Classic Protestant form**; Recent question of hermeneutic or analytic approach?**; More recent monothematic discourses**;
      • Systematic theology – Types – More recent monothematic discourses – Theological themes of overarching importance*; Concentration on a single great theme*; Perspective that thus far had not been a them in Christian theology or systematic theology at all*;
    • Systematic theology – Task – Challenges*; Roman Catholic view**; European view**;

T[edit]

  • Tabernacle – Old Testament**; Christian**;
  • Taiping Rebellion – Name and origin**; Establishment of the Heavenly Kingdom of the Great Peace**; Historical action as interpretation of the vision**; Holy scriptures and program**; Collapse of the Kingdom**;
  • Taiwan – Overview**; History**; Religious situation***; Church and state**; Prospects**;
    • Taiwan – Religious situation – General features**; Christianity**; Ecumenical relations**;
      • Taiwan – Religious situation – Christianity – Roman Catholic Church**; Presbyterian Church in Taiwan**; Other Christian groups**;
  • Tajikistan – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Talmud – Origin**; Features*; Development**; Commentaries**;
  • Tanzania – General situation**; Christian churches**; Ecumenical relations**; Church and state**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Tanzania – Christian churches – Roman Catholic Church*; Church of the Province of Tanzania**; Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania**; Africa Inland Church and Pentecostal churches in Tanzania*; Moravian Church in Tanzania, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Tanzania Assemblies of God, and New Apostolic Church*;
  • Taoism and Chinese popular religion – Taoism**; Chinese divine beings**; Taoism and popular religion**;
  • Teaching office – Roman Catholic***; Protestant**;
    • Teaching office – Roman Catholic – History**; Doctrine and the teaching office**; Doctrine of the teaching office**; Theological and ecumenical problems**;
      • Teaching office – Roman Catholic – Doctrine of the teaching office – Lumen gentium**; Dei Verbum**; Commonalities**;
    • Teaching office – Protestant – Concept**; Enforcement*; Criteria**; Authorities**; Means*; Freedom**; Processes**;
    • Teaching office – Protestant – Processes – Pastoral admonition and counseling*; Doctrinal processes*;
  • Technology – Social sciences**; Theological ethics**;
    • Technology – Social sciences – Nature*; Universality of technology**; Historical semantics of technology**; Early modern period**; New form of evolutionary fatalism**; Citizens initiatives**;
    • Technology – Theological ethics – Summary*; In the early machine age**; 1970s and 1980s**; Division between north and south**; Future*;
  • Teleology – Nature and origins of teleology in classical philosophy**; Christian theology and classical teleology**; Teleology and contemporary philosophical theology;
    • Teleology – Teleology and contemporary philosophical theology – Teleological arguments for the existence of God**; Teleology and moral theory*;
  • Temple – Religious history; Old Testament**;
    • Temple – Religious history – Early**; Greco-Roman sphere**; Egyptian religion*; Babylonian and Assyrian religions*; Iran**; Asia Minor*; Syria and Palestine*; Germanic sphere*; India and Southeast Asia**; Central and eastern Asia*; America*; Africa*;
    • Temple – Old Testament – Term*; Building of the temple**; Dedication of the Temple**; Second Temple**; Exilic ideation**;
  • Temple Society – Term*; History**; Thought**;
  • Temptation – Term**; In the Bible and theology**; In counseling**;
    • Temptation – Term – In today's humanistic society*; Alternate terms*; In Reformation theology*;
    • Temptation – In the Bible and theology – Luther*; Barth*;
  • Terrorism – Term**; History**; Causes**; Responses**; Biblical reflections**;
    • Terrorism – Causes – Evil people**; Religion**; Clash of civilizations**; “Blowback”**; Festering injustice**;
    • Terrorism – Responses – Judicial**; Military**; Nonviolent**;
  • Thailand – General features**; History**; Buddhism**; Christianity**; Christian theology**;
    • Thailand – Christianity – Roman Catholicism**; Ecumenical Protestantism**; Evangelical Protestantism**;
  • Theism – Term**; In philosophical and religious systems**; How many gods?**;
    • Theism – Term – Theism and deism**; Pantheism*;
    • Theism – In philosophical and religious systems – Panentheism and atheism**; Mahayana Buddhism*; Hinduism*;
      • Theism – In philosophical and religious systems – Panentheism and atheism – Panentheism*; Atheism*;
    • Theism – How many gods? - Polytheism*; Monotheism*;
  • Theocracy – Old Testament background**; Early and medieval church**; Modern period**; Theocracy, establishment, and civil religion**; In Islam**;
    • Theocracy – In Islam – Caliphate**; Shiite views**;
  • Theodicy – Term**; The Theodicy dilemma and strategies for response**; Theodicies and critics in history**; 20th-century issues**;
    • Theodicy – The Theodicy dilemma and strategies for response – The Dilemma**; Strategies of believers**;
  • Theologia crucis – Term and development**; Aspects in 20th-century theology**; The Cross as fact and as symbol*;
    • Theologia crucis – Term and development – Early Luther**; Later Luther**; Reception*;
    • Theologia crucis – Aspects in 20th-century theology – A Corrective to hermeneutical triumphalism*; An Expression of God's compassion*; A Prophetic protest against oppression and social injustice*; A Corrective against church triumphalism*;
  • Theological education – Overview**; Historical patterns and precedents**; Around the world**; Challenges for the future**;
  • Theology – Concept**; Theology, church, science**; Types***; Current requirements**;
    • Theology – Theology, church, science – Theology in the church**; Theology and the judgment of God**; Theology as an academic discipline**;
    • Theology – Types – Early church**; Early scholasticism**; High Middle Ages**; Scotus and Luther**; Reformation-based**; Modern period; 20th century**;
      • Theology – Types – Early church – Cognition, insight, and wisdom*; Augustine*; Origen*; John of Damascus*;
      • Theology – Types – Early scholasticism – Anselm of Canterbury*; Peter Abelard and Gilbert de la Porrée*;
      • Theology – Types – High Middle Ages – Peter Lombard*; Thomas Aquinas*;
      • Theology – Types – Scotus and Luther – John Duns Scotus*; Martin Luther*;
      • Theology – Types – Reformation-based – Philipp Melanchthon*; John Calvin*; Johann Gerhard*;
      • Theology – Types – Modern period – Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher*;
      • Theology – Types - 20th century – Karl Barth*; Biblical theology*; Paul Tillich*; Wolfhart Pannenberg, Ulrich Wilckens and Rolf and Trutz Rendtorff*; Alfred North Whitehead*; Charles Hartshorne, Schubert M. Ogden, John B. Cobb*; Analytic philosophy*; Question of method*; Heinrich Scholz*; Thomas Forsyth Torrance*; Dietrich Ritschl and Gerhard Sauter*;
    • Theology – Current requirements – Integration*; Interdisciplinarity**; Intercultural theology**;
  • Theology and music – Overview**; Liturgy and devotion**; The Material and social world**; Musical models**;
    • Theology and music – Liturgy and devotion – Early church**; 14th century innovations*; Reformation**; Roman Catholicism**; Relationship between Christian worship and the surrounding culture*;
    • Theology and music – The Material and social world – Idea that music might provide an insignt into an aspect of human experience**; Jeremy Begbie**; Schleiermacher's concept of music revealing the inner world of human religious experience**;
  • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology***; Roman Catholic theology***; Orthodox theology***; Anglican theology***;
    • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Theology in confrontation with the Enlightenment, Romanticism, and Materialism***; Restoration, liberalism and theologies of mediation; Various groundings of theology**; Crises, confrontations, and breakthroughs***; Continuation and revision***; Doing theology under new conditions and requirements?***; Theology in transition***;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology - Theology in confrontation with the Enlightenment, Romanticism, and Materialism – Theology in relation to church and state**; The Independence of religion and religious subjectivity**; History as the remedy of theology**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Restoration, liberalism, and theologies of mediation – Revival, revision, and reaffirmation**; Mediation**; Lutheranism**; Calvinism**; Liberalism**; Between liberalism and fundamentalism**; Social tasks**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Various groundings of theology – Ethical theology**; Culture Protestantism**; Internalization*; Soteriology**; Facing historicism**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Crises, confrontations, and breakthroughs – A Turning point**; Dialectical theology**; The Luther Renaissance**; Agreement and dissent**; The Clash with national socialism**; After the Great Depression**; Uniting tendencies and growing pluralism*;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Continuation and revision – New Beginning or Reconstruction?**; Secularism**; Theology between or beyond historicism and existentialism?**; Philosophical theology*; Biblical theology**; Eschatology**; Divergences in Christology**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Doing theology under new conditions and requirements? - Reflecting the “context” of doing theology**; Theology and the humanities**; Theology under discussion**; The Foundations, structure, and character of theology**; Trends in theological ethics**; Ecumenical tasks**; Christianity and Judaism**; Philosophy and theology**; Theology in dialogue**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Protestant theology – Theology in transition – Plurality and pluralism**; Theology and culture**; Church and theology**;
    • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Roman Catholic theology – Modern questions***; Official reactions, neoscholasticism, historical research**; Modernism and antimodernism*; Signs of renewal**; Openness to the world**; Vatican II**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Roman Catholic theology – Modern questions – Enlightenment theology**; The Tübingen school**; Romanticism, liberalism, Hermesianism**; The Development of partial integrations and the internal Catholic dialectic**;
        • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Roman Catholic theology – Modern questions – The Development of partial integrations and the internal Catholic dialectic – In Germany**; In France**; In Italy**; In the Mediterranean and Anglo-Saxon spheres**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Roman Catholic theology – Official reactions, neoscholasticism, historical research – Official reactions**; Neoscholasticism**; Historical research**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Roman Catholic theology – Signs of renewal – Cultural Catholicism**; Movements**;
    • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Orthodox theology – Revival of the tradition**; Russian sophiology**; The Neopatristic school**; Apophatic theology**; John Zizioulas**; Issues for the future**;
    • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Anglican theology - 19th century***; 20th century***;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Anglican theology - 19th century – The Church of England and Anglicanism**; Theological institutions**; The Oxford Movement**; Broad churchmen**; Developments later in the century**;
      • Theology in the 19th and 20th centuries – Anglican theology - 20th century – Idealism**; Controversies**; The Triumph of Anglo-Catholicism**; Outside influences**; After World War II**;
  • Theology of history – Definition*; Modern theology of history*; Issues**;
    • Theology of history – Issues – The Historicity of Jesus*; The Historicity of Christianity*; Salvation history*; Eschatology*; Apologetics*; Political history*; Secular history*; Philosophy of history*; Theodicy*; Historical research*; Secularity*; Political theology*; Social ethics*; Thinking about the future*;
  • Theology of religions – Term**; Content**; Problems**; Dialogue and mission**;
  • Theology of revival – Overview**; Significance and scope of the term**; Pietism and the pietist tradition**; Puritanism in the 1600s**; The Evangelical awakening in Britain and the Great Awakening in America***; The Second Great Awakening in North America***; The Holiness Movement in Transatlantic perspective**; Global developments, 1800-1910; Pentecostal, charismatic, and “third wave” theologies of revival***; 20th-century revivals; Conclusion*;
    • Theology of revival – Puritanism in the 1600s – England**; New England**;
    • Theology of revival – The Evangelical Awakening in Britain and the Great Awakening in America – Whitefield**; Edwards**; Chauncy**; Wesley**;
    • Theology of revival – The Second Great Awakening in North America – Finney**; Theological issues**;
      • Theology of revival – The Second Great Awakening in North America – Theological issues – Whether humans themselves can generate a genuine revival**; Relationship between spiritual nurture and the conversion experience that occurs in the midst of revivals**; Involuntary phenomena**; Apocalypticism**; Catholic revivalism**;
    • Theology of revival – The Holiness Movement in Transatlantic perspective – Palmer**; The Smiths**; Perfectionism**;
    • Theology of revival – Global developments, 1800-1910 – Pacific islands**; Wales**; Korea**;
    • Theology of revival – Pentecostal, charismatic, and “third wave” theologies of revival – Emphasis on power**; Glossolalia**; Apostles and prophets*; Charismatic renewal**; “Third wave”**;
    • Theology of revival – 20th-century revivals – Africa**; China**; Indochina*;
  • Theology of revolution – Historical context**; Theological discussion**; Reception*;
  • Theophany – As God's visible coming with power in the Old Testament**; Theophany at Sinai*; Yahweh's entry into the Temple*; God's appearances as a normal human*; Theophanies in phophetic visions; Theophanies in natural phenomena*; Summary*;
  • Theosis – Patristic and Eastern Orthodox theology; Western theological and ecumenical developments;
    • Theosis – Patristic and Eastern Orthodox theology – Term*; Historical development**; Christology and pneumatology**;
    • Theosis – Western theological and ecumenical developments – The Western tradition**; Luther research in Finland**; Other traditions**; The Wider significance of theosis*;
  • Theosophy – Features**; History**; Theological evaluation**; Theosophical societies**;
    • Theosophy – Theosophical societies – Early societies**; Expansion**;
  • Thessalonians, Epistles to the or Epistles to the Thessalonians – General features**; 1 Thessalonians**; 2 Thessalonians**; Special problems;
  • Third World – Political, economic, social, and cultural problems***; Churches***;
    • Third World – Political, economic, social, and cultural problems – Term, criteria, groups**; Rise*; Economy**; Political systems**; Culture and education**; Health*; Religion**; Hunger and poverty**; Human rights**; Women**; Theories**; Limitation of the concept**;
      • Third World – Political, economic, social, and cultural problems – Term, criteria, groups – Early use and 1960s**; Differentiation since fixing of oil princes**; Third World international organizations**;
      • Third World – Political, economic, social, and cultural problems – Culture and education – Culture**; Education**;
      • Third World – Political, economic, social, and cultural problems – Theories – Model of stages between traditional society and the age of mass consumption*; Theory of dual economic systems and societies*; Theory of underdevelopment and development as two dimensions of one and the same historical process*;
    • Third World – Churches – Survey*; Status**; Indigenous Christianities**; Social and economic context**; Religious and cultural context**; Ecuemenism**; A “New Christendom”?**;
  • Third World theology – Description**; Common features**; Themes***; Prospect**;
    • Third World theology – Common features – Collective*; Contextuality*; Critical*; Constructive*;
    • Third World theology – Themes – A Posture of resistance**; A Method of subversion**; Preferential options**; Salvation as liberation, humanization, and integrated life**; Third World Christologies**;
      • Third World theology – Themes – A Method of subversion – Africa*; Asia*; Latin America*; Feminist theology*;
      • Third World theology – Themes – Preferential options – Liberation theology**; Preferred options for “others”**; Dialectic of missiology*;
      • Third World theology – Themes – Salvation as liberation, humanization, and integrated life – Liberation**; Humanization*; Integrated liberation**;
  • Thirty Years' War – Historical survey**; Consequences for the church**;
    • Thirty Years' War – Historical survey – Bohemian-Palatine War (1618-1623)**; Danish-Lower Saxony War (1623-1629)**; Swedish War (1630-1635)**; Swedish-French War (1635-1648)**;
  • Thirty-nine Articles – Origins in the English Reformation**; Post-Reformation developments and controversies***; The Episcopal Church in the U.S.A.**;
    • Thirty-nine Articles – Post-Reformation developments and controversies – Thirty-sixth Canon of 1604**; Oxford Movement*; Broad Church movement**; 1865 and beyond**; Oxford and Cambridge*; Articles of the Church of England accepted in England, Ireland, and Scotland*; Current situation**; 1888 Lambeth Conference indications that articles not binding on new Anglican provinces*; Church of England 1968 and 1975 statements**;
  • Thomism – St. Thomas Aquinas***; The Thomist tradition**;
    • Thomism – St. Thomas Aquinas – Terminology*; Life**; Writings**; Theology***; Philosophy in theology**;
      • Thomism – St. Thomas Aquinas – Writings – Biblical commentaries**; Scriptum, Summa contra Gentiles and Summa theologiae**; Sermons*;
      • Thomism – St. Thomas Aquinas – Theology – Sacra doctrina**; Trinity and creation**; Law and grace**; Christ and his sacraments**;
  • Tibet – General situation**; Buddhism**; Christianity**;
    • Tibet – General situation – Basic data*; History**;
    • Tibet – Buddhism – Foundations*; Groups**; Panchen Lama**; Cultural Revolution and beyond*;
    • Tibet – Christianity – Early years**; Roman Catholicism*; Protestantism*;
  • Tibetan religions – Before Buddhism**; Buddhism**; Popular religion*;
  • Time and eternity – Philosophy**; Systematic theology**;
    • Time and eternity – Philosophy – Gnostic philosophy and Thomas Aquinas**; Further development**; Views**;
    • Time and eternity – Systematic theology – Time**; Eternity*;
      • Time and eternity – Systematic theology – Time – One of the conditions of creation**; Relation to redemption and sanctification**; Concept of external time**; Barth's time as that given by God in the revelation through Christ**;
  • Tithe – Term*; Use**; In Christianity**; Voluntary tithing*;
  • Togo – Statistics*; Protestant groups**; Roman Catholic Church*; Church and state**; Islam*; Traditional religion*;
    • Togo – Protestant groups – Église Évangélique Presbytérienne du Togo or Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Togo*; Beginnings of the Église Évangélique Presbytérienne du Togo*; After expulsion of the German missions and the Église Évangélique Presbytérienne du Togo*; Theology of the Église Évangélique Presbytérienne du Togo*; Methodists and Assemblies of God*; Pentecostals*;
  • Tolerance – Term**; Political tolerance**; Religious tolerance**;
    • Tolerance – Political tolerance – Early history*; Enlightenment era on**; In democratic constitutional states*;
    • Tolerance – Religious tolerance – Dependence on the binding character of a religion's statements**; Religions said to be intolerant**; Jewish, Christian, and Muslim views*;
  • Torture – Modern view of nonjustifiability**; Christian views on torture**;
  • Totalitarianism – Term**; Antitotalitarianism in the 1930s**; The Cold War and the scholarship of totalitarianism**; Totalitarianism and the Christian Church**; Totalitarianism after 1989**;
  • Tourism – Term*; Growth and form**; Issues**;
  • Tradition – Society and religion**; The Old and the New Testament**; The Early church and the Middle Ages**; Orthodoxy*; The Reformation**; Trent to Vatican II**; Theology and ecumenical dialogue**;
    • Tradition – The Old and the New Testaments – Old Testament*; New Testament**;
  • Traditionalist movement – Background**; Marcel Lefebvre**; Critique**;
  • Transcendental Meditation – Founder**; Theory and practice**; Goal**;
  • Transcendental philosophy – Term**; Between idealism and realism**; Metatheoretical dimension*; Connections with other philosophical currents**;
  • Transcendental theology – Origin**; Distinctiveness**; Development**; Criticism*;
  • Trent, Council of or Council of Trent – Prior history**; Tasks and conditions**; Course**; Results**; Significance**;
    • Trent, Council of or Council of Trent – Course – First period**; Second period**; Third and concluding period**;
  • Tribal religions – History of research and definition**; Features**; Tribal and other religions**;
    • Tribal religions – Features – Inner structure of a smaller society**; Social unity**; One common life**; Nature opposed to mission**;
  • Tribes of Israel – History and results of research**; Before nationhood**; The Tribes and the young nation**; The Twelve-tribe system*;
    • Tribes of Israel – Before nationhood – Levi and Simeon*; Leah and Rachel*; Ephraim, Benjamin, Naphtali, Gilead, and Judah*; Ephraim, Manasseh, Pirathon, and Machir*; Issachar and Asher*; Dan, Reuben, and Gad*;
  • Trinidad and Tobago – General situation**; Christians**; Other living faiths**;
    • Trinidad and Tobago – Christians – Roman Catholics*; Anglicans*; Spiritual Baptists*; Other Protestant bodies*;
  • Trinity – Overview**; Development, Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Roman Catholic tradition***; The Protestant tradition and Contemporary ecumenical discussion***;
    • Trinity – Development, Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Roman Catholic tradition – Beginnings**; Consolidation through controversy and council**; The Cappadocians**; The Filioque controversy**; Augustine**; Boethius**; Richard of St.-Victor**; Thomas Aquinas**;
      • Trinity – Development, Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Roman Catholic tradition – Beginnings – Trinity arises from Christology**; Sporadic developments**;
      • Trinity – Development, Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Roman Catholic tradition – Consolidation through controversy and council – Nicaea (325)**; Constantinople (381)*;
      • Trinity – Development, Eastern Orthodox tradition, and Roman Catholic tradition – The Cappadocians – Hypostasis and Ousia**; Perichōrēsis**;
    • Trinity – The Protestant tradition and contemporary ecumenical discussion – The Reformation through Schleiermacher**; The 20th century: Barth and Rahner**; Trinitarian language**; The Challenge of “Three in One”**; Trinitarian challenges to traditional assumptions**; The Trinity and relationality**; Recent issues**;
      • Trinity – The Protestant tradition and contemporary ecumenical discussion – Recent issues – Contexts and pluralism**; The Trinity, Christian experience, and the naming of God**; The Trinity and human beings**;
  • Trust – Psychological and theological aspects**; Social aspects**;
    • Trust – Psychological and theological aspects – Definition**; Criticism of the symbolic model**; Pastoral care and religious instruction**;
    • Trust – Social aspects – Role of Fascism in study of trust**; Functional-structural system theory**; Ethical reflection*;
  • Truth – Biblical aspects**; Philosophical aspects***; Theological aspects***;
    • Truth – Biblical aspects – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Ethics and truthfulness**;
    • Truth – Philosophical aspects – Meaning*; Definition***;
      • Truth – Philosophical aspects – Definition - History and theories**;
      • Truth – Philosophical aspects – Definition - History and theories – Realism**; Truth as created*; Pragmatic theories*; Coherence theory*; Logical positivism**; Truth as unconcealment**; Truth and the hermeneutics of suspicion**;
    • Truth – Theological aspects – The Issue*; Historical development**; Current debates**; Conclusion**;
  • Tunisia – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Turkey – 1453-1918*; Mustafa Kamal (Atatürk)**; World War II and the Cold War**; The Kurdish minority**; Modern political developments**; Middle East politics**; Sociopolitical challenges**; Religious situation**;
  • Turkmenistan – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Twelve, The or The Twelve – Definition*; Lists of members**; Development of the group**; Role of Peter*;
  • Two-kingdoms doctrine – Historic roots**; Reformation positions and fronts***; Ecclesiastical and political significance in the 19th and 20th centuries**; Contemporary significance**;
    • Two-kingdoms doctrine – Historic roots – Biblical traditions**; Augustine*; Medieval application of Augustine**;
    • Two-kingdoms doctrine – Reformation positions and fronts – Luther**; Zwingli*; Calvin**;
      • Two-kingdoms doctrine – Reformation positions and fronts – Luther – Term itself**; Early developments**; Luther's political theory**; Relation to Melanchthon and the Augsburg Confession of 1530**;
    • Two-kingdoms doctrine – Contemporary significance – God as ruler of all creation*; Human relations with God**; God's structures for human life**; Integrity of the divine institutions*; Bonhoeffer's distinction between the ultimate and penultimate*;
  • Typology – Term**; Examples**; In salvation history**; Commentary**;

U[edit]

  • Ubiquity – Ubiquity of God**; Ubiquity exclusive to God**;
  • Uganda – General situation**; Religious situation***;
    • Uganda – General situation – Statistics**; Early history**; Amin and further**; Peace mediation efforts**;
    • Uganda – Religious situation – Indigenous beliefs**; Christian churches**; Ecumenical and interreligious relations**;
  • Ukraine – The Principal Christian groups**; History**; 20th-century developments**; Current tensions**;
    • Ukraine – History – Christian roots**; Orthodox-Roman Catholic separation**; Eastern Rite Catholics (Uniates)**;
  • Una Sancta movement – Name**; History**; Importance and influence**;
    • Una Sancta movement – History – Beginnings*; Relation to the ecumenical movement*; French incentives*; In Germany**;
  • Unemployment – Definition and causes**; Level, distribution, and effects**; The Church and unemployment**;
    • Unemployment – Definition and causes – Functional unemployment*; Structural unemployment*; Cyclical unemployment*;
  • Uniate churches – Phenomenon**; Ecclesiology**; Present status**;
    • Uniate churches – Ecclesiology – Historical move to unity in churches**; Uniate churches since the Council of Trent**; History between Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches**; Balamand Agreement*;
    • Uniate churches – Present status – History of Eastern Catholics in Eurasia**; Results of the Ferrara-Florence decree*; Melchites*; Byzantine Rite churches*; Maronite Church*; Syro-Malabar and Syro-Malankara Catholic Church*; Chaldean Catholic Church*; Other churches**;
  • Unification Church – History**; Beliefs**; Appeal**; Critique**;
  • Union – Term**; Examples in church history**; Situation today*;
    • Union – Term – Middle Ages*; Reformation*; 19th century Germany*; Other terms*; Union churches*;
    • Union – Examples in church history – Early examples of unification**; Reformation era**; Consensus Sandomiriensis**; 19th century on**;
  • Unitarians – Term**; Sources**; The Transcendentalists**; Religious humanism**; International developments**; Recent developments**;
    • Unitarians – Sources – Poland and Transylvania**; British Isles**; United States**;
  • United and uniting churches – History and statistics**; Typology**; Motivating factors**; Ecclesiological identity**; Alternatives to organic union*; Relationships worldwide**; Challenges and vision**;
    • United and uniting churches – Motivating factors – Missionary movement**; Relativization of denominational differences**; Growth of the ecumenical movement**; External factors*;
  • United Arab Emirates – General situation**; Religious situation**;
  • United Kingdom – Historical development***; The Present situation***;
    • United Kingdom – Historical development – Early Christianity in the United Kingdom**; Medieval Christianity**; Reformation**; Civil War**; Toleration**; 18th-century church**; 19th-century church**; The 20th century**;
      • United Kingdom – Historical development – The 20th century – Within the established churches**; Outside the established churches**; Ireland**;
    • United Kingdom – The Present situation – Established churches**; Roman Catholics**; Traditional nonconformist churches**; New churches*; Northern Ireland**; Relationships and prospects**;
      • United Kingdom – The Present situation – Relationships and prospects – Changed nature of ecumenical endeavor**; Recent decline**;
  • United Nations – Origins**; Organs**; Significant activities of concern to the churches**; Assessment*;
  • United States of America – Christian churches***; Ecumenical work and parachurch organizations**; Non-Christian religions**; Church and state*;
    • United States of America – Christian churches – Indian churches**; Roman Catholic Church**; Black churches**; Protestant churches***; Orthodox Churches*;
      • United States of America – Christian churches – Black churches – Baptists*; Methodists*; Pentecostals*;
      • United States of America – Christian churches – Protestant churches – In the original colonies**; Arising later;
        • United States of America – Christian churches – Protestant churches – In the original colonies – Anglicanism*; Congregationalism*; Baptists**; Reformed churches**; Quakers*;
        • United States of America – Christian churches – Protestant churches – Arising later – United Methodist Church*; Lutheran churches*; Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)*; Conservative or evangelical churches**;
    • United States of America – Ecumenical work and parachurch organizations – Ecumenical organizations**; Parachurch organizations**;
    • United States of America – Non-Christian religions – Judaism*; Islam*; Other*;
  • Unity – Terminology**; First concepts or models**; Development of concepts and models**; Methods and basic orientations**;
    • Unity – First concepts or models – Federation of churches*; Spiritual unity*; Pulpit and altar fellowship*; Organic unity*;
    • Unity – Development of concepts and models – Conciliar fellowship*; Unity in reconciled diversity*; Koinonia, communion*;
  • Universalism and particularism – Terms**; In philosophy**; In theology**;
  • Universalism or Universalists – History**; Universalism and Unitarianism**; Growth and special interests**; The Unitarian Universalist Association**;
    • Universalism or Universalists – History – Origins and European development**; In Great Britain**; In North America**;
    • Universalism or Universalists – Growth and special interests – Theological education*; Women*; Creedalism**; Expansion to Asia*; Redefinitions**;
  • University – Term and founding**; Universities before 1945**; Technical and other colleges*; Idea and ideology**; Universities after 1945**; The Common structure of universities**;
    • University – The Common structure of universities – Corporate life of teachers and students*; Universities as independent corporations**; Full-scale autonomy*; Universal validity of the knowledge to be acquired*;
  • Upanishads – Origins**; Sociology and history**; Theology**; Commentaries**;
  • Urban Rural Mission – History**; Goals*; Theological basis*;
  • Uruguay – General situation**; Christian groups**; Interdenominational and ecumenical organizations**; Non-Christian religions**;
    • Uruguay – General situation – Early history**; World War II to democracy**; Return to democracy**;
    • Uruguay – Christian groups – Roman Catholic Church and society**; Non-Roman Catholic Churches**; Others*;
      • Uruguay – Christian groups – Roman Catholic Church and society – History of Roman Catholicism**; Religion in the private sphere**;
      • Uruguay – Non-Roman Catholic Churches – Early immigrant influx of churches*; 19th century on**; Pentecostal churches*;
  • Utilitarianism – Term**; Utilitarian philosophy**; Applications**;
  • Utopia – Term**; Political utopias**; Religious utopias*; The Enlightenment**; More recent concepts**;
    • Utopia – Political utopias – Thomas More's Utopia**; Stiblin's De Eudaemonensium republica and Rabelais' Gargantua**;
    • Utopia – More recent concepts – Marx and Bloch**; Moltmann and criticism of Bloch**; Since socialist collapse*;
  • Uzbekistan – General situation**; Christian presence**;
    • Uzbekistan – Christian presence – Early history**; Late 19th century to late 20th century**; Since independence**;

V[edit]

  • Vatican – Place-name*; Incorrect usage**;
    • Vatican – Incorrect usage – Roman Curia**; Holy See**; Vatican City**;
  • Vatican I and Vatican II – Vatican I (1869-1870)***; Vatican II (1962-1965)***;
    • Vatican I and Vatican II – Vatican I (1869-1870) – Preliminaries**; Course**; Effects**; Doctrinal pronouncements**;
    • Vatican I and Vatican II – Vatican II (1962-1965) – Preliminaries**; Course**; The Council's Pronouncments**; Effects**; Further reflections***;
      • Vatican I and Vatican II – Vatican II (1962-1965) – Course – Preparation for and conduct of the council**; Documents accepted and adopted**;
      • Vatican I and Vatican II – Vatican II (1962-1965) – Further reflections – Ecumenical implications and steps**; The Unfolding of tradition**;
  • Venezuela – Country, society, economy**; History and the Roman Catholic Church***; Protestantism**; Ecumenical groups**; Non-Christian religions*;
    • Venezuela – Country, society, economy – Early history**; 1980s crisis**; Hugo Chavez**;
    • Venezuela – History and the Roman Catholic Church – Origins**; First diocese to struggle for independence**; To the Syllabus of Errors**; To Hugo Chavez**; Recent history**;
    • Venezuela – Protestantism – Foreign and immigrant congregations*; National churches**; Impact of missionary societies**;
  • Vestments – Apparel outside of worship**; Liturgical apparel**;
    • Vestments – Liturgical apparel – Eastern church**; Roman Catholic Church**; Protestant churches**;
      • Vestments – Liturgical apparel – Roman Catholic Church – Undergarments*; Outer garments*; Prerogatives*; Insignia*;
  • Viet Nam or Vietnam – General situation**; History**; Non-Christian religions**; Christianity**;
    • Viet Nam or Vietnam – History – Vietnamese dynasties (939-1945)**; French colonization (1862-1954)**; Viet Nam War (1956-1975)*;
    • Viet Nam or Vietnam – Christianity – Roman Catholics**; Protestants**;
  • Virgin birth – Bible**; History**; Criticism**;
    • Virgin birth – History – Early thought**; Formalization**;
    • Virgin birth – Criticism – Jewish-Christian groups**; Not used as evidence for the divinity of Jesus**;
  • Virtue – Approaches**; The Recovery of virtue**; Virtue and scripture**;
  • Visions – Definition*; Types of visions**; Cultural impact**; History**;
  • Visitation – Biblical**; Ecclesiastical**;
  • W. A. Visser ۥt Hooft – Early life**; Before the Provisional Committee**; 1938-48: The WCC in process of formation**; 1948-66: The General Secretary**; Legacy**;
  • Vitalism – Use of term**; Philosophical aspects**;
  • Vocation – Term*; Old and New Testaments**; Early church**; Middle Ages*; Luther and other reformers**; Modern period**;
  • Voluntarism – Term**; History**;
    • Voluntarism – History – Ancient Greece to the Reformation**; Modern period**;
  • Vow – Term*; Biblical aspects**; In theology**; Current discussion*;

W[edit]

  • Waldenses – Description*; History**; The Modern period**; Churches***;
    • Waldenses – History – Origins**; Preaching**; Literal view of the Sermon on the Mount**; Self-understanding**; Persecution**;
    • Waldenses – The Modern period – As a Reformed church**; 1848 on**;
    • Waldenses – Churches – Extent**; Theology**; Organization**; Relations with the state**; Ecumenical contacts**;
      • Waldenses – Organization – Presbyterian governance**; Training**; Waldensian Church of the Rio de La Plata*;
  • War – Terminology, themes, and conceptual problems**; Typologies**; Scripture and war**; Christian encounters with war***; Restrictions in war**; Post-Cold War “wars” and prospects for the future***;
    • War – Typologies – Legal approach*; Ethical typologies and religious typology*; Political typology*;
    • War – Christian encounters with war – Early church**; Augustine**; Just-war thinking and the Middle Ages**; Peace of Westphalia**; The World Wars**; The Cold War**;
    • War – Post-Cold War “wars” and prospects for the future – The Balkans**; Rwanda and Sudan**; Terrorism and the “War on Terrorism”**;
  • Water, holy or Holy water – Origin of concept*; Early and Reformation churches**; In Roman Catholicism*;
  • Weapons of mass destruction – Terminology**; Chemical weapons**; Biological weapons**; Nuclear weapons**; The Ethical debate***; Present needs**;
    • Weapons of mass destruction – The Ethical debate – Just-war theory**; Ethical questions**;
      • Weapons of mass destruction – The Ethical debate – Ethical questions – May we ever use WMD?**; May we hold WMD as a deterrent?**; How morally imperative is it to prevent proliferation of WMD and to disarm those nations now in possession?**;
  • Wedding ceremony – Liturgical aspects**; Pastoral aspects**;
    • Wedding ceremony – Liturgical aspects – History**; The Present**;
      • Wedding ceremony – Liturgical aspects – History – Early history**; Reformation on**;
    • Wedding ceremony – Pastoral aspects – As a rite of passage*; Vows*; Wedding counseling**; Remarriage after divorce*; Mixed marriages*; Same sex partnerships*;
  • Western Sahara – General situation**; Religious situation*;
    • Western Sahara – General situation – Basic data**; History**; Exiles*;
  • Westminster Assembly and Confession of Faith – Westminster Assembly**; Documents of the Assembly**; Contents of the Westminster Confession**; Reaction**; Recent developments**;
  • William of Ockham – Life**; Ockham's “razor”**; God's omnipotence and freedom**;
    • William of Ockham – God's omnipotence and freedom – As one of Ockham's chief truths**; Impact of contemporary discussions on the roles of philosophy and religion in science**; Distinction between God's absolute and ordained power**;
  • Wine – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Church history**;
  • Wisdom literature – Term*; Books**; Setting**; Influences**; Forms and genres**; Ideology**; Later developments**; New Testament and church**;
  • Witchcraft – Biblical**; Historical**; Anthropological**; Neopagan**;
  • Women's movement – Central themes**; Interlocking inequalities**; History**; Diversity within the movement**;
  • Word of God – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Systematic theology***;
    • Word of God – Old Testament – Precursors*; Early use in Israel**; Jeremiah*; Deuteronomy**; Wisdom literature**;
    • Word of God – New Testament – Terminology**; Paul**; Luke**; John**;
    • Word of God – Systematic theology – Biblical background**; Historical development**; A Contemporary understanding**;
      • Word of God – Systematic theology – Historical development – Early church**; Orthodox and Catholic variations*; Reformation**; Protestant orthodoxy**;
  • Work – Term; Biblical description; Middle Ages and Reformation; Modern period;
  • Worker-priests – Origin of the movement**; Godin and Daniel's white paper*; World War II era**; 1953 to Vatican II**; Other countries**;
  • World Association for Christian Communication – The Early years**; WACC and the right to communicate**; WACC beyond 2005**;
  • World Council of Churches – Membership*; Basis**; Early history**; Foundation**; Organization**; Structure**; Activities**; Assemblies**; Future;
    • World Council of Churches – Assemblies – First Assembly (Amsterdam, 1948)*; Second Assembly (Evanston, 1954)*; Third Assembly (New Delhi, 1961)*; Fourth Assembly (Uppsala, 1968)*; Fifth Assembly (Nairobi, 1975)*; Sixth Assembly (Vancouver, 1983)*; Seventh Assembly (Canberra, 1991)*; Eighth Assembly (Harare, 1998)*; Ninth Assembly (Porto Alegre, 2006)*;
  • World Evangelical Alliance – Overview**; History**; Theological basis*; Commissions**; Ecumenical relations**;
  • World Methodist Council – Basic data*; Theology**; Decisions**; Officers**; Relation to the Universal Church*;
  • World Student Christian Federation – Foundation to World War I**; Between wars: a changing profile**; 1956-64: “the life and mission of the church”**; 1968: student revolt**; New dynamism in a changing context**;
  • World's Religions, Parliament of the or Parliament of the World's Religions – The First World Parliament, 1893**; Significance**; The Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions**; Subsequent World Parliament events**;
  • Worldview – Term**; History***;
    • Worldview – Term – Model of interpretation*; Patterns of interpretation**; Worldview and world pictures*; Social factors**;
    • Worldview – History – Biblical**; Ancient and medieval**; Modern**; Christian perspective**;
      • Worldview – History – Biblical – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Openness to the world**;
      • Worldview – History – Ancient and medieval – Philosophical description**; Mathematical description*; Medieval views**;
      • Worldview – History – Modern – Late medieval nominalism**; Infinte worlds postulate*; Idealism*; Quantum theory*; Cybernetics*; Technology*;
  • Worldwide Church of God – Founder and successors**; Distinctive beliefs**; Remaking of the church**;
  • Worship – New Testament and early church***; Western tradition***; Orthodox tradition**; Free church tradition**; Africa**; Asia**; Latin America***; United States and Canada***;
    • Worship – New Testament and early church – Term and usage**; Temple and synagogue worship in New Testament days**; Primitive Christian worship**; Worship in the early church**; The Fourth century as a turning point**;
    • Worship – Western tradition – Medieval developments**; Roman Catholic liturgical reform**; The Reformation and its fruit***; Protestant liturgical reform**;
      • Worship – Western tradition – Roman Catholic liturgical reform - 20th century liturgical movement**; Vatican II**; Roman Missal of 1970**;
      • Worship – Western tradition – The Reformation and its fruit – The New view of worship**; Luther's reforms**; Other reformers**; Developments in England**;
        • Worship – Western tradition – The Reformation and its fruit – Other reformers – Ulrich Zwingli*; Martin Bucer*; John Calvin*; John Knox*;
      • Worship – Western tradition – Protestant liturgical reform – Germany*; United States**; Significant books**;
    • Worship – Orthodox tradition – History, practice, environment**; The Theology and spirit of Orthodox worship**; Adaptation**;
    • Worship – Free church tradition – General characteristics*; Original free church worship tradition**; New developments*;
    • Worship – Africa – Framework**; Worship as service*; Corporate worship*; African worship and pentecostalism**;
    • Worship – Asia – Early history**; Recent history**;
    • Worship – Latin America – Roman Catholicism**; Historic Protestantism**; Mission Protestantism**; Pentecostalism; Current issues**;
      • Worship – Latin America – Historic Protestantism – Anglicanism**; Lutheranism, Calvinism, and United Churches**;
      • Worship – Latin America – Mission Protestantism – Congregationalism**; Presbyterianism**; Methodism**; Baptists*; Pentecostalism**;
    • Worship – United States and Canada – Worship in American and Canadian society**; Historical developments**; New developments**;
      • Worship – United States and Canada – Historical developments - 16th and 17th centuries**; 18th century**; 19th century**; 20th century**;
  • Wrath of God – Old Testament**; New Testament**; Systematics***;
    • Wrath of God – Old Testament – God as human, capable of wrath*; Varied terminology**; Israel as primary object of wrath**; Relation to moral qualities*; Limited wrath of God*;
    • Wrath of God – New Testament – John the Baptist, Jesus**; Paul**; Revelation*;
    • Wrath of God – Systematics – Task and problem**; History of dogma**; Reformation theology**; 19th and 20th centuries;
      • Wrath of God – Systematics – History of dogma – Early church**; Marcion on**;
      • Wrath of God – Systematics - 19th and 20th centuries – F. D. E. Schleiermacher and A. Ritschl*; F. H. R. Frank*; W. Rauschenbusch*; K. Barth*; H. R. Niebuhr*; W. Elert*;

X[edit]

  • Xenophobia – Term*; Through history**; Religious considerations**;
    • Xenophobia – Through history – Oldest references**; Early ethics**; Neutralizing as a rival**;
    • Xenophobia – Religious considerations – Unrelated to fear of God*; Proposed reasons*; Unrelated to history of religions**;

Y[edit]

  • Yemen – History**; Present situation**; Religious situation**;
  • Yezidis – History**; Syncretism*; Social organization**;
  • Yoga – Eastern history**; Westerners*; Devotion to God as yoga*;
  • Young Men's Christian Association – History**; Basis and work**; Impact and connections**; Recent developments**;
  • Young Women's Christian Association – History**; The Present**; In Germany and the United States**;
  • Youth – As sociological construct**; Problems and analysis**;
    • Youth – As sociological construct – In small-scale and premodern societies**; Many possible delineations**;
    • Youth – Problems and analysis – In public concern and social research**; S. N. Eisenstadt's analysis**;
  • Youth religions – Term**; Movements**; Spread*; Effect*;
    • Youth religions – Term – Definition*; Cause of attraction**; Personality changes*;
  • Youth work – Target**; Aims; Organization**; Forms and methods**; United States**;
    • Youth work – Aims – Missionary*; Emancipatory*;
    • Youth work – Organization – In the congregation**; Denominational unions**; International ecumenical youth organizations*;
    • Youth work – Forms and methods – Forms**; Methods**;
    • Youth work – United States – Factors*; Context*; Youth activities*; Youth ministry**; Youth movements**;
      • Youth work – United States – Youth ministry – Global expressions*; Parachurch youth ministry*; Parachurch university youth ministries*;
  • Yugoslavia or Montenegro and Serbia – Background**; Montenegro**; Serbia**;

Z[edit]

  • Zaire or Congo-Kinshasa – General situation**; Mission work and Christian churches***; Interchurch relations**; Church and state**; Other religions**;
    • Zaire or Congo-Kinshasa – General situation – Basic data**; Modern history**;
    • Zaire or Congo-Kinshasa – Mission work and Christian churches – Protestants**; Roman Catholics**; Kimbanguists**;
  • Zambia – General situation**; History of the church**; Religions and churches today**; Interchurch cooperation**; Church and state**;
  • Zechariah, Book of or Book of Zechariah – Text**; Theology**;
  • Zimbabwe – General situation**; Religions**; Christianity**; Interdenominational organizations**; Church and state**;
    • Zimbabwe – Christianity – Roman Catholic Church*; Protestant churches**; African Independent Churches**; Pentecostal churches*;
  • Zionism – In antiquity**; 19th-century developments**; Theodor Herzl**; Christian restorationism**; 20th-century developments before 1948**; After the formation of modern Israel**;
  • Zwingli's theology – Overview**; Teaching***; Influence*;
    • Zwingli's theology – Teaching – God**; Christ**; The Holy Spirit**; Human beings**; The Bible**; Salvation**; Sacraments**; Church and society**;

Encyclopedia of Early Christianity[edit]

Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, editor Everett Ferguson, Garland Publishing, Inc., New York, 1997, 2nd edition ISBN 0-8153-1663-1

Major articles[edit]

2 pages or more

Significant articles[edit]

3 paragraphs or ½ column of text (30+ lines) to 2 pages