Joseph Desha (1768–1842) was a U.S. Representative and the ninthgovernor of the U.S. state of Kentucky. Desha was raised near Gallatin, Tennessee, where his family were involved in many skirmishes with the Indians. Two of Desha's brothers were killed in these encounters, motivating him to volunteer for "Mad" Anthony Wayne's campaign against the Indians during the Northwest Indian War. Desha subsequently parlayed his military record into several terms in the state legislature. In 1807, Desha was elected to the first of six consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives and was considered a War Hawk, supporting the War of 1812. In 1813, he volunteered to serve in the war and commanded a division at the Battle of the Thames. He did not seek reelection in 1818, and made an unsuccessful run for governor in 1820. However, he was elected governor by a large majority in 1824. At the expiration of his term, he retired from public life.
Hobart Amory Hare "Hobey" Baker (1892–1918) was an American amateur athlete of the early twentieth century. Considered the first American star in ice hockey by the Hockey Hall of Fame, he was also an accomplished football player. Born into a prominent family from Philadelphia, he enrolled at Princeton University in 1910. Baker excelled on the university's hockey and football teams, and became a noted amateur hockey player for the St. Nicholas Club in New York City. He was a member of three national championship teams, for football in 1911 and hockey in 1912 and 1914, and helped the St. Nicholas Club win a national amateur championship in 1915. Baker graduated from Princeton in 1914 and worked for J.P. Morgan Bank until he enlisted in the United States Army Air Service. During World War I he served with the 103rd and the 13th Aero Squadrons before being promoted to captain and named commander of the 141st Squadron. Baker died in December 1918 after a plane he was test-piloting crashed, hours before he was due to leave France and return to America.
HMS Furious was a modified Courageous-classbattlecruiser built for the Royal Navy (RN) during the First World War. Lightly armoured and armed with only a few heavy guns, she was modified as an aircraft carrier while under construction. Her forward turret was removed and a flight deck was added in its place, so that aircraft had to manoeuvre around the superstructure to land. Later in the war, she had her rear turret removed and a second flight deck installed aft of the superstructure. She was reconstructed with a full-length flight deck in the early 1920s. After her conversion, she was used extensively for trials of naval aircraft and later as a training carrier once the new armoured carriers like Ark Royal entered service in the late 1930s. During the early months of the Second World War she spent her time hunting for German raiders in the North Atlantic and escorting convoys. This changed dramatically during the Norwegian Campaign in early 1940 when her aircraft provided air support to British troops ashore in addition to attacking German shipping. After the withdrawal of British troops in May, she made several anti-shipping strikes in Norway with little result before beginning a steady routine of ferrying aircraft for the Royal Air Force. She was given a lengthy refit in the United States and spent a few months training after her return in April 1942. She made several more ferry trips in mid-1942 before her aircraft attacked airfields in Vichy FrenchAlgeria as part of the opening stages of Operation Torch in November 1942. The ship remained in the Mediterranean until February 1943 when she was transferred to the Home Fleet. She spent most of 1943 training, but made a number of attacks on the German battleship Tirpitz and other targets in Norway during the first half of 1944. By September 1944, the ship was showing her age and she was placed in reserve. She was decommissioned in April 1945, and sold for scrap in 1948.
General Oerip Soemohardjo (1893–1948) was an Indonesian general and the first chief of staff of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. Born in Purworejo, Dutch East Indies, Oerip graduated from military training in in 1914, and served as an officer in the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, the army of the Dutch colonial government. During almost 25 years of service he was stationed on three different islands and promoted several times, eventually becoming the highest-ranking native officer in the country. Oriep resigned from his position in about 1938, but was recalled to active duty in May 1940. When the Empire of Japanoccupied the Indies less than two years later, he was arrested and detained in a prisoner-of-war camp for three and a half months. On 14 October 1945, several months after Indonesia proclaimed its independence, Oerip was declared the chief of staff and interim leader of the newly formed army. On 12 November 1945 General Sudirman was selected as leader of the armed forces after two deadlocked votes. Oerip remained as chief of staff, and together the two oversaw almost three years of development during the Indonesian National Revolution, until disgusted by the political leadership's lack of trust in the army and ongoing political manoeuvrings, Oerip resigned in early 1948. Already suffering from a weak heart, his health deteriorated and he died of a heart attack a few months later. A lieutenant general at the time, Oerip was posthumously promoted to full general. He received several awards from the Indonesian government, including the title National Hero of Indonesia in 1964.
SMS Kaiser was the lead ship of the Kaiser class of battleships of the GermanImperial Navy. Kaiser was built by the Imperial Dockyard at Kiel, launched on 22 March 1911 and commissioned on 1 August 1912. The ship was equipped with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets, and had a top speed of 23.4 knots (43.3 km/h; 26.9 mph). Kaiser was assigned to the III Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of World War I. In 1913, Kaiser and her sister König Albert conducted a cruise to South America and South Africa. The ship participated in most of the major fleet operations during the war. She fought at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, during which she was hit once and suffered negligible damage. The ship was also present during Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea in September and October 1917, and at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917. During peace negotiations after the end of the war in 1918, she was interned with other ships of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow. On 21 June 1919 the commander of the interned fleet, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, ordered the fleet to be scuttled to ensure that the British would not be able to seize the ships. The wreck was subsequently raised in 1929 and broken up in Rosyth in 1930.
USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed "Lady Lex",was an early aircraft carrier built for the United States Navy. She was the lead ship of the Lexington class, though her only sister ship, Saratoga, was commissioned a month earlier. Originally designed as a battlecruiser, she was converted into one of the Navy's first aircraft carriers during construction to comply with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which essentially terminated all new battleship and battlecruiser construction. The ship entered service in 1928 and was assigned to the Pacific Fleet for her entire career. Lexington and Saratoga were used to develop and refine carrier tactics in a series of annual exercises before World War II. On more than one occasion these included successfully staged surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The ship's turbo-electric propulsion system allowed her to supplement the electrical supply of Tacoma, Washington, during a drought in late 1929 to early 1930. She also delivered medical personnel and relief supplies to Managua, Nicaragua, after an earthquake in 1931. Lexington was at sea when the Pacific War began on 7 December 1941, ferrying fighter aircraft to Midway Island. Her mission was cancelled and she returned to Pearl Harbor. Lexington rendezvoused with Yorktown in the Coral Sea in early May. A few days later the Japanese began Operation MO, the invasion of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and the two American carriers attempted to stop the invasion forces. They sank the light aircraft carrierShōhō on 7 May during the Battle of the Coral Sea, but did not encounter the main Japanese force of the carriers Shōkaku and Zuikaku until the next day. Aircraft from Lexington and Yorktown succeeded in badly damaging Shōkaku, but the Japanese aircraft crippled Lexington. Vapors from leaking aviation gasoline tanks sparked a series of explosions and fires that could not be controlled, and the carrier had to be scuttled by an American destroyer during the evening of 8 May to prevent her capture.
One of No. 82 Wing's first Super Hornets, with an F-111C (rear), 2010
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its variants were the highest awards in the military of the Third Reich during World War II. It was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of gallantry. A total of 7,322 awards were made between 30 September 1939 and 17 June 1945. Of these, 280 awards were made to members of the three military branches Germany whose last name starts with "F". Author and historian Veit Scherzer has challenged the validity of 12 of these listings. Georg-Wolfgang Feller, a 13th doubted recipient, is listed by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR); however the AKCR themselves challenge his listing. The recipients are ordered alphabetically by last name. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.
About The Bugle
First published in 2006, the Bugle is the monthly newsletter of the English Wikipedia's Military history WikiProject.