SMS Markgraf was the third battleship of the four-ship König class. She served in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. Laid down in November 1911 and launched on 4 June 1913, she was formally commissioned into the Imperial Navy on 1 October 1914, just over two months after the outbreak of war in Europe. Along with her three sister ships, Markgraf took part in most of the fleet actions during the war, including the Battle of Jutland on 31 May and 1 June 1916. At Jutland, Markgraf was the third ship in the German line of battle and heavily engaged by the opposing British Grand Fleet; Markgraf also participated in Operation Albion, the conquest of the Gulf of Riga, in late 1917. In 1919 Markgraf was scuttled at Scapa Flow along with the rest of the interned German High Seas Fleet. She was never scrapped and the wreck remains at the bottom of the bay.
GeneralSir Michael David "Mike" Jackson is a retired British Army officer and one of its most high-profile generals since the Second World War. Originally commissioned into the Intelligence Corps in 1963, he transferred to the Parachute Regiment, with whom he served in three tours of Northern Ireland. He was present at the events of Bloody Sunday (1972) as well as the aftermath of the Warrenpoint ambush (1979). He also served in the Balkans, where in the Kosovo War he famously refused to obey an order from American General Wesley Clark earning him the nickname "Macho Jacko" in the British tabloid press. In 2003, Jackson was appointed Chief of the General Staff (CGS), the professional head of the British Army. He took up the post a month before the start of the Iraq War, leaving the post in 2006 ending a career spanning 45 years.
In the late 19th century, the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) experimented with a variety of cruiser types, including small avisos and larger protected cruisers. Due to budget constraints, the navy was unable to build cruisers designed solely for fleet service or for overseas duties. As a result, the naval construction department attempted to design vessels that could fulfill both roles. The protected cruisers, the first of which were the two Irene-class vessels, were laid down starting in 1886. The protected cruisers evolved into more powerful vessels, culminating in Fürst Bismarck, Germany's first armored cruiser. Fürst Bismarck was laid down in 1896, a decade after the first German protected cruiser. Fürst Bismarck proved to be "ideally suited" to overseas duties and formed the basis for subsequent armored cruiser designs. Following this eight more armored cruisers were built, culminating in the Blücher, which was laid down in 1907.
SMS Friedrich der Grosse was the second vessel of the Kaiser class of battleships of the GermanImperial Navy. Friedrich der Grosse's keel was laid on 26 January 1910 at the AG Vulcan dockyard in Hamburg, her hull was launched on 10 June 1911, and she was commissioned into the fleet on 15 October 1912. Assigned to the III Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of World War I, she served as fleet flagship from her commissioning until 1917. She participated in all the major fleet operations of World War I, including the Battle of Jutland, from which she emerged completely unscathed. After the Armistice in November 1918, Friedrich der Grosse was interned by the British Royal Navy in Scapa Flow and was subsequently scuttled by her crew. In 1936, the ship was raised and broken up for scrap metal. Her bell was returned to Germany in 1965 and is in the Fleet Headquarters in Glücksburg.
HMS Queen Mary was a battlecruiser built by the BritishRoyal Navy before World War I, the sole member of her class. She was similar to the Lion-classbattlecruisers, though she differed in details from her half-sisters. She was the last battlecruiser completed before the war and participated in the Battle of Heligoland Bight shortly after the war began. As part of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, she attempted to intercept a German force that bombarded the North Sea coast of England in December 1914, but was unsuccessful. She was refitting during the Battle of Dogger Bank in early 1915, but participated in the next major fleet action of the war, the Battle of Jutland in mid-1916. She was hit twice by the German battlecruiser Derfflinger during the "Run to the South" and exploded shortly afterwards. Her wreck was discovered in 1991 and rests partly upside-down, on sand, 60 metres (197 ft) down. Queen Mary is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.
York Castle, England, is a fortified complex comprising, over the last nine centuries, a sequence of castles, prisons, law courts and other buildings on the south side of the River Foss. The now-ruinous keep of the medievalNormancastle is sometimes referred to as Clifford's Tower. Built originally on the orders of William I to dominate the former Viking city of York, the castle suffered a tumultuous early history before developing into a major fortification with extensive water defences. It fell into disrepair by the 15th and 16th centuries, becoming used increasingly as a jail for both local felons and political prisoners. By the time of Elizabeth I the castle had lost all of its military value but was maintained as a centre of royal authority in York. The outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642 saw York Castle being repaired and refortified, playing a part in the Royalist defence of York in 1644 against Parliamentary forces. York Castle continued to be garrisoned until 1684, when an explosion destroyed the interior of Clifford's Tower. The castle bailey was redeveloped in a neoclassical style in the 18th century as a centre for county administration in Yorkshire. By the 20th century the ruin of Clifford's Tower had become a well-known tourist destination and national monument; today the site is owned by English Heritage and open to the public.