São Paulo was a dreadnoughtbattleship designed for the Brazilian Navy by the British company Armstrong Whitworth. She was launched on 19 April 1909 and commissioned on 12 July 1910. Soon after, she was involved in the Revolt of the Lash (Revolta de Chibata), in which crews on four Brazilian warships mutinied over poor pay and harsh punishments for even minor offenses. After entering the First World War, Brazil offered to send São Paulo and her sisterMinas Geraes to Britain for service with the Grand Fleet, but Britain declined since both vessels were in poor condition and lacked the latest fire-control technology. On 6 July 1922, São Paulofired her guns in anger for the first time when she attacked a fort that had been taken during the Tenente revolts. Two years later, mutineers took control of the ship and sailed her to Montevideo where they obtained asylum. For the rest of her career, the ship was reduced to a reserve coastal defense role. When Brazil entered the Second World War, São Paulo sailed to the port of Recife and remained there as the port's main defense for the duration of the war. She remained as a training vessel until 1951, when she was taken under tow to be scrapped in the United Kingdom. The tow lines broke during a strong gale on 6 November when the ships were 150 nmi (280 km; 170 mi) north of the Azores and São Paulo sank shortly thereafter.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place between 30 April and 5 May 1980 after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington, London. The gunmen took 26 people hostage—mostly embassy staff, but several visitors and a police officer were also held. The hostage-takers, members of a group campaigning for the autonomy of Iran's Khūzestān Province, demanded the release of Arab prisoners from jails in Khūzestān and their own safe passage out of the United Kingdom. The British government quickly resolved that safe passage would not be granted, and a siege ensued. Over the following days, police negotiators secured the release of five hostages in exchange for minor concessions, such as the broadcasting of the hostage-takers' demands on British television. By the sixth day of the siege the gunmen had become increasingly frustrated at the lack of progress in meeting their demands. That evening, they killed one of the hostages and threw his body out of the embassy. As a result, the British government ordered the Special Air Service (SAS), a special forces regiment of the British Army, to conduct an assault to rescue the remaining hostages. Shortly afterwards, soldiers abseiled from the roof of the building and forced entry through the windows. During the 17-minute raid, the SAS rescued all but one of the remaining hostages, and killed five of the six terrorists. The remaining terrorist was prosecuted and served 27 years in British prisons. The operation brought the SAS to the public eye for the first time and bolstered the reputation of Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcher.
John Linton TreloarOBE (10 December 1894 – 28 January 1952) was an Australian archivist and the second director of the Australian War Memorial (AWM). During World War I he served in several staff roles and later headed the First Australian Imperial Force's (AIF) record-keeping unit from 1917. From 1920 Treloar played an important role in establishing the AWM as its director. He headed an Australian Government department during the first years of World War II, and spent the remainder of the war in charge of the Australian military's history section. Treloar returned to the AWM in 1946, and continued as its director until his death in January 1952. Treloar continues to be regarded as an important figure in Australian military history. His principal achievements are seen as gathering and classifying Australia's records of the world wars and successfully establishing the AWM. Following his death the street behind the Memorial and its main storage annex were named in Treloar's honour.
The Manhattan Project was the effort, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, which resulted in the development of the first atomic bomb during World War II. The project, which began as a small research program that year, eventually employed more than 130,000 people at a cost of nearly US$2 billion. Research and production took place at more than 30 sites, some secret, including universities across the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. Two types of atomic bombs were developed during the war. An implosion bomb was the first nuclear device ever detonated, at the Trinity test (pictured) on 16 July 1945. A gun-type weapon, Little Boy, was dropped at Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, while a more complex plutonium-core weapon, Fat Man, was dropped at Nagasaki three days later. The Manhattan Project operated under a blanket of tight security, but Soviet atomic spies still penetrated the program. In the immediate postwar years the Manhattan Project conducted weapons testing at Bikini Atoll as part of Operation Crossroads, developed new weapons, promoted the development of the network of national laboratories, supported medical research into radiology and laid the foundations for the nuclear navy. It maintained control over American atomic weapons research and production until the formation of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.
Operation Kita ("North") was conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the Pacific War in February 1945 to return the two Ise-class hybrid battleship-aircraft carriers and their escorts from Singapore to Japan loaded with supplies. The movement of the Japanese force was detected by the Allies, but attempts to attack it with submarines and aircraft were unsuccessful. Due to the intensifying Allied blockade, the Ise-class battleship-carriers and their escorts were among the last IJN warships to safely reach Japan from the South West Pacific. The Japanese force sailed on 10 February 1945 and was sighted leaving port by a Royal Navy submarine. However, attempts by it and several United States Navy submarines to attack between 11 and 14 February were unsuccessful. More than 88 USAAF aircraft attempted to bomb the Japanese ships on 13 and 14 February, but were unable to do so due to bad weather. A further submarine attack on 16 February did not damage any of the Japanese ships. Despite this success, the Japanese Government was forced to discontinue its efforts to ship oil from Southeast Asia to Japan in March due to the heavy losses Allied submarines were inflicting on oil tankers, and all the ships in the Kita task force were sunk in or near Japanese home waters before the end of the war.
GeneralFrancis Richard Dannatt, Baron Dannatt, GCB, CBE, MC (born 23 December 1950) is a retired British Army officer. He was commissioned into the Green Howards in 1971, and his first tour of duty was in Belfast as a platoon commander. During his second tour of duty, also in Northern Ireland, Dannatt was awarded the Military Cross. After staff college, he became a company commander and eventually took command of the Green Howards in 1989. He attended and then commanded the Higher Command and Staff Course, after which he was promoted to brigadier. Dannatt was given command of 4th Armoured Brigade in 1994 and commanded the British component of the Implementation Force (IFOR) the following year. Dannatt took command of 3rd Mechanised Division in 1999 and simultaneously commanded British forces in Kosovo. After a brief tour in Bosnia, he was appointed Assistant Chief of the General Staff (ACGS). Following the attacks of 11 September 2001, he became involved in planning for subsequent operations in the Middle East. As Commander of the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC), Dannatt led the ARRC headquarters in planning for deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. The ARRC served in Afghanistan in 2005, but by this time Dannatt was Commander-in-Chief, Land Command. He was appointed Chief of the General Staff (CGS) in August 2006 and retired in 2009, taking up the largely honorary post of Constable of the Tower of London. He later served as a defence advisor to David Cameron, resigning when Cameron's Conservative Party won the election. He published an autobiography in 2010.
Thomas the Slav (Greek: Θωμάς; ca. 760 – October 823 AD) was a 9th century Byzantine military commander, entrusted with high command during the reign of EmperorLeo V the Armenian (r. 813–820). An army officer of Slavic origin from the Pontus region (now north-eastern Turkey), Thomas rose in prominence under the protection of Bardanes Tourkos. After Bardanes's failed rebellion in 803, nothing is known of Thomas for a decade, until he was raised to a senior military command by his old friend Leo V. After the murder of Leo and usurpation of the throne by Michael the Syrian, Thomas rose in revolt, claiming the throne for himself. Some Byzantine sources however imply that he rebelled already before Leo's murder. Byzantine accounts also claim that he pretended to be Emperor Constantine VI (r. 780–797), but the validity of this report is questionable. Thomas quickly secured the support of most of the provinces (themes) of Asia Minor and of the troops stationed in them, and concluded an alliance with the Abbasid Caliphate. After he won over the maritime themes with their fleets to his cause, he crossed with his army to Europe, and besieged Constantinople. Michael II called for help from the Bulgar ruler Omurtag (r. 815–831), whose troops attacked Thomas's army. Although repelled, they caused heavy casualties to Thomas's army, which broke and fled when Michael took to the field a few months later. Thomas sought refuge in Arkadiopolis, where he was soon seized by Michael's troops and executed.
Thurisind (Latin: Turisindus, died c. 560) was king of the Gepids, an East GermanicGothic people, from c. 548 to 560. He was the penultimate Gepid king, and succeeded King Elemund by staging a coup d'état and forcing the king's son into exile. Thurisind's kingdom, also known as Gepidia, was located in Central Europe and had its centre in Sirmium, a former Roman city on the Danube River. His reign was marked by multiple wars with the Lombards, a Germanic people who had arrived in the former Roman province of Pannonia under the leadership of their king, Audoin. Thurisind also had to face the hostility of the Byzantine Empire, which was resentful of the Gepid takeover of Sirmium and anxious to diminish Gepid power in the Pannonian Basin. The Byzantines' plans to reduce the Gepids' power took effect when Audoin decisively defeated Thurisind in 551 or 552. The Byzantine Emperor Justinian forced a peace accord on both leaders so that equilibrium in the Pannonian Basin could be sustained. Thurisind lost his eldest son, Turismod, in the Battle of Asfeld, where the prince was killed by Alboin, son of Audoin. In about 560, Thurisind died and was succeeded by his only remaining son, Cunimund, who was killed by Alboin in 567. Cunimund's death marked the end of the Gepid Kingdom and the beginning of the conquest of their territories by the Lombards' allies, the Avars, a nomadic people migrating from the Eurasian Steppe.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals, and may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The award was officially constituted when Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that was gazetted on 5 February 1856. The first awards ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park. The first citations of the VC, particularly those in the initial gazette of 24 February 1857, varied in the details of each action; some specify date ranges while some specify a single date. Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, which is a medal for two actions; Noel Chavasse, Arthur Martin-Leake and Charles Upham. Chavasse received both medals for actions in the First World War, while Martin-Leake was awarded his first VC for actions in the Second Boer War, and his second for actions during the First World War. Charles Upham received both VCs for actions during the Second World War. The Victoria Cross has been awarded 1,356 times to 1,353 individual recipients. Since 1991, Australia, Canada and New Zealand have created their own separate Victoria Crosses: the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Victoria Cross for Canada, and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. As these are separate medals, they are not included in this list.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. 1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was one of the leading British military and political figures of the 19th century. He is often referred to as "The Duke of Wellington", having led a successful military career during the Napoleonic Wars. Between 1794 and 1815 Wellesley participated in a number of military campaigns. Originally a commissioned officer serving in an infantry unit, he rose in rank by purchasing his first four commissions; further status and fame came from his ability as a commander. Wellesley's military career saw his presence on battlefields across western Europe and India where he won a large number of tactical and strategic victories. Although he never lost a major battle, his greatest defeat was the failed siege of Burgos in 1812, where after losing 2,000 men and causing minimal French casualties the was forced to retreat. He called this battle "the worst scrape I was ever in." Wellesley's best known battle is his decisive victory at Waterloo where he led an Anglo-Allied force to defeat Napoleon I.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. A total of 7,322 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945. This number is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD) and the Volkssturm. There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of the Third Reich. These 7,322 recipients are listed in the 1986 edition of Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's book, The bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The owners of the highest award of the Second World War. In 1996 a second edition of this book was published with an addendum delisting nine of these original 7,323 recipients. Author and historian Veit Scherzer has cast doubt on a further 192 of these listings. The majority of the disputed recipients had received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process. Listed here are the 26 Knight's Cross recipients whose last names start with "I", ordered alphabetically. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. This military decoration was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) was introduced on 3 June 1940 to further distinguish those who had already received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and who continued to show merit in combat bravery or military success. A total of 7 awards were made in 1940, 50 in 1941, 111 in 1942, 192 in 1943, 328 in 1944, and 194 in 1945, giving a total of 882 recipients—excluding the 8 foreign recipients of the award. This total is based on the analysis and acceptance of the order commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR), but author and historian Veit Scherzer has challenged the validity of 27 of these listings. With the exception of Hermann Fegelein, all of the disputed recipients received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of the Third Reich during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process. Hermann Fegelein received the Oak Leaves in 1942, but was sentenced to death by Adolf Hitler and executed by SS-GruppenführerJohann Rattenhuber's Reichssicherheitsdienst (RSD) on 28 April 1945 after a court-martial led by SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS Wilhelm Mohnke. The sentence was carried out the same day. The death sentence, according to German law, resulted in the loss of all orders and honorary signs.
The McDonnell XF-85 Goblin was an American prototype fighter aircraft conceived during World War II by McDonnell Aircraft. It was intended to be carried in the bomb bay of the giant Convair B-36 bomber as a defensive parasite fighter. During World War II, Luftwaffe fighters provided stiff opposition for Allied bombers. The XF-85 was a response to a United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) requirement for a fighter to be carried within the Northrop XB-35 and B-36, then under development. Two prototypes were built and underwent testing and evaluation in 1948. Flight tests showed promise in the design, but the aircraft was inferior to the jet fighters it would be facing in combat, and there were difficulties in docking and landing. The XF-85 was swiftly canceled, and the prototypes are now museum exhibits.
YF-23 Gray Ghost (foreground) flying with YF-23 Black Widow II
The Northrop/McDonnell Douglas YF-23 was a single-seat, twin-engined prototype fighter aircraft designed for the United States Air Force (USAF). It was a finalist in the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, battling the Lockheed YF-22 for a production contract. Two YF-23s were built, nicknamed "Black Widow II" and "Gray Ghost". In the 1980s, the USAF began looking for a replacement for its fighter aircraft, especially to counter the advanced Su-27 and MiG-29. Several companies submitted design proposals; the USAF selected proposals from Northrop and Lockheed. Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas to develop the YF-23, while Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics developed the YF-22. The YF-23, using some existing components from the F-15 Eagle and F/A-18 Hornet, was stealthier and faster but less agile than its competitor. After a four-year development and evaluation process, the YF-22 was announced the winner in 1991 and entered production as the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. The U.S. Navy considered using one of the ATF aircraft to replace the F-14, but later canceled these plans. The two YF-23s were donated to museums and are now exhibits.
Stephen (c. 1092/6–1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne by right of his wife. His reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. Stephen was born in the County of Blois in middle France. Placed in the court of his uncle, Henry I of England, Stephen rose in prominence and was granted extensive lands by the king. When Henry died in 1135, Stephen took the throne, arguing that the preservation of order across the kingdom took priority over his earlier oaths to support the claim of Henry I's daughter, the Empress Matilda. The early years of Stephen's reign were largely successful, despite a series of attacks on his possessions in England and Normandy from David I of Scotland, Welsh rebels and the Empress Matilda's husband, Geoffrey of Anjou. In 1138 the Empress's half-brother Robert of Gloucester rebelled against Stephen, threatening civil war. When the Empress and Robert invaded in 1139, Stephen was unable to rapidly crush the revolt. Captured at the battle of Lincoln in 1141, he was abandoned by many of his followers and lost control of Normandy. Although Stephen was eventually freed, the war now dragged on for many years with neither side able to win an advantage. In 1153 the Empress's son, Henry Fitzempress, invaded England and built an alliance of powerful regional barons to support his claim for the throne. Stephen began to examine a negotiated peace, a process hastened by the sudden death of his eldest son Eustace. Stephen and Henry agreed the Treaty of Winchester later in the year, in which Stephen recognised Henry as his heir in exchange for peace. Stephen died the following year, and Henry succeeded him as the first of the Angevin kings.