Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics

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Glass tesseract still.png

The tesseract, the four-dimensional analog of the cube.
To see an animated version, click here.


edit Mathematics portal

How to help – open tasks and things to do

Contributors – a list of project participants. Please introduce yourself.

Advice on using Wikipedia for mathematics self-study

Random mathematics article


Lists of mathematics topics – containing approximately 30077 articles

Recent activity on mathematics articles

500 most popular articles

Editor resources

Mathematics reference resources

Mathematics editor resources

Manual of style for mathematics

Conventions – naming and terminology conventions

Guide to creating mathematical formulas and comparison of different encodings

Mathematics templates

Subpages and subprojects

PlanetMath Collaborations

Math Wikipedia 1.0

Mathematical Graphics

Mathematical Typography

WikiProject Mathematics Competitions

Proofs – essay on proofs and proof style

Foundations of mathematics – an essay

Related projects

WikiProject Statistics

WikiProject Numbers

WikiProject Cryptography

WikiProject Golden ratio

WikiProject Polyhedra

WikiProject Logic

WikiProject Systems

WikiProject Physics

WikiProject Science

Wikiproject Game theory

Discussion pages

Main discussion page

Mathematics reference desk

This project aims to enable Wikipedians to cooperate, make suggestions and share ideas on the organization and improvement of the mathematics coverage of Wikipedia. Everyone is welcome to join in this endeavor.

Many such suggestions and guidelines have been developed since the project began. A particularly useful collection can be found in the Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Mathematics, which contains a detailed discussion of issues related to writing mathematics articles on Wikipedia.

However, it is important for all of us to remember that these are only suggestions: they should help to give us focus, and inspire our contributions, but no one should feel obliged to follow (or even read) them. This WikiProject is not prescriptive. The suggestions are intended to be helpful for those who are not sure what to write, or how they can contribute, but they should not distract anyone wanting to contribute from our main purpose: to write and improve mathematics articles!

Project background and scope[edit]

This WikiProject began in 2002 to assist the creation, improvement and organization of articles in the area of mathematics. The initial goals of the project were to provide:

  • a standard "bare bones" format for mathematical articles
  • useful links for article writers
  • a location to discuss issues relating to this section of Wikipedia
  • standards for mathematical notation using wikified HTML and TeX.

In its broadest terms, mathematics includes its overlaps with physics, computer science, operations research, and other areas. However, there are now separate WikiProjects in many of these areas, and so the focus of WikiProject Mathematics has shifted towards articles which are primarily mathematical (although it still includes many aspects of theoretical physics, for example).

Much progress has been made. The overall organisation of the project is now pretty much in place, and a "house style" for mathematical articles is reasonably well established. The list of mathematics articles now has over 25000 entries, and this list is automatically updated by a bot using the list of mathematics categories to identify relevant articles. There are also lists of articles by topic which organize articles by subdiscipline and other criteria.

When contributing new articles which are (even only remotely) related to mathematics (including biographies of mathematicians, and so on), please add at least an approximate mathematical category. This enables us to identify, and hence review and add to (or mercilessly savage!), each other's contributions.

The main issues for the project are now probably the following ones:

  • Bringing stubs up to a reasonable standard. There are always plenty of pages that are definition-only. We need to add motivation and examples.
  • Developing important articles into good expositions. As anyone who teaches the subject knows, the gap between stating some true facts, and really putting over a topic, is quite large. Here we can consider also the need to add history and proper attributions.
  • Expanding coverage to bring the subject up-to-date. This is a huge task, so the main requirements are patience and determination. In particular, a lot of work is still needed to bring the more advanced material up-to-date, so expert contributions are to be encouraged.
  • Keeping track of all relevant articles, by listing, categorising, and assessing them. As mentioned above, it is important to add even an approximate category to each mathematical article. There is also a subproject whose aim is to assess the broad field, and the importance and quality of our articles. Anyone can contribute to this task by adding or updating {{maths rating}} templates on article talk pages.
  • Identifying pseudo-mathematics, hoaxing, and other unattributable material. Most Wikipedians, naturally enough, don't feel qualified to pronounce on articles purporting to be mathematical, so it is up to us to identify crankery, hoaxes, and material with dubious or unverifiable sources. Anything suspect should be reported on the talk page of this page.

Things to do[edit]

Looking for something to do? The following table lists some of the places on Wikipedia where mathematics-related requests, suggestions, and tasks have been collected together.

What Where
Suggest or edit a mathematics article needing attention Pages needing attention: Mathematics
Apply your expert knowledge to improve an article Mathematics articles needing expert attention
Request or write a mathematics article Requested articles: Mathematics
Request or provide an image Requested images: Mathematics
Expand a mathematics "stub" Mathematics stubs
Suggest or edit a redirect which could have its own article Redirects with possibilities: Mathematics
Help move PlanetMath content onto Wikipedia PlanetMath Exchange
Improve an article that has been tagged as needing attention Wikipedia:Pages needing attention/Mathematics/Lists
Add or improve references in a mathematics article Wikipedia:Pages needing attention/Mathematics/Lists
Turn a "red link" blue Mathematical redlinks
Maintain the mathematics portal Portal:Mathematics
Review or contribute to current mathematics activity Current activity
Help to resolve a dispute Requests for comment: Mathematics
Ask or answer a question about mathematics Reference desk: Mathematics
Assess an article's importance and quality Assessment section
Add biographical details to the missing mathematicians page or create an article for someone on the list. Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/missing mathematicians

Some issues to think about[edit]

Probably the hardest part of writing a mathematical article (actually, any article) is the difficulty of addressing the level of mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader. For example, when writing about a field, do we assume that the reader already knows group theory? A general approach is to start simple, then move toward more abstract and general statements as the article proceeds. The suggestions below are intended to help us achieve this.

When describing a concept in terms of some other concept (for example, explaining rational numbers in terms of integers), be sure to:

  • add a (prominent) link to the relevant article (in this case, integer) — as with other wikipedia articles, avoid duplicate links;
  • if it makes sense, add a very quick (and naive) explanation/description (in this case, "positive or negative whole numbers" might work).

If the relevant article has not been written yet, then create a good stub, and add a mathematical category. This will list the article in several places (for instance on the list of mathematics articles) and there is a reasonable chance that someone will expand on it.

Some terminology varies from author to author in the literature. It is therefore a good idea to check any pre-existing articles related to a topic to see if there is already an established usage. Proposals for changes in usage are always welcome: the talk page of this page is one forum where issues such as this can be raised.

New contributors may find it helpful to spend a bit of time perusing some of the existing content; this should provide some idea of what type of information is already available, and how much detail is appropriate in a wikipedia mathematics article.

The project Wikipedia:WikiProject General Audience, whose goal is to help make articles more accessible, is also worth consulting.

Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines provides guidance for writing readable and well-referenced scientific and mathematical articles.


The following pages attempt to describe certain conventions for articles with mathematical content. Please read, comment on, improve, criticize, and if appropriate, follow these standards.


There is no one single, prescribed method for classifying mathematics articles. Both the lists and the categories have grown organically, rather than being imported. See also areas of mathematics.

List of publications in mathematics[edit]

There is an effort to organize a list of important publications in many areas of science. Such a list captures the major achievements in each field and might be a valuable asset for one trying to learn a new field.The List of important publications in computer science is the oldest and most mature list and might show the goal of the lists. The rest of the list needs many more contributions. Please help improve the mathematics related lists:

There is also a list of mathematics journals.

Assessment of mathematics articles[edit]

The subproject Wikipedia:WikiProject Mathematics/Wikipedia 1.0 provides a system to assess mathematics articles for their quality and importance, and to classify them broadly by field. This system was originally developed as part of Wikipedia 1.0, and these assessments will be used to help us to determine which articles will appear in the Wikipedia 1.0 CD.

However, article assessments are useful more generally to track the project's progress, identify weak spots in its coverage, and highlight articles which could become Good Articles or Featured Articles. Articles are assessed by placing (or updating) a {{maths rating}} template on the talk page of the article. Furthermore, the template provides an opportunity to add a brief comment on the article suggesting improvements that could be made.

The table above summarizes the current state-of-play. The links in this table point to assessment pages on which articles are listed by field and quality, complete with any comments that editors have made.

Any article can be assessed for its mathematical content, and anyone can rate an article. The only exceptions are the Good Article and Featured Article quality grades. These should only be added to articles which have been through the standard Wikipedia Good Article Nomination and Featured Article Candidacy procedures. Editors are also encouraged to use the A-class assessment process to assign A-class quality to an article.

Recognized content[edit]

Good articles[edit]

As of 24 January 2012 the mathematics Good Articles are:


Brocard, Henri – Holmboe, Bernt Michael – Ramanujan, Srinivasa – Steinhaus, Hugo – Turing, Alan – (5 articles)

Mathematics and mathematical problems[edit]

Ars Conjectandi – Commutative property – Derivative – Dirac delta function – e (mathematical constant) – Exponentiation – Fast inverse square root – Final stellation of the icosahedron – Fleiss' kappa – Hilbert space – Homotopy groups of spheres – International Mathematical Olympiad – Matrix (mathematics) – Maximum spacing estimation – Mayer–Vietoris sequence – Parity of zero – Penrose tiling – Pi – Pseudoforest – Pythagorean theorem – Shapley–Folkman lemma – Sylvester's sequence – Taylor series – Vector space – Wieferich prime – Znám's problem – (26 articles)

Mathematical physics[edit]

None currently.

A-class articles[edit]

The A-class assessment process is used to select A-class articles. So far the following have been promoted by this process:

The following 4 articles have also been identified as A-class:

Albert EinsteinCharles Sanders PeirceEigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspaceGolden ratio.

Featured content[edit]

As of 23 August 2013, 25 mathematics articles are featured articles:

Featured articles
Article Featured[1] Main Page
Marian Rejewski Discussion 19 January 2006 10 March 2006
Actuary Discussion 30 July 2006 10 September 2006
Leonhard Euler Discussion 8 October 2006 11 November 2006
0.999... Discussion 10 October 2006 25 October 2006
Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector Discussion 17 January 2007 30 December 2010
Polar coordinate system Discussion 31 January 2007 17 February 2007
1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + · · · Discussion 17 March 2007 15 April 2007
Johannes Kepler Discussion 20 March 2007 15 July 2007
Introduction to general relativity Discussion 24 July 2007 18 April 2010
Georg Cantor Discussion 31 July 2007 15 September 2007
Archimedes Discussion 23 October 2007 29 January 2008
Emery Molyneux Discussion 18 April 2008 DYN 9 February 2008
Émile Lemoine Discussion 24 April 2008 5 June 2008
Edward Wright (mathematician) Discussion 19 June 2008 24 August 2009
Emmy Noether Discussion 22 June 2008 4 September 2008
General relativity Discussion 27 June 2008 19 April 2012
Group (mathematics) Discussion 17 September 2008 5 November 2008
Problem of Apollonius Discussion 13 October 2008 22 November 2008
Euclidean algorithm Discussion 19 May 2009 18 June 2009
Robert Hues Discussion 6 June 2009 16 June 2010
Numerical weather prediction Discussion 26 March 2011 10 August 2011
Logarithm Discussion 1 June 2011 5 June 2011
Pi Discussion 4 June 2012 22 July 2012
Stephen Hawking Discussion 3 September 2012 5 June 2011
Parity of zero Discussion 21 August 2013 29 August 2013

Featured images[edit]

There are also seventeen featured mathematical images:

There is one former featured image:

Featured lists[edit]

There are two featured lists:

Former featured articles[edit]

As of 20 August 2008 there are at least 24 mathematics articles which are former featured articles:

Former featured articles
Article Featured[1] De-featured[1] Main Page
Ordinal 26 January 2002 19 January 2004
Statistics 26 January 2002 19 January 2004
Pythagorean theorem 26 January 2002 Discussion 21 March 2004
Illegal prime 28 August 2003 Discussion 13 July 2004
Computational complexity theory 26 January 2002 Discussion 23 August 2004
Vacuous truth Discussion 6 January 2004 Discussion 20 September 2004
Triangle Discussion 10 May 2004 Discussion 3 March 2005
Fractal   Spoken content icon Discussion 12 July 2004 Discussion 15 September 2005
Algorithm 24 July 2002 Discussion 28 May 2006 20 July 2004
Eigenvalue, eigenvector and eigenspace 16 October 2005 Discussion 19 September 2006 1 November 2005
Ackermann function 18 December 2003 Discussion 21 October 2006 24 September 2004
Regular polytope Discussion 9 October 2004 Discussion 23 January 2007 18 November 2004
Margin of error Discussion 12 October 2004 Discussion 3 March 2007 19 October 2004
Galileo Galilei 4 November 2003 Discussion 12 September 2007 24 July 2004
Lists of mathematics topics Discussion 27 October 2005 Discussion 31 December 2007
Carl Friedrich Gauss Discussion 10 July 2005 Discussion 4 January 2008 August 4, 2005
Game theory Discussion 4 December 2005 Discussion 18 March 2008 13 January 2006
Prisoner's dilemma 19 January 2004 Discussion 16 April 2008 16 March 2004
Trigonometric functions Discussion 20 December 2003 Discussion 19 July 2008 6 March 2004
Isaac Newton Discussion 19 October 2005 Discussion 14 March 2009 13 December 2005
Cryptography Discussion 2 July 2006 Discussion 26 May 2011 22 July 2006
Monty Hall problem Discussion 25 June 2005 Discussion 13 June 2011 23 July 2005
Blaise Pascal Discussion 4 August 2005 Discussion 12 September 2011 19 August 2005
Infinite monkey theorem Discussion 29 September 2004 Discussion 4 October 2012 31 October 2004
  1. ^ a b c The discussion links (where they exist) point to the featured article candidate discussion or the featured article removal candidate discussion — prior to June, 2003, there was no formal FA nomination process, and there was no formal FA removal process, prior to March, 2004. Dates for pages listed before Phase II conversion are given as 26 January 2002.

    The symbol: Spoken content icon, indicates an article that has an audio recording of the article text (see the article for a link to its recording).

Featured article candidates[edit]

There are no other mathematics Featured Article candidates at present.