Wikipedia:WikiProject Missing encyclopedic articles/DNB Epitome 08

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This listing page belongs to Wikipedia:WikiProject Dictionary of National Biography, spun out of the “missing article” project, and is concerned with checking whether Wikipedia has articles for all those listed in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), a 63-volume British biographical dictionary published 1885-1900 and now in the public domain. This page relates to volume 8 running from name Burton to name Cantwell.

Scope of the subproject

It is envisaged that the following work will be done:

  • Checks made that links on this page point to a wikipedia article about the same person;
  • Addition of new articles for all red-links based on DNB text;
  • Checking whether blue-linked articles would benefit from additional text from DNB.

Listings are posted as bulleted lists, with footnotes taken from the DNB summaries published in 1904. The listings and notes are taken from scanned text that is often corrupt and in need of correction. Not all the entries on the list correspond to actual DNB articles; some are “redirects” and there are a few articles devoted to families rather than individuals.

If you are engaged in this work you will probably find quite a number of unreferenced articles among the blue links. You are also encouraged to mention the DNB as a reference on such articles whenever they correspond to the summary, as part of the broader campaign for good sourcing. A suggested template is {{DNB}}.

Locating the full text

DNB text is now available on Wikisource for all first edition articles, on the page s:Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Vol 8 Burton - Cantwell. Names here are not inverted, as they are in the original: Joe Bloggs would be found at Wikisource s:Bloggs, Joe (DNB00). The text for the first supplement is available too: NB that this Epitome listing includes those supplement articles also.

List maintenance and protocols

List maintenance tasks are to check and manipulate links in the list with piping or descriptive parenthetical disambiguators, and to mark list entries with templates to denote their status; whilst as far as possible retaining the original DNB names:

  • piping: [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester|Charles Abbot]]
  • descriptive parenthetical disambiguators [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)]]
  • both combined [[Charles Abbot]] -> [[Charles Abbot (botanist)|Charles Abbot]]

The work involves:

  • Checking that bluelinks link to the correct person; if so, {{tick}} them. If not, try to find the correct article and pipe or disambiguate the link.
  • Check whether redlinks can be linked to an article by piping or disambiguation.
  • Create articles based on the DNB text for redlinks for which no wikipedia article can be found
  • Check whether existing blue-linked articles could benefit from an input of DNB text (e.g. the article is a stub), and if so, update the article from DNB

A number of templates are provided to mark-up entries:

  • {{mnl}} the link runs to a wrong person; - produces the text: [link currently leads to a wrong person]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{dn}} the link runs to a dab page - produces the text [disambiguation needed]. It is preferable to amend the link by adding a disambiguator to make it red, if an article for the correct person cannot be found
  • {{tick}} the link has been checked and runs to the correct person - YesY
  • {{tick}} {{tick}} the text of the linked article has been checked against DNB text and would not benefit from additional DNB text - YesY YesY
  • {{tick}} {{cross}} the text of the linked article looks short enough to suggest it would benefit from additional DNB text - YesY N

Note that before creating new articles based on DNB text you should undertake searches to check that the article's subject does not already have an article. It is easily possible that the disambiguation used in this page is not the disambiguation used in an existing wikipedia article. Equally, feel free to improve upon the disambiguation used in redlinks on this page by amending them.

Supplement articles

Because of the provenance of the listing, a number of the original articles will not in fact be in the announced volume, but in one of the three supplement volumes published in 1901. Since the DNB did not include articles about living people, this will be the case whenever the date of death is after the publication date of the attributed volume. In due course there will be a separate listing.

General thoughts

This project is intended as a new generation in “merging encyclopedias”, as well as being one of the most ambitious attempted. For general ideas of where we are, and some justification of the approach being taken, see the essay Wikipedia:Merging encyclopedias.











There is an engraving of Edward Calver at File:Wenceslas Hollar - Edward Calver (State 2).jpg.


  1. ^ Burton first Baron (d. 1743). See Henry Paget.
  2. ^ Cassibelan Burton (1609–1682), translator; only son of William Burton (1575-1645); translated Martial (not published); gave his father's collections to Walter Chetwynd
  3. ^ Catharine Burton (1668–1714), Carmelite nun at Antwerp, 1694.
  4. ^ Charles Burton (1793–1866), theologian; educated at Glasgow and St. John's College, Cambridge; LL.B., 1822; D.C.L. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1829; originally Wesleyan minister; rector of All Saints Manchester (built by himself), 1820; published hymns, poems, sermons, and controversial tracts.
  5. ^ Charles Edward Burton (1846–1882), astronomer; B.A. Dublin; assistant in Lord Rosse's observatory, 1868; observed the eclipse in Sicily, 1870, the transit of Venus at Rodriguez, 1874, and the opposition of Mars, near Dublin, 1879; wrote astronomical papers.
  6. ^ Decimus Burton (1800–1881), architect ; designed Horner's Colosseum, 1823; laid out Hyde Park, 1826; architect of a building estate at Tunbridge Wells, 18281848; designed many country houses; travelled in Italy, Greece, and North America.
  7. ^ Edward Burton (1584?–1624?). See Edward Catcher.
  8. ^ Edward Burton (1794–1836), theologian; educated at Westminster; student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1813; M.A., 1818; travelled; Bampton lecturer, 1828; regius professor of divinity, Oxford, 1829-36; D.D., 1829; wrote classical and theological works.
  9. ^ Sir Frederic William Burton (1816–1900), painter in water-colours, and director of National Portrait Gallery; member of Hoyal Hibernian Academy, 1839; practised with success as portrait-painter in Dublin; lived in Munich, 1H51-8, and studied German masters; member of Old (now Royal) Water-Colour Society, 1856; F.S.A., 1863; director of National Gallery, London, 18741894; LL.D. Trinity College, Dublin, 1896. A portrait by him ofGeorge Eliotis in the National Portrait Gallery. Among his best pictures are Peasantry of Franconia waiting for Confession and The Meeting on the Turret Stairs
  10. ^ George Burton (1717–1791), chronologer ; published treatises on biblical chronology, 1766-87; M.A. Cambridge, 1740; rector of Elveden, 1740, and of Heringawell, Suffolk, 1751.
  11. ^ Henry Burton (1578–1648), independent; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1602; tutor to Sir Robert Carey's sons; clerk of the closet to Prince Henry, and to Prince Charles, 1612-25; offended Charles I by accusing Laud of popery, April 1625; rector of St. Matthew's, Friday Street, 1625; prosecuted for attacks on the bishops, 1627; imprisoned, 1629; tried in the Star-chamber for seditious preaching, and sentenced to deprivation, degradation, fine, pillory, loss of ears, and perpetual imprisonment, 1636; his removal to Lancaster Castle witnessed by sympathetic crowds, 1636; removed to Castle Cornet, Guernsey, 1636; freed by parliament, November 1640; made a triumphal progress from Dartmouth to London; his sentence reversed, 1641; ministered to an independent congregation in St. Matthew's, Friday Street, 1642; Tuesday lecturer at St. Mary's, Aldermanbury, till 1645; wrote polemical tracts.
  12. ^ Hezekiah Burton (d. 1681), divine; fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1651; B.D., 1661; D.D., 1669; prebendary of Norwich, 1667; rector of St. George's, Southwark, 1668, and of Barnes, Surrey, 1680; his sermons published posthumously.
  13. ^ Lady Isabel Burton (1831–1896), wife of Sir Richard Francis Burton, whom she married, 1861; daughter of Henry Raymond Arundell: shared, as far as possible, her husband's life in travel and literature, and after his death prepared his biography and a memorial edition of his works; published Inner Life of Syria (1875) and Arabia, Egypt, and India 1879.
  14. ^ James Burton (1788–1862). See James Haliburton.
  15. ^ James Daniel Burton (1784–1817), methodist ; itinerant preacher, 1805, chiefly in Lancashire; published a devotional tract.
  16. ^ John Burton (1696–1771), classical scholar ; scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1713, tutor, 1717, fellow, 1721; M.A., 1721; D.D., 1752; fellow of Eton, 1733; vicar of Mapledurham, Oxfordshire, 1734-66; rector of Worplesdon, Surrey, 1766-71; wrote tracts, sermons, Latin verses, and Greek text-books.
  17. ^ John Burton (1710–1771), antiquary; educated at Merchant TaylorsSchool and St. John's College, Cambridge; M.B., 1733; studied medicine at Leyden; M.D. Rheims; practised medicine in York; wrote on midwifery and on the antiquities of Yorkshire,
  18. ^ John Hill Burton (1809–1881), Scottish historian; educated at Aberdeen; articled to a solicitor; read for the bar in Edinburgh; advocate, but had little practice; wrote much for Edinburgh booksellers, reviews and newspapers; made his mark by a life of David Hume, 1846; secretary to the prison board, 1854-81; published History of Scotland 1853, The Bookhunter, 1860, The Scot Abroad 1864, and many other treatises and editions, chiefly historical.
  19. ^ Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821–1890), explorer and scholar; taken abroad at an early age by his parents; matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, 1840. but did not graduate; cadet in Indian army, 1842: ensign 18th regiment Bombay native infantry, 1842; captain: studied oriental languages; assistant in Sind survey; I lived a wandering life among natives and gained intimate I knowledge of Muhammadan manners and customs; re turned to England, 1849; published three philological works relating to Asiatic languages, 1849, and other volumes on India, 1851 -3; made pilgrimage to Mecca, adopting various disguises and assuming name of Al-Haj (the pilgrim) Abdullah. 1853, and published Personal Narrative 1855; explored Somaliland, 1854; served in Crimea, 1855; went ;ion vitli ieke, as second in command, to discover -our.-.--..i Nile, 1856-9; reached Laki- Tanganyika, 1858(Spekc. on tin- return journey,left the party mid alone : Yn-toria Nyiiny.ii): travelled in North America, I860: married Isabel Arunddl sec- HrinoN, I.HABKL, LADY, 1'1: Hritish consul at Fernando Po, 1861-5, and i..luring both of which periods he made i9Crous journeys of discovery; consul at Damascus, 1869-71; consul at Trieste (1872), whence he made many tours into neighbouring unexplored territories; went to i -.i-i-t for gold in company with Captain Verney Lovett ( aiuerou, ll-2; nominated K.C.M.G., lit-; later years devoted himself to literature, publishing translations of Camoens, 1880 and 1884, Book of the Sword I**!, and complete translation of The Arabian Nights 1885-8. His translations of the Pentamerone of Basile and of Catullus appeared posthumously.
  20. ^ Robert Burton (1577–1640), author of the Anatomy of Melancholy 1621; called Democritus Junior; educated at Nuneaton and Button Coldfleld schools; entered Brasenose College, Oxford, 1693; student of Christ Church, :., 1H1-4; vicar of St. Thomas's, Oxford, 1616, and Segrave, Leicestershire, 1630-40.
  21. ^ Robert Burton or Richard (1632?–1725?), reputed to be a miscellaneous writer. See Nathaniel Crouch.
  22. ^ Simon Burton (1690?–1744), physician ; educated at Rnt'by and New College, Oxford; M.D., 1720; began practice at Warwick; removed to Savile Row, London, 1732.
  23. ^ Thomas Burton (fl. 1656–1659), diarist; M.P. for Westmoreland, 1656; reputed author of a diary (printed 1828), containing reports of proceedings in parliament, 3 Dec. 1656-22 April 1659.
  24. ^ William Burton (d. 1616), puritan; educated at Winchester; fellow of New College, Oxford, 1561-5; B.A., 1565; perhaps usher in Norwich school, 1576; minister in Norwich, 1584?-9: received into household of Thomas, baron Wentworth; preached in Bristol, 1590; vicar of St. Giles's, Reading, 1591; resided in London from about 1608; published catechism and sermons; translated seven dialogues of Erasmus, 1606.
  25. ^ William Burton (1576–1645), antiquary; B.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1594; barrister of the Inner Temple, 1603; retired to his estate at Falde, Staffordshire; published his Description of Leicestershire 1622; finished revision of it, 1638; gave John Leland's manuscripts to the Bodleian, 1631.
  26. ^ William Burton (1609–1657), author of 'A Commentary on Antoninus his Itinerary... (for) Britain 1668; educated at St. Paul's School, London; member of Queen's College, and Gloucester Hall, Oxford; B.C.L., 1630; usher in Thomas Farnaby's school; master of Kingston-on-Thames school; published Latin orations and translations from Latin.
  27. ^ William Evans Burton (1802–1860), actor and dramatist; educated at St. Paul's School, London; went on the provincial stage, 1823; first acted in London, 1831; went to the United States, 1834; managed and Burton's theatres, New York, 1841-68; afterwards head of a travelling company; wrote plays, humorous books, and magazine articles.
  28. ^ William Paton Burton (1828–1883), landscape painter in water-colours; educated at Edinburgh; exhibited in London, 1862-80.
  29. ^ Joseph Burtt (1818–1876), archaeologist: employed in calendaring records at Westminster chapterhouse, 1832; assistant-keeper of the Record Office, 1869; ranged muniments at Westminster Abbey and Lincoln Cathedral; wrote archaeological papers.
  30. ^ Viscount Bury (1832–1894). See William Coutts Keppel, seventh EARL OF ALBEMARLE.
  31. ^ Arthur Bury (1624–1713), theologian; son of John Bury (1580-1667): entered Exeter College, Oxford, 1639; fellow, 1643 (ejected, 1648: restored, !;*, -2); canon of Exeter, 1661; rector of Exeter College, 1666-89, expelled by the Tisitor for disobedience; his expulsion confirmed by the House of Lords, 1694; D.D.. 1666; part vicar of Hampton, Oxfordshire, 1671-1707; published The Naked Gospel 1690, an attempt to set aside later dogmatic accretions; his book burnt by Oxford University, 1690; published other theological treatises, and sermons.
  32. ^ Lady Charlotte Susan Maria Bury (1775-1861), novelist; youngest daughter of the fifth Duke of Argyll; married (1) in 1796, Colonel John Campbell (rf. 1809); (2) in 1818, Rev. Edward John Bury (d. 1832); lady-in-waiting to Caroline, princess of Wales, 1809; published numerous novels, 1826-64, poems, and aDiary Illustrative of the Times of George IV 1838.
  33. ^ Edward Bury (1616–1700), nonconformist ; a presbyterian minister; intruded rector of Great Bolas, Shropshire, before 1654; ejected, 1662; resided at Great Bolas till 1680; suffered for nonconformity, 1681, and for a time moved from place to place; became blind; published devotional tracts.
  34. ^ Edward Bury (1794–1858), engineer; at one time manufacturing engineer at Liverpool; constructed railway engines, 1830, and steamship engines, 1840; manager of rolling stock of London and Birmingham railway, 1838, and of Great Northern railway,
  35. ^ Mrs. Elizabeth Bury (1644–1720), nonconformist; nee Lawrence; married (1) in 1667, Griffith Lloyd (rf. 1682); (2) in 1697, Samuel Bury; wrote Diary beginning 1664.
  36. ^ Henry de Bury (fl. 1380). See Bederic.
  37. ^ John of Bury (fl. 1460), Augustinian. See John.
  38. ^ John Bury (fl. 1557), translator; M.A. Cambridge, 1555; published a translation from Isocrates, 1557. Iviii. 25
  39. ^ John Bury or Berry (1580–1667), divine; scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1597; Blundell fellow of Balliol College, 1603; M.A., 1605; vicar of Heavitree, Devonshire, 1626, and rector of Widworthy; canon of Exeter, 1627; rector of St. Mary Major, Exeter, 1662-7; published sermons.
  40. ^ Richard de Bury (1281–1346), bishop of Durham, patron of learning and collector of books; named from his birthplace, Bury St. Edmunds; son of Sir Richard Aungerville; studied at Oxford; entered Benedictine monastery at Durham; tutor to Edward III when Prince of Wales; treasurer of Guienue; of the household of Edward III; dean of Wells, 1333; bishop of Durham, 1333; lord chancellor, September 1334 to July 1335: lord high treasurer, 1337; employed by Edward III in Paris, Hainault, Germany, 1336, and in Scotland, 1337 and 1342; founded a library in Durham College, Oxford; wrote Philobiblon (first printed, 1473).
  41. ^ Samuel Bury (1663–1730), presbyterian ; son of Edward Bury (1616-1700); studied at Doolittle's academy, Islington; presbyterian minister at Bury St. Edmunds from before 1689 to 1719; minister at Bristol, 1720-30; published sermons and hymns.
  42. ^ Thomas Bury (1655–1722), judge; B.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1668; barrister of Gray's Inn, 1676; serjeant-at-law, 1700; baron of the exchequer, 1701, and chief baron, 1716-22.
  43. ^ Thomas Talbot Bury (1811–1877), architect ; pupil of Augustus Pugiu, 1824; started business, 1830; exhibited at the Academy, 1846-72; designed many churches and schools; wrote on architectural subjects.
  44. ^ Richard Busby (1606–1695), head-master of Westminster School; educated at Westminster: student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1624; M.A., 1631: D.D., 1660; head-master of Westminster, 1638-95; rector of Cudworth, Somerset, 1639 (ejected, c. 1648); prebendary of Westminster and canon of Wells, 1660: a famous schoolmaster and a zealous churchman; published classical schoolbooks.
  45. ^ Thomas Busby (1755–1838), composer; taught by various masters in London; sang at Vauxhall, 1769; articled to Battishill, 1777; journalist and parliamentary reporter; organist at St. Mary's, Newington, 1786; taught music and French; joint-editor of a Musical Dictionary 1786; edited two collections of music; organist at St. Mary Woolnoth, 1798; produced his first oratorio, The Prophecy 1799; Mus. Doc. Cambridge, 1801; composed music for stage; published treatises on musical subjects.
  46. ^ Paul Bush (1490–1558), first bishop of Bristol; B.A. Oxford, 1518: afterwards D.D.; a Bonhomme friar; provost of house of Bonhommes at Edington, Wiltshire; prebendary of Salisbury, 1539, and canon; chaplain to Henry VIII; bishop of Bristol, 1542; resigned 1554, to avoid deprivation for marriage; rector of Winterbourne, Gloucestershire, 1555-8; published devotional tracts and verses.
  47. ^ Charles Kendal Bushe (1767–1843), Irish judge; entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1782; Irish barrister, 1790, subsequently acquiring an extensive practice; M.P. for Callan in the Irish parliament, 1797; opposed the union; serjeant-at-law, 1805; solicitor-general for Ireland, 1805-22; chief-justice of king's bench, 1822-1841.
  48. ^ Brown Bushell (d. 1651), sea-captain; in the parliamentary garrison at Scarborough; seized the castle there for the parliament, when the commander surrendered to the royalists, 1643; surrendered to royalists, 1644?; sent to London under suspicion, 1645; given command of ship-of-war; delivered his ship to the Prince of Wales, 1648; imprisoned in Windsor Castle, 1649-50; executed.
  49. ^ Seth Bushell (1621–1684), divine; educated at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 1639-44; M.A., 1655; D.D., 1672; minister of Whitley, Yorkshire, and of Buxton, Lancashire, under the Commonwealth: vicar of Preston, 1664-82, and of Lancaster, 1682-4; published sermons.
  50. ^ Thomas Bushell (1594–1674), speculator and mining engineer; page to Francis Bacon, who taught him what was then known of mineralogy; seal-bearer to Bacon; lay hid in the Isle of Wight for a few years from 1621; lived in hiding on the Calf of Man, 1626-9; his walks and fountains at Enstone, Oxford, visited by Charles I, and by the queen, 1636; farmed royal mines in Wales, 1636-7; master of the mint at Aberystwith, 1637, at Shrewsbury, 1642, and at Oxford, 1643; held Lundy for Charles I till 1647, and then lived in concealment; gave security for good behaviour, 1652; leased crown mines from Protector; wrote pamphlets respecting his schemes.
  51. ^ Leonard Busher (fl. 1614), pioneer of religious toleration; member of Brownist congregation of Thomas Helwys; published Religious Peace 1614, probably the earliest publication in which liberty of conscience is openly advocated.
  52. ^ John Stevenson Bushnan (1808?–1884), writer on medical subjects; M.D. Heidelberg; qualified as practitioner at Edinburgh, 1830; editor, in London, of The Medical Times and Gazette 1849-52; lost his sight; pensioner of the Charterhouse.
  53. ^ Mrs Catherine Bushnell (1825–1861). See Catherine Hayes.
  54. ^ John Bushnell (rf. 1701), sculptor; pupil of Thomas Burman, in London; then studied in France, Rome, Venice; executed many statues for public buildings in London; died insane.
  55. ^ Walter Bushnell (1609–1667), divine; M.A. Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1634; vicar of Box, Wiltshire, 1644; ejected, 1656; restored, 1660, and held the living till death; published narrative of the proceedings against him.
  56. ^ George Busk (1807–1886), man of science ; born at St. Petersburg; student at College of Surgeons ani St. Thomas's and St. Bartholomew's hospitals; served as surgeon in navy; settled in London, 1866; F.R.C.S., 1843, and president. 1871; treasurer of Royal Institution; Hunterian professor and trustee of Huuterian Museum; F.R.S., 1860; F.L.S., 1846; F.Z.S., 1866; president of Anthropological Institute, 1873-4; published scientific treatises.
  57. ^ Hans Busk , the elder (1772–1862), a Radnorshire squire: published poems, 1814-34.
  58. ^ Hans Busk , the younger (1816–1882), a pioneer of the volunteer movement, son of Hans Busk the elder  ; educated at King's College, London; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1844; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1841; high sheriff of Radnorshire, 1847; wrote on military and naval topics.
  59. ^ Robert William Buss (1804–1875), painter of theatrical portraits, and of historical and humorous subjects; exhibited at Royal Academy and other institutions, 1826-59; illustrated books; wrote on art topics.
  60. ^ Sir John Bussy (d. 1399), sheriff of Lincoln, 13TI 1381, 1391; M.P. for Lincolnshire, 1388-98; speaker of the House of Commons, 1394, 1397, 1398; subservient to Richard II; executed at Bristol by the Lancastrians.
  61. ^ Martin van Butchell (1735–1812?), eccentric; pupil of John Hunter; practised as dentist, truss-maker; and fistula specialist; advertised largely; kept mummified body of his first wife in his parlour for years from 1775.
  62. ^ Edmund Butcher (1767–1822), Unitarian; ap. prenticed to a London linendraper; wrote for periodical!; presbyterian student at Daventry academy, 1783; minister at Sowerby, Yorkshire; in London, 1789-97, and at Sidmouth, 1798-1820; withdrew to Bath, 1821; published hymns, sermons, and devotional books.
  63. ^ Richard Butcher (1583–1665?), compiler of The Survey and Antiquitie of... Stamforde 1C46; town clerk of Stamford.
  64. ^ Samuel Butcher (1811–1876), bishop of Meath ; entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1829; fellow, 1837-H and lecturer; D.D., 1849; professor of ecclesiastical htotory, 1850, and of divinity, 1852-66; incumbent of Ballymoney, Cork, 1864-66; bishop of Meath, 1866; published sermons and charges.
  65. ^ Bute third Earl of (1713–1792). See John Stuart.
  66. ^ Bute third MARQUIS OF (1847–1900). See John Patrick Crichton Stuart.
  67. ^ Alban Butler (1711–1773), hagiographer ; compiler of The Lives of the... Principal Saints 1756-9; educated at Douay; professor of philosophy and divinity at Donay; ordained priest, 1735; sent into England,1746; chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk, and tutor to his heir (d. 1767); president of the English College at St. Omer, 1768-73; published also travels, sermons, and biographies.
  68. ^ Charles Butler (d. 1647), author of The Feminine Monarchie, or a Treatise concerning Bees 1609; chorister of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1579-85; M.A 1587; master of Basingstoke school, and rector of Nately-Scures, Hampshire, 1593-1600; vicar of Wootton St. Lawrence, 1600-47; published also treatises on rhetoric, English grammar (advocating spelling-reform), music, and affinity as a bar to marriage.
  69. ^ Charles Butler (1750–1832), Roman catholic lawyer; educated at Douay, 1769-66; studied conveyancing in London, 1769; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1775; an eminent conveyancer, 1775-1826; secretary of committees for repeal of penal laws, 1782-91; first catholic barrister since James II, 1791; published several legal, historical, biographical, and theological works.
  70. ^ Edmund Butler (d. 1551), archbishop of Cashel; studied at Oxford; prior of canons regular at Athassel, Tipperary; archbishop of Cashel, 1527; held synod at Limerick, 1529; surrendered Athassel Abbey to the crown, 1537; present in parliament at Dublin, 1541; one of the king's commissioners at Limerick, 1560.
  71. ^ Sir Edward Gerard Butler (1770–1825 1 soldier; cornet, 1792; served in Flanders, 1793; knighted for saving the emperor's life at Villiers-en-Couche, ITH; major, 1796; lieutenant-colonel, 1804; served in the West Indies, 1797-1806, and at the La Plata, 1806; major-general, 1814.
  72. ^ Lady Eleanor Butler (1745?–1829), recluse; sister of the seventeenth Earl of Ormonde; one of the ladies of the vale of Llangollen, 1779-1829.
  73. ^ George Butler (1774–1863), head-master of Harrow; second son of Weedeu Butler the elder; fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; senior wrangler, 1794; M.A., 1797; D.D., 1805; head-master of Harrow, 1805-29: rector of Gayton, Northamptonshire, 1814; chancellor of Peterborough, 1836; dean of Peterborough, 1H42; published sermons and Harrow notes.
  74. ^ George Butler (1819–1890), canon of Winchester ; son of George Butler; educated at Harrow, Trinity College, Cambridge, and Exeter College, Oxford; Petrean fellow, 1M-J; M.A., 1846; tutor at Durham University, 1848; examiner at Oxford, 1860-2; curate, 1854; principal of Hu tier's Hall, Oxford, 1856-8; vice-principal of nham College, 1857-65; principal of Liverpool College, 1866-82; canon of Winchester, 1882; published sermons and other writings.
  75. ^ George Slade Butler (1821–1882), writer on antiquities of Sussex; solicitor, 1843; town clerk of Rye, ..A., 1862.
  76. ^ James Butler, second Earl of Ormonde (1331, styled 'the noble earl' in virtue of his being son of a granddaughter of Edward I; succeeded to earldom, i:;3*; a favourite with Edward III and Richard II; lord e of Ireland, April 1359, and again, March 1360; held command under the Duke of Clarence in the war, 1361-2; lord deputy, 1364; lord justice, 1376-8.
  77. ^ James Butler, fourth Earl of Ormonde (d. 1452), styled 'the white earl'; succeeded, 1405; lord deputy of Ireland, 1407; went with Thomas of Lancaster mcv. 1412; served in Henry V's French wars; lordlieutenant of Ireland, 1420; made war on the O'Mores, lord-lieutenant, 1424; lord justice, 1426; lord deputy, 1440; lord-lieutenant, 1443-6.
  78. ^ James Butler, fifth Earl of Ormonde and Earl of Wiltshire (1420-1461), eldest son of James Butler, fourth earl; attended Richard, duke of York, to France, 1439; a zealous Lancastrian; created Earl of Wiltshire in the English peerage, 1449; lord deputy of Ireland, 1450-1; succeeded to the Ormonde peerage, 1452; lord-lieutenant, 1453-5; made lord high treasurer of England, 1455; fought at St. Albans, 22 May 1455; again made lord high treasurer, 1458; K.G., 1459; fought at Wakefield, December 1460, Mortimer's Cross, February 1461, Towton, March 1461; beheaded at Newcastie-onTyne; attainted and his estates forfeited.
  79. ^ James Butler (d. 1546), created Viscount Thurles 1535; restored as ninth Earl of Ormonde, 1541; poisoned in London, 1546.
  80. ^ James Butler (fl. 1631–1634), Irishman in the Imperialist service; raised regiment in Poland, called the Irish regiment from ite officers; brought this regiment to Frankfort-on-Oder to reinforce Tiefenbach in spring of 1631; sent to Tilly to ask further help; present at the storming of Magdeburg, 20 May 1631; defeated the Saxons at Nimburg-on-Elbe, November 1631; fought in the Polish ervice against Russia, 1632-4.
  81. ^ James Butler , twelfth Earl and first Duke of Ormonde (1610–1688), son of Thomas, viscount Thurles (d. 1619); grandson of Walter Butler, eleventh earl of Ormonde; styled Viscount Thurles, 1619; succeeded to the earldom, 1633; created marquis, 1642; created Earl of Brecknock in the English peerage, 1660; created Duke of Ormonde in the Irish peerage, 1661, and in the English peerage, 1682; placed by his mother under a catholic tutor at Finchley, 1619; made king's ward and brought up in the protestant religion at Lambeth under Archbishop Abbot; entrusted to Richard Preston, earl of Desmond, 1624-8; lived with his grandfather at Drury Lane, 1625-7, and at Carrickfergus, 1630; came to England, 1631; returned to Ireland, 1633; opposed Wentworth in the Irish parliament, but urged granting supplies to Charles I, 1634; raised troop of cuirassiers, 1638; supported Wentworth (now Earl of Strafford), 1640; assembled troops at Carrickfergus, July 1640; defended Strafford in the Irish parliament, 1641; commander against the Irish rebels, but kept inactive by the lords justices, 1641; defeated rebels, January-March 1642; quieted Connaught, 1642; again obstructed by the lords justices, 1642; commissioned by Charles I to ascertain the demands of the Irish rebels, 1643; defeated them at Ross, 18 March 1643; ordered in April to conclude truce; concluded truce for a year in September; sent five thousand troops into Cheshire, November 1643; lord lieutenant of Ireland, January 1644; sent Irish troops into Scotland to help Montrose; opposed both by the catholic rebels and by the proteetant parliamentarians, April 1644-April 1645; negotiated peace with the rebels; superseded in August 1646 by Glamorgan; arranged terms of peace between the king's forces and the catholic rebels, March 1646; asked parliament for help against the rebels, October-November 1646: induced by the rebelsrejection of his terms (February 1647) to approach parliament, with which he concluded peace, June 1647; conferred with Charles I at Hampton Court, August 1647; withdrew to Paris, 1648; royalist commander in Ireland, I October 1648: concluded peace with rebels, January 1649; proclaimed Charles II; attacked Dublin; defeated at Rat famines, August 1649; his garrisons crushed by Cromwell, September- December 1649; left Ireland, December 1650; employed in personal attendance on Charles II or on embassies in his interest, 1651-9; royalist spy in England, January- March* 1658; negotiated with Monck, 1659; received back his estates, and also his grandfather's county palatine of Tipperary; appointed lord steward of the household, 1660; lord high steward at the coronation, 1661; restored the protestant episcopate in Ireland; appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 4 Nov. 1661; resided in Ireland, July 1662-June 1664; in London, July 1664 i May 1665; again in Ireland, 1665-8; returned to London, 1668; dismissed from the lord-lientenancy, March 1669; chancellor of Oxford University, 1669; his life attempted by Thomas Blood, 1669, at Buckingham's instigation; opposed attempts to repeal Act of Settlement, 1671-3; in Ireland on private affairs, July 1671-April 1675; recalled to London, 1675; lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1677-82; at court in London, 1682; returned to Ireland, 1684; removed from the lord-lientenancy, October 1684; proclaimed i James II before he left Dublin, February 1685; lord high steward at James IPs coronation; continued to be lord steward of the household; withdrew, as much as he could, from public life, 1685, broken by the deaths of his wife and children; resisted some of James II's arbitrary acts, 1687.
  82. ^ James Butler (d. 1709) Irishman in the French service; killed at Malplaquet.
  83. ^ James Butler, second Duke of Ormonde (1665-1746), eldest surviving son of Thomas Butler, earl of Ossory; educated in France, 1676, and at Oxford, 1879; resided in Ireland, 1680-2; styled Earl of Ossory, 1680; married Lady Anne Hyde (d. 1684), 1682; at the siege of Luxemburg, April-June 1684; served against Monmouth, 1685; married Lady Mary Somerset (d. 1733), 1685; succeeded to the dukedom, 1688; elected chancellor of Oxford University, 23 July 1688: K.G., 1688; signed petition for a free parliament, 17 Nov. 1688: joined Prince 1 of Orange, 25 Nov. 1688; lord high constable at coronation of William and Mary, 1689; attainted, and his estates forfeited, by James II, May 1689; fought at the Boyne, , secured Dublin, and took Kilkenny Castle, July 1690: went with William III to Holland, 1691; fought at Steinkirk, 1692; taken prisoueat Landen, 1693, but exchanged: present at William III's deathbed, March 1702; commanded troops sent against Cadiz and Vigo, August-October 1702; in Ireland as lord-lieutenant, September 1703-June 1705, and again 1710-11; appointed commander-in-chief, and captain-general, 1712; sent tocommand in Flanders, April 1712, but directed to remain inactive; lord- warden of the Cinque ports, 1713-14: lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1713; deprived of the captain-generalship, 1714; a recognised leader of the Jacobites in London; impeached, 21 June 1715; withdrew to France, 8 Aug.; attainted and his estates forfeited, 20 Aug. 1715; sailed to Plymouth to head an expected rising, 1715; accepted command of Spanish fleet intended to restore Stuarts, 1719; was living at Madrid, 1721; resided chiefly at Avignon; visited Madrid, 1740, to suggest an invasion of England; buried in Westminster Abbey.
  84. ^ James Armar Butler (18S7-1854), captain in the army; educated abroad and at Sandhurst; ensign, 1843; served in the Kaffir war, 1846-7; captain, 1863; defended Silistria against the Russians, 1854.
  85. ^ John Butler, sixth Earl of Ormonde (d. 1478), knighted before 1460; attainted, 1461, with bis brother, James Butler, fifth earl; soon pardoned and re covered his estates; died in Palestine on a pilgrimage.
  86. ^ John Butler (d. 1800), Roman catholic bishop of Cork, 1763-86; succeeded to barony of Dunboyne (under attainder) December 1785; was refused dispensation to resign his see and marry; embraced protestantism, 1787; reconciled to Catholicism, 1800; bequeathed the Dunboyne estate to Maynooth College; D.D.
  87. ^ John Butler (1717–1802), bishop of Hereford; born at Hamburg; entered University College, Oxford, 1733; D.C.L., 1752; chaplain to the Princess-dowager of Wales, 1754; a popular London preacher; minister of Great Yarmouth, 1758; prebendary of Winchester, 1760; rector of Everley, Wiltshire; chaplain to George III; bishop of Oxford, 1777; translated to see of Hereford, 1788; published political tracts, sermons, and charges.
  88. ^ Joseph Butler (1692–1752), bishop of Durham; son of a retired draper at Wantage, a presbyterian; educated at Samuel Jones's dissenting school, Gloucestershire; sent Samuel Clarke criticisms on his Boyle lectures, 1713; conformed to the Anglican church; entered Oriel College, Oxford, 1715; B.A., 1718; B.O.L., 1721; D.O.L., 1733; ordained priest, 1718; preacher at the Rolls, 17191726; prebendary of Salisbury, 1721-38; rector of Houghton-le-Skerne. Durham, 1722-5; rector of Stanhope, 17251740; published Fifteen Sermons 1726, and the Analogy of Religion maintaining that the frame of nature shows a moral governor revealed through conscience, 1736; prebendary of Rochester, 1736-40; clerk of the closet to the queen, 1736; bishop of Bristol, 1738; asked John Wesley to cease preaching in his diocese, 1739; dean of St. Paul's, 1740; clerk of the closet to the king, 1746; said to have refused see of Canterbury, 1747; suggested plan for establishing bishops in American colonies, 1750; translated to Durham, 1750; suspected by some to have died a Roman catholic. His collected works were published in 1804.
  89. ^ Sir Pierce Butler or Piers, eighth Earl of Ormonde and first Earl of Ossory (d. 1539), succeeded to the Ormonde earldom, 1515; active in suppressing Irish rebellions; lord deputy, 1521-4; lord treasurer of Ireland, 1524; forced by Henry VIII to surrender the Ormonde title to Sir Thomas Boleyn, 1527; created, in compensation, Earl of Ossory, February 1528; lord justice, 1528: given large grants of land for helping to suppress Sir Thomas Fitzgerald's rising, 1534-5; suppressed the Earl of Desmond's rising.
  90. ^ Pierce Butler , third Viscount Galmot (1652–1740), colonel in the French service; hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1677; lord-lieutenant of Kilkenny; colonel of horse besieging Londonderry, 1689; fought at the Boyne, 1690, and Aughrim, 1691; outlawed, but given the benefit of the treaty of Limerick, 1691; withdrew to France; created Earl of Newcastle by James II; attainted, and his estates confiscated, 1697; served with distinction as colonel of Irish horse in the French service.
  91. ^ Richard Butler , first Viscount Mountgarret (d. 1571), created 1550.
  92. ^ Richard Butler , third Viscount Mountgarret (1578-1651), joined in the rebellion of his father-in-law, Hugh, earl of Tyrone, 1597-8; succeeded, and had his estates confirmed, 1605; sat in the Irish parliament, 1613, 1615, 1634; took castles in Kilkenny, Waterford, and Tipperary, and was chosen general of the Irish rebels, 1641; defeated at Kilrush, 1642; fought at Ross, 1643; excepted, though dead, from pardon in the act of 1662.
  93. ^ Richard Butler (d. 1791), officer in the American army; by birth an Irishman; emigrated before 1760; lieutenant-colonel, 1775; major-general, 1791: killed while fighting in St. Glair's expedition against the Indians.
  94. ^ Samuel Butler (1612–1680), satirist; son of a Worcestershire farmer; educated at Worcester free school; for some years page to Elizabeth, countess of Kent, at Wrest, Bedfordshire, c. 1628; clerk to various puritan justices of the peace, including Sir Samuel Luke of Bedfordshire, and Sir Henry Rosewell of Devonshire, from whom he derived traits for Hudibras; sojourned in France and Holland; published an anonymous pamphlet in favour of the Stuart*, 1659: secretary to the lord president of Wales, 1660; steward of Ludlow Castle; married a widow with a jointure, and came to London; published Hudibras part i. 1663, part ii. 1664, and part iii. 1668; was neglected by the court, and, according to the most authentic accounts, died in poverty. Some manuscript pieces were first printed in 1764.
  95. ^ Samuel Butler (1774–1839), bishop of Lichfleld ; educated at Rugby and St. John's College, Cambridge; B.A., 1796; fellow, 1797; D.D., 1811; head-muster of Shrewsbury, 1798-1836; vicar of Kenihvorth, 1802; prebendary of Lichfield, 1807; edited Eschylus (four volumes), 1809-26; bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1836; published atlases and text-books of ancient and modern geography.
  96. ^ Simon Butler (1767–1797), Irish politician ; called to the Irish bar, 1778; presided at the first meeting of the Dublin United Irishmen 1791; issued digest of the laws against catholics, 1792; political prisoner for six mouths in Newgate, 1793; subsequently withdrew to Edinburgh.
  97. ^ Theobald Butler (d. 1205-6), first 'butler' of Ireland, 'Pincerna Hiberniae' named WALTER, WALTERI, and FITZWALTER from his father; BUTLER and LE BOTILLER from his office; elder brother of Hubert Walter , the primate and justiciar; met with as owner of Amounderness, Lancashire, c. 1166; went with Prince John to Ireland, 1185; glinted lands in Limerick, and fought with the Irish. 1186; granted Arklow, co. Wicklow, before 1189; in England, 1188; in France, 1189; in constant attendance on John, who (as Domirus Hibernias, 1177) made him butler; first used the title, May 1192; governor of Lancaster Castle for Prince John, 1192; surrendered it to the justiciar, 1194; sheriff of Lancashire, 1194-1200; justice itinerant, 1198; deprived, by King John, of Amounderness and Limerick, 1201; made his peace and got back Amounderness, 1202; retired to Ireland, 1203; founded monasteries in Ireland.
  98. ^ Thomas Butler (fl. 1570), translator: published a catholic Treatise of... the Masse translated from the Italian, 1570; B.A. Cambridge, 1548; LL.D. of some foreign university.
  99. ^ Thomas Butler, tenth Earl of Ormonde (1532-1614), called 'the black earl'; son of James Butler, ninth earl; brought up at Henry VIII's court as a protestant; knighted, 1547; sent to Ireland to allay disaffection among his Irish tenantry, 1554; tried to reconcile the Irish and their English rulers; privy councillor and lord treasurer of Ireland, 1559; deprived of Clonmel and other manors by the Earl of Desmond, 1560; his lands ravaged by Desmond, 1561-7; persuaded Shane O'Neill, king of Ulster, to acknowledge Elizabeth's supremacy, 1661; made war on O'Neill to protect the MacDonnells, 1563; fought with Desmond at Affone, 1565; at Elizabeth's court, 1666-9; returned to Ireland, where his brother had revolted, July 1569; suppressed the Earl of Thomond's rebellion, 1570; repressed risings in Munster, 1571; visited London, 1572, and again 1579; crushed the Desmonds in Kerry, 1580-3; helped to capture and kill the Spanish refugees who had escaped the wreck of the Armada, 1588; helped to suppress the Earl of Tyrone's rebellion, 1598-9; lord treasurer, 1599; granted confiscated lands in Munster, 1602; vice-admiral of Ireland, 1612.
  100. ^ Thomas Butler, Earl of Ossory (1634–1680), eldest son of James Butler, first duke of Ormonde; lived in Kilkenny Castle from birth till 1647; taken to France, 1648; educated in a French protestant school at Caen, 1648-52; in London, 1652-5; imprisoned for some months in the Tower as a political suspect, 1655; went to Holland, 1666; married Emilia, a relative of the Prince of Orange, 1669; gambled; in favour with Charles II and the Duke of York, 1660: lieutenant-general of horse, 1661, and of the army in Ireland, 1665: M.P. for Bristol, i 1661; called to the Irish House of Peers, 1662; lord deputy of Ireland, 1664-6; a volunteer in the sea-fight in the Downs, 1 and 2 June 1666; created Baron Butler of Moore Park in the English peerage, 1666; quarrelled with Buckingham, 1666; lord deputy in Ireland, 1668-9: attended the Prince of Orange on his visit, 1670-1; took part in the attack on the Dutch merchant fleet, 1672; ! commanded a ship at South wold Bay, May 1672; K.G., 1672: envoy to Paris, November 1672; rear-admiral, 1 1673; in the sea fight, 11 Aug. 1673: sent to offer the Prince of Orange marriage with Princess Mary, November i 1674; made a campaign in Flanders, 1677; commanded British contingent at Mons, 1678; defended his father in the House of Lords against Shaftesbury, 167tf; ordered to ! takV i-ommaud at Tangier, 1680.
  101. ^ Thomas Hamly Butler (1762?-1823), composer; chorister of the Oliapel Royal; studied in Italy; wrote music to Cumberland's Widow of Delphi, produced 1780; music-master in Edinburgh, 1780-1823.
  102. ^ Walter Butler , of Kilcash, eleventh Earl of Ormonde (1569–1633), served under his uncle, Thomas Butler, tenth earl of Ormonde, 1599-1600; succeeded to earldom, 1614; refused to accept James I's award of the estates to Sir Richard Preston, baron Dingwall, and was imprisoned in the Fleet, 1617-25; deprived of the county palatine of Tipperary; recovered part of his estates, 1625; lived in Drury Lane, 1625-7; retired to Ireland, 1627 ?; acknowledged heir to the estates of his viiii-1.-, Thomas, tenth earl of Ormonde, 1630.
  103. ^ Walter Butler , Count (d. 1634), of Irish extraction; fought at the battle of Prague, 1620; lieutenantcolonel of and in temporary command of, his kinsman's Irish regiment at Frankfort-on-Oder, 1631; prisoner in the hands of the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphns, 1631; collected recruits in Poland; sent by Wallenstein to defend Sagan against Saxons, 1632; ordered by Wallenstein to bring his dragoons to Prague, February 1634; went with Wallenstein to Eger, but sent his chaplain, 23 Feb., to receive instructions from Piccolomini; arranged murder of Wallensteiu and his officers, 25 Feb. 1634; rewarded by the grant of the estate of Friedberg; fought at Nbrdliugen, September 1634; reduced Aurach and Schorndorf in Wurtemberg, 1634.
  104. ^ Weeden Butler , the elder (1742–1823), miscellaneous writer; solicitor's clerk; amanuensis to Dr. William Dodd, 1764-77; preacher at Pimlico chapel, 17761814; kept a private school at Chelsea; published biographies and dramatic pieces.
  105. ^ Weeden Butler , the younger (1773–1831), author ; eldest son of Weeden Butler the elder; M.A. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, 1797; preacher in London; rector of Great Woolston, Buckinghamshire, 1816; usher in, afterwards master of, his father's school in Chelsea; published pamphlets and verses,
  106. ^ William Butler or Boteler (d. 1410?), writer against Wycliffism; provincial of the Franciscans in England; member of Franciscan convent at Oxford; wrote against English translations of the bible, 1401; afterwards lived in the convent at Reading.
  107. ^ William Butler (1535–1618), physician; M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1566; licensed to practise medicine, 1572; attended Prince Henry, 1612; an eccentric.
  108. ^ William Archer Butler (1814?–1848), professor of moral philosophy av Dublin, 1837-48; brought up as a Roman catholic; embraced protestantism; B.A. Trinity College, Dublin; prebendary of Raphoe, 1837; rector of Raymoghy, Donegal, 1842; visited Wordsworth, 1844; active in alleviating distress in the Irish famine, 1846-7; contributed to the Dublin University Review His professorialLectureswere published, 1856, and sermons, 1856-6.
  109. ^ William John Butler (1818–1894), dean of Lincoln; educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1844; M.A. Oxford, 1847; honorary canon of Christ Church, 1872; vicar of Wantage, 1846; founder, 1860, and warden till death of sisterhood of St. Mary's, Wantage: elected proctor for clergy of Oxford, 1874; canon of Worcester, 1880; appointed dean of Lincoln, 1 886. His Life and Letters appeared, 1 897.
  110. ^ Sir Charles Parker Butt (1830–1892), judge ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1854; bencher, 1869; practised in consular courts at Constantinople; Q.C., 1868; liberal M.P. for Southampton, 1880; appointed justice of high court, probate, divorce, and admiralty division, and knighted, 1883; president of the division, 1891.
  111. ^ George Butt (1741–1795), divine; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1768; D.D., 1793; rector of Stanford and vicar of Clifton, Worcestershire, 1771; vicar of Newchurch, Isle of Wight, 1778-83; rector of Notgrove, Gloucestershire, 1783; chaplain to George III, 1783; vicar of Kidderminster, 1787; published sermons and verses.
  112. ^ Isaac Butt (1813–1879), founder of the Irish home rule party; scholar of Trinity College, Dublin; LL.D., 1840; edited the Dublin University Magazine 1834-8; professor of political economy, 1836-41; Irish barrister, 1838; opposed O'Connell; M.P. for Harwich, 1852; M.P. for Youghal, 1862-65; barrister of the Inner Temple, 1859; defended Fenian prisoners, 1865-9; M.P. for Limerick, 1871; published translation of Virgil's Georgics and historical and political tracts,
  113. ^ John Butter (1791–1877), ophthalmic surgeon; studied in Devonshire hospitals; M.D. Edinburgh, 1820; practised as an oculist in Plymouth; became blind, 1866; wrote medical treatises.
  114. ^ Nathaniel Butter (d. 1664), printer and journalist; son of a London stationer; freeman of Stationers Company, 1604; issued books in his own name, 1604-11; issued pamphlets describing murders and plays, 1606-39; issued weekly redactions of foreign newsletters, 1622-39; issued half-yearly volumes of foreign news, 1630-40.
  115. ^ William Butter (1726–1805), physician ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1761; practised successively in Derby and London; wrote on medical subjects.
  116. ^ Robert Butterfield (fl. 1629), Anglican controversialist; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1626; published Maschil 1629.
  117. ^ Swithun Butterfield (d. 1611), author of religious and legal tracts; possibly of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1608.
  118. ^ William Butterfield (1814–1900), architect ; articled at Worcester; established himself in London; erected missionary college of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, 1846, chapel of Balliol College, Oxford, 1866-7, All Saints Margaret Street, London, 1859, new buildings at Merton College, Oxford, 1864, school buildings at Rugby, 1875, and Keble College, Oxford, 1876; executed designs for several colonial cathedrals; made a careful study of Gothic architecture.
  119. ^ Edwin Butterworth (1812–1848), publisher of historical and biographical works on Lancashire, 1829-47; youngest son of James Butterworth; collected materials for history of Lancashire; registrar of births and deaths at Cbadderton. Some of his collections are preserved at Oldbam.
  120. ^ Henry Butterworth (1786–1860), London law publisher; apprentice to his uncle, Joseph Butterworth 1; began business on bis own account, 1818.
  121. ^ James Butterworth (1771–1837), author of I poems in the Lancashire dialect and of contributions to Lancashire county history, 1800-30; son of a Lancashire weaver; taught school; (postmaster of Oldham.
  122. ^ John Butterworth (1727–1803), baptist minister at Coventry, 1753-1803; published A New Concordance 1767.
  123. ^ Joseph Butterworth (1770–1826), law bookseller, Fleet Street, London; son of John Butterworth ; M.P. for Dover; Wesleyan philanthropist; published a priced Catalogue of Law Books
  124. ^ Viscount Buttevant (1550–1617). See David Fitzjames de Barry.
  125. ^ Ralph Button (d. 1680), puritan; B.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1630; fellow of Merton, 1633; M.A., 1640; withdrew to London, 1642; professor of geometry in Gresham College, 1643-8; a delegate to visit Oxford University, 1647; intruded canon of Christ Church, and public orator, 1648-60; left Oxford, 1660; kept a school at Brentford; and at Islington, 1672-80.
  126. ^ Sir Thomas Button (d. 1634), admiral ; entered the navy, c. 1589; served in the West Indies; present at the siege of Kinsale, 1601; explored Hudson's Bay, 1612-1613; admiral in charge of Irish coasts, 1614-34; knighted, 1616; served against Algiers, 1620; served on commission for inquiring into state of navy, 1626; quarrelled with the navy board, 1628.
  127. ^ William Button or Bitton (d. 1264), bishop of Bath and Wells; named from Bittou, Gloucestershire; rector of Sowy; sub-dean, and afterwards archdeacon, of Wells; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1247; went to Home to protest against the primate's claims, 1251; present in parliament, 1253; ambassador to Castile; with Henry in in Gascony, 1254; quarrelled with the abbot of Glastonbury over certain possessions and rights which the abbey had lost to the bishopric; present at the dedication of Salisbury Cathedral, 1258.
  128. ^ William Button or Bitton (d. 1274), bishop of Bath and Wells; nephew of William Button I; dean of Wells; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1267; reverenced locally as a saint.
  129. ^ Sir William Button (d. 1654), baronet; plundered by the parliamentary troops, 1643-4; fined for delinquency 1646.
  130. ^ John Butts (d. 1764), self-taught Irish landscape painter.
  131. ^ Robert Butts (1684–1748), bishop of Ely ; educated at Bury St. Edmunds and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1711; D.D., 1728; preacher at Bury, 1703; political agent; rector of Ickworth, Suffolk, 1717-33; chaplain to George II, 1728; dean of Norwich, 1731; bishop of Norwich, 1733; translated to Ely, 1738; published sermons and charges.
  132. ^ Sir William Butts (d. 1545), physician to Henry VIII and his court; owned lands in Norfolk; B.A. Gonville Hall, Cambridge, 1506; M.D., 1518.
  133. ^ Sir Alan Buxhull (1323–1381), constable of the Tower of London, 1365-81; inherited his father's lands in Sussex and Dorset, 1325; served with Edward III in Prance, 1355; chamberlain to Edward III, 1369; castellan in Normandy, 1370; K.G., 1372.
  134. ^ Bertha Buxton H. (1844–1881), novelist ; n&e Leopold; published novels and books for children, 1874 ?1881; travelled with her parents, who were German musicians; married a London club-manager.
  135. ^ Charles Buxton (1823–1871), liberal politician ; third son of Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton; B.A. I Trinity, 1 College, Cambridge, 1845; partner in Truman, ! Hanbnry, Buxton & Cos brewery, Spitalfields, 1845; bought an estate in Kerry, 1852; M.P. for Newport, 1857, for Maidstoue, 1859, and for East Surrey, 1865-71; published biography of his father and political pamphlets, 1853-69.
  136. ^ Jedidiah Buxton (1707–1772), calculating pro- j digy; farm-labourer at Elmton, Derbyshire; exhibited in ! London, 1764.
  137. ^ Richard Buxton (1786–1865), botanist ; a Lau- ! cashire shoemaker and self-taught botanist; published 4 Botanical Guide to Manchester district, 1849.
  138. ^ Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), i philanthropist; educated at private schools; entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1803; partner in Truman, Hanbury & Cos brewery, 1808; advocated prison reform, 1816-80; M.P. for Weymouth, 1818-37; advocated abolition of slavery in British dominions, 1822-33; advocated repression of African slave-trade and the Niger expedition, 1839-40; created baronet, 1840; accorded a monument in Westminster Abbey.
  139. ^ John By (1781-1836), lieutenant-colonel royal engineers; studied at Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; second lieutenant royal engineers, 1799: lieutenant, 18ol; first captain, 1809; lieutenantrcolonel, 1824; served in Canada, 1802-11, and Portugal, 1811; in charge of royal gunpowder mills at Faversham, Purfleet, and Waltham Abbey, 1812-21; constructed Rideau canal from the St. Lawrence to the Canadian lakes, 1826-32, Bytown (now Ottawa) being named after him.
  140. ^ Edward Byam (1585–1639), divine; brother of Henry Byam; demy of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1601-10; M.A., 1607; vicar of Dulverton, Somerset, 1612-1625; precentor of Cloyne, 1637, and prebendary of Lismore, 1639, holding also other Irish preferments.
  141. ^ Henry Byam (1580–1669), divine; brother of Edward Byam; student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1599; M.A., 1606; B.D., 1612; D.D.. 1643; rector of Luccombe and of Selworthy, Somerset, 1614; sequestered, 1656; prebendary of Exeter, 1632; chaplain to the royalist garrison in Jersey, 1646-51; prebendary of Wells, 1660; published sermons.
  142. ^ John Byam (1583?–1653), divine; brother of Edward Byam; M.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1606; rector of Clotworthy, Somerset, 1609; vicar of Dulverton, 1626; sequestered and imprisoned for royalist correspondence.
  143. ^ Nicholas Byer (d. 1681), portrait-painter; of Norwegian birth; protege of Sir William Temple.
  144. ^ Katharine Byerley (1797–1862). See Thomson.
  145. ^ Thomas Byerley (d. 1826), London journalist ; published under the pseudonyms of Stephen Collet aud of Reuben Percy Relics of Literature 1823, The Percy Anecdotes 1821-3, and London... Memorials 1823.
  146. ^ James Byers or Byres (1733–1817), virtuoso; resided in Rome, 1750-90, collecting antique art treasures; studied Etruscan architecture.
  147. ^ Adoniram Byfield (d. 1660), puritan, third son of Nicholas Byfield; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge; chaplain to a parliamentary regiment; a clerk of the Westminster Assembly, of which he took minutes (printed 1874); rector, till 1645, and vicar, till 1657, of Fulham; rector of Collingbourn Ducis, Wiltshire, before 1654; on Wiltshire committee for ejecting clergy, 1654.
  148. ^ John Byfield (fl. 1830), wood engraver.
  149. ^ Nicholas Byfield (1579–1622), puritan; studied at Exeter College, Oxford, 1597-1601; preacher at Chester before 1611; vicar of Isleworth, 1615-22; published theological works.
  150. ^ Richard Byfield (1598?–1664), puritan; entered Queen's College, Oxford, 1616; M.A., 1622; rector of Long Ditton, Surrey, before 1630; elected into the Westminster Assembly, 1645; on the Surrey committee for ejecting clergy, 1654; ejected from Long Ditton, 1662; published theological treatises.
  151. ^ Sir John Barnard Byles (1801–1884), judge; barrister of the Inner Temple, 1831; recorder of Buckingham, 1840-66; serjeant-at-law, 1843; one of the last queen's Serjeants, 1857; knighted, 1858; justice of the common pleas, 1858-73; published legal treatises.
  152. ^ Robert Bylot or Bilot (fl. 1610–1616), explorer of the north-west passage; sailed with Henry Hudson, 1610-11, and Sir Thomas Button, 1612-13, and Gibbons, 1614; commanded the attempt of 1616 with William Baffin as mate.
  153. ^ Andrew Byng (1574–1651), professor of Hebrew; in Cambridge, 1608; educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge; one of the translators of the authorised version, 1606; D.D.
  154. ^ George Byng, Viscount Torrington (1668-1733), admiral; served in the navy, 1678-81; officer of Tangier garrison,.1681-3; lieutenant in the army, 1684-1690; naval lieutenant, 1684; at Bombay, 1686-7; canvassed ship-commanders to join the Prince of Orange, 1688; served under Admiral Herbert, 1689; at Beachy Head, 1690; served in Mediterranean, 1693-5; served under Sir Clowdisley Shovell, 1702-3; rear-admiral, 1703; present at taking of Gibraltar aud the battle off Malaga, 1704; knurhted, 1704; vice-admiral, 1706; served in Mediterranean, 1706-7; repulsed James Edward the Pretender's fleet, 1708; commanded in Mediterranean, 1709; commissioner of the admiralty, 1709-18; prevented supplies reaching the Jacobite insurgents, 1715; created baronet, 1715; sent to the Baltic, 1717; admiral of the fleet, 1718; held command in Mediterranean, 1718-20, destroying Spanish fleet oft Cape Passaro, 31 July 1718; treasurer of the navy, 1721-4; created Viscount Torrington, 1721; first lord of the admiralty, 1727-33.
  155. ^ John Byng (1704–1767), admiral ; fourth son of George Byng, viscount Torrington; entered the navy, 1718; commanded a frigate in the Mediterranean, 1727-36, selecting the easy post of guardship at Port Mahon, Minorca: rear-admiral, 1745: commanded in Mediterranean, 17-17-8; sent to prevent the French taking Minorca, 1756; reached Port Mahon, 19 May, handled his ships unskilfully, and was defeated, 20 -May; Hailed back, in accordance with the resolutions of his council of war, 25 May: recalled; sentenced by court-martial to death for neglect of duty, 27 Jan. 1757; shot at Portsmouth.
  156. ^ Sir John Byng, Earl of Strafford (1772–1860), general; served in Flanders, 1793-5, in the Irish rebellion, 1798, and at Walcheren, 1809; colonel, 1810; commanded brigade in Peninsula and south of France, 1811-14; major-general, 1813; commanded brigade at ! ami in France, 1815; lieutenant-general, 1825; commander-iii-ohief in Ireland, 1828-31; M.P. for Poole, 1.S31: created Baron Straff ord, 1835; general, 1841; created Earl of Strafford, 1847; field-marshal, 1855.
  157. ^ Thomas Byng (d. 1599), civilian; fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1558; M.A., 1559; LL.D., 1570; public orator, 1566; prebendary of York, 1567; master of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1571; regius professor of civil law, 1574; dean of arches, 1595; wrote official letters, orations, and verses.
  158. ^ Simon Bynham (fl. 1335). See Binham.
  159. ^ Henry Bynneman (d. 1583), London printer; apprenticed, 1560; liveryman of the Stationers Company, 1578; imprinted books under his own name, 1566-83.
  160. ^ William Byrd (1538?–1623), composer; pupil of Tallis; organist of Lincoln, 1563; joint-organist of the L'hapel Royal, 1569; granted monopoly of issuing printed music and music-paper, 1576; publishedGantiones... sacra? 1575; lived obscurely, as a catholic recusant, at Harlington, Middlesex, 1578-88; composed the first English madrigals, 1588; published Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs 1588; published Songs of Sundrie Natures and primus Sacrarum Cantionum 1589, Liber secundus 1591, Gradualia 1607, and Psalmes, Songs, and Sonnets 1611; composed numerous pieces, many still in manuscript.
  161. ^ Byrhtferth or Bridferth, (fl. 1000), mathematician; possibly at first monk of Thorney; monk of Ramsey after 970; pupil of Abbo of Fleury (d. 1004); travelled in France; wrote commentaries on treatises of Beeda (printed 1612), and a mathematical treatise (Ashmole MS., 328).
  162. ^ Anne Frances Byrne (1776–1837), flower and fruit painter; eldest daughter of William Byrne; exhibited at the Royal Academy and elsewhere in London, 1796-1832.
  163. ^ Charles Byrne (1761–1783), Irish giant; exhibited in various towns; measured eight feet two inches, 1782; his skeleton 92J inches in length.
  164. ^ Julia Clara Byrne (1819–1894), author; daughter of Hans Busk (1772-1862); married William Pitt Byrne, 1842. She published a number of books, some of which she illustrated herself, dealing with her own experiences, social questions, and the customs of various countries.
  165. ^ Letitia Byrne (1779–1849), engraver; third daughter of William Byrne; book-illustrator; exhibited landscapes at the Royal Academy, 1799-1848.
  166. ^ Miles Byrne (1780–1862), United Irishman; a leader of the 1798 insurrection; clerk in a Dublin timberyard, 1799-1803; a leader in Robert Emmet's sedition, 1803; sent to solicit Napoleon's help, 1803; served in Napoleon's Irish legion, 1804-15: captain, 1810; chef-debataillon, 1830-5; lived latterly in Paris. viii. 1271
  167. ^ Oscar Byrne (1796?–1867), ballet-master ; first appeared on stage, 1803; abroad or in Ireland for several years: employed in London, 1850-67.
  168. ^ William Byrne (1743–1805), landscape engraver; trained in Birmingham and Paris; exhibited in London, 1760-80. ber of legislative council, and solicitor general, 1890; prime minister of Queensland, 1898.
  169. ^ Byrnstan, Birnstan, or Beornstan (.933), bishop of Winchester; attendant on King Edward the Elder as thegn, 900-2; priest, 902-10: perhaps monk at Winchester; bishop of Winchester, 931; afterwards reputed saint; translated to a new tomb, 1150.
  170. ^ John Byrom (1692–1763), teacher of shorthand ; entered Merchant TaylorsSchool, 1707; fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1714; M.A., 1716; studied medicine at Montpellier, 1716; taught shorthand in Manchester (where he cliiefly lived), London, and Cambridge; succeeded to estates, 1740; copyrighted his system, 1742; a Jacobite; his shorthand system printed, 1767; his verses collected and published, 1773, and his diary printed, 1854-7.
  171. ^ Thomas Joseph Byrnes (1860-1898), premier of Queensland; born in Queensland; B.A. and LL.B. Melbourne University; called to the bar in Victoria, 1884; practised at supreme court bar, Queensland; mem
  172. ^ George Gordon Byron , sixth Baron (1788–1824), poet; son of a profligate, mad Jack Byron (17561791), late of the guards, by his second wife (m. at Bath, 1786), Catherine Gordon (d. 1811), of Gicht, Aberdeen, an hysterical Scotch heiress; born in London, after his father had dissipated his mother's fortune in France; hopelessly lame in both feet; removed to Aberdeen, where his mother took lodgings, having an income (under trust) of 135 J., afterwards of 190J. a year; lost his father in August 1791, who, having fled from his creditors to France, died at Valenciennes; alternately petted and abused by his mother; taught the bible by his nurse, May Gray; educated at Aberdeen grammar school, 1794-8; unexpectedly became heir-presumptive to the barony in consequence of the fifth baron's grandson falling in action in Corsica, 1794; succeeded to title and encumbered estates, 1798; taken to the family seat of Newstead Abbey, Nottinghamshire, 1798; put under the guardianship of the fifth Earl of Carlisle, a distant relative; sent to private schools, Newstead Abbey being let, 1799; wrote lampoons, 1799, and love verses, 1800; at Harrow, 1801-6, where he proved himself a poor scholar, a considerable reader, and a good boxer and batsman; proposed to Mary Anne Ohaworth, heiress of Annesley Hall, Nottinghamshire, who rejected him, 1803; at Trinity College, Cambridge, October 1805-May 1806, May 1807-May 1808; M.A. July 1808; at Cambridge read much history and fiction, and practised boxing and swimming, but kept low company and li ved extravagantly; got deeply in debt, the income (500J.) allowed him by the court of chancery being inadequate for his position and expectations; his chief college friend, John Cam Hobhouse, printed privately at Newark, October 1806, a small volume of poems by Byron entitled Fugitive Pieces which Byron reprinted with changes in January 1807, and published, with further changes, in the summer of 1807, as Hours of Idleness; his book denounced by the Edinburgh Review January 1808; settled at Newstead, July 1808, where he entertained company in theatrical imitation of Medmenham; took his seat in the House of Lords, March 1809; issued English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809), which soon ran into its fifth edition; sailed with Hobhouse from Falmouth, July 1809; rode from Lisbon to Cadiz; sailed from Cadiz, visiting Gibraltar and Malta on the way, to North Greece; rode through Acaruania to Athens, 24 Dec.; addressed Maid of Athens to Theresa Macri, his hostess's daughter; sailed, 5 March 1810, from Athens to Smyrna, Ephesus, the Troad, swimming the Hellespont (3 May), and Constantinople; parted company with Hobhouse: sailed, 14 July, for Athens; travelled in the Morea; wintered in Athens; reached Portsmouth, July 1811: took London lodgings, October 1811; spoke twice in the House of Lords, February and April 1812; publishedChilde Harold cantos i. and ii., March 1812; made the acquaintance of Thomas Moore; proposed to Anne Isabella, daughter of Sir Robert Milbauke, but was rejected, 1812; tried to sell Newstead, September 1812; injured his constitution by devices to avoid corpulency; published a succession of poems, 1813-16; annoyed by the attentions of Lady Caroline Lamb, 1813; proposed again to Miss Milbanke, September 1814; married her 2 Jan. 1815; took the additional name of Noel, April; made his will, July; much importuned by his creditors; sold bis library, November; frequented the theatre and theatrical suppers; accused, 8 Jan. 1816, of insanity by his wife, who left him, 16 Jan.: signed a deed of separation and withdrew to the continent, April; travelled through Belgium and the Rhine country to Geneva; travelled in Switzerland with Shelley in June, and with Hobhouse in September; wrote Childe Harold canto iii.; travelled with Hobhouse to Italy, October; wintered in Yeiiiv; r of n child by Jane Clairmont, January 1817; visited Rome, April-May 1817; settled in a house on the Qrand Canal, Venice, and abandoned himself to degrading excesses; wrote canto iv. ofChilde Harold July 1817; received large sums for his copyrights; sold Newstead, November 1817; wrote the first five cantos of Don Juan 1818-20; met Teresa, countess Quiccioli (1803-1873), April 1819, whom he followed to Ravenna and Bologna, and took from her husband to live with him in Venice; visited by Thomas Moore, to whom he entrusted his autobiography (burnt, May 1824); followed to Ravenna the Countess Quiccioli, who had returned to her husband, 1819; wrote much while at Ravenna, the bulk of his work consisting of dramas (beginning with Marino Faliero April-July 1820); lived with Countess Guiccioli at Pisa, October 1821 -July 1822, and wrote later cantos of Don Juan; started a short-lived newspaper, The Liberal with Leigh Hunt as editor, in which he printed hisVision of Judgment a poem satirising Southey's apotheosis of Qeorge III; present at the cremation of Shelley, 1822; lived at Genoa with Countess Guiccioli, August 1822-July 1823; offered to join the Greek insurgents, May 1823; sailed from Genoa, July; lingered in Cephalonia, August-December; landed at Missolonghi, January 1824; enlisted a regiment of Suliotes, which he disbanded, in consequence of their mutinous temper, in February; tried to raise another corps to garrison Missolonghi; died of marsh-fever, 19 April; buried in England, at Hucknall Torkard; his collected Life by Tom Moore and Works published, 1832-6.
  173. ^ Henry James Byron (1834–1884), dramatist; medical student in London and Buxton; appeared on the stage; began to write for the stage, c. 1856; entered the Middle Temple, 1858; joint-manager of the Princess of Wales's Theatre, London, 1865-7; manager of theatres in Liverpool, 1867; acted, in his own pieces, in London, 1869-81; manager of Criterion Theatre, London, 1874; editor of Fun; wrote Paid in Full a novel, 1865; produced a number of farces, comedies, and extravaganzas, between 1857 and 1882.
  174. ^ John Byron , first BARON BYRON (d. 1652), M.P. for Nottingham, 1624-5; K.B. at Charles I's coronation, 1625; M.P. for Nottinghamshire, 1628-9; served in the Low Countries; served against the Scots, 1640; lieutenant of the Tower, December 1641 -February 1642; joined Charles I at York; sent from Coventry to Oxford; held Oxford, 28 Aug.-lO Sept. 1642; victorious at Powick Bridge, 22 Sept.; fought at Edgehill, 23 Oct. 1642; in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, December 1642May 1643; fought at Roundway Down and New bury, 1643; created Karon Byron of Rochdale, October 1643; given command in Lancashire; defeated at Nantwioh, 1644; fought at Marston Moor, Ormskirk, and Montgomery, 1644; besieged in Chester, 1645-6; surrendered. Carnarvon Castle, 1646; went to Paris; sent to seize Anglesey, 1648; sent by Ormonde to invite Charles II to j Ireland, January 1649; i proscribed by the parliament; tutor to the Duke of York. i
  175. ^ John Byron (1723–1786), navigator ; midshipman" of the Wager, 1740; wrecked on the Chili coast, 1741; sailed from Valparaiso, 1744, reaching England, February 1746; captain, 1746; cruised off the coast of GninM 1749, and of France, 1757-63; commanded the Dolphin, in the voyage round the world, 2 July 1764 to 9 May 1766; published a Narrative of his shipwreck, 1768; governor of Newfoundland, 1769-72; rear-admiral, 1775; commanded the West Indies fleet, 1778-9; worsted off Grenada, 1779.
  176. ^ Sir Thomas Byron (d. 1644), commander of the Prince of Wales's regiment; severely wounded at Hoptou Heath, 1643; wounded in a scuffle at Oxford, 7 Dec. 1643, and died of the wound,
  177. ^ Thomas Byrth (1793–1849), divine; quaker;. druggist's apprentice, 1809-14; taught school; entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 181 8; joined the Anglican church, 1819; curate in Devonshire, 1823-6; M.A., 1826; vicar of Latchford, Cheshire, 1827; rector of Wallasey, 1834-49; D.D., 1839; published sermons.
  178. ^ Sir Edward Bysshe (1615?–1679), herald; entered Trinity College, Oxford, 1633; barrister of Lincoln's Inn; M.P. for Bletchingley, 1640; appointed Garter king-of-arms by parliament, 1646-60; M.P. for Reigate, 1654, and for Gatton, Surrey, 1669; Clarencenx king-of-arms, 1661; knighted, 1661; M.P. for Bletchingley, 1661; edited heraldic treatises and (1665) Palladius, de Gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus.
  179. ^ Edward Bysshe (fl. 1712), miscellaneous writer; published The Art of English Poetry 1702; translated Xenophon's Memorabilia 1712.
  180. ^ Victorenus Bythner (1605?–1670?), hebraist; native of Poland; taught Hebrew at Oxford, 1635-43; at Cambridge, 1643; in London; again in Oxford, 1651; practised medicine in Cornwall, 1664; published treatises on Hebrew grammar.
  181. ^ Rudolph Cabanel (1762–1839), architect ; born at Aix-la-ChapeUe; came to England early in life; constructed theatres in London; invented the Cabanel roof.
  182. ^ Benjamin Bond Cabbell (1781–1874), patron of art; educated at Westminster and Oxford, 1800-3; barrister of the Middle Temple, 1816; F.R.S., 1837; M.P. for St. Albaus, 1846, and for Boston, 1847-57; a freemason.
  183. ^ Sebastian Cabot (1474–1567), navigator and map-maker; born in Bristol; son of a Venetian, John Cabot, or Caboto, trading at Bristol; taken to Venice, 1476; brought back to England, 1493; named with his father and brothers in Henry V 1 I's licence to make a voyage of discovery, March 1496; sailed with them, 1497, discovering Nova Scotia; not mentioned in the similar licence obtained by his father, February 1498; probably did not accompany his father in the American voyages of 1498 and 1499; made for Henry VIII a map of Gascony and Guienne, 1512; employed at Seville as map-maker to Ferdinand the Catholic, 1512-16; returned to England, 1616; according to Eden, was designed to sail with Sir Thomas Perte (1517) on a voyage of discovery, which did not take place; returned to Spain, 1619; pilotmajor to the emperor Charles V, 1619-26; investigated the variation of the compass needle; made proposals to the Venetians to send him to seek a north-east passage to China, 1522; commanded unsuccessful expedition to the La Plata, 1526-30: imprisoned and banished to Oran in Africa, 1630; recalled to Seville, 1533; reinstated in his office of pilot-major, 1533-44; published an engraved map of the world, 1544; returned to Bristol, 1547; pensioned by Edward VI, 1548; his return in vain demanded by Charles V, 1550 and 1653; settled dispute between Hanseatic League and merchants of London, 1551; again approached the Venetians with the project of seeking north-east passage to China, 1551; suggested the formation of the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London to seek for the passage, 1551; supervised the north-east expeditions to Russia, 1553 and 1656; his pension conj firmed by Queen Mary, 1556; deprived of half his pension, perhaps at the instance of Philip II, 1557.
  184. ^ Richard Caddick (1740–1819), hebraist; B.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1776; M.A., 1799; resided near London, 1780-1819; published a Hebrew grammar, a Hebrew New Testament, and sermons.
  185. ^ John Cade (d. 1450), rebel; said to have been a young Irishman of the household of Sir Thomas Dacre in Sussex; banished for murder, 1449; served in France; soon returned, under the name of Aylmer, a physician; leader of the Kentish rebellion, May 1460; given out to be a nobleman. Mortimer, cousin of the Duke of York; encamped on Blackheath; demanded the dismissal of certain ministers of Henry VI; defeated the king's troops at Sevenoaks, 27 June; entered Southwark, 1 July; and London, 2 July; beheaded Baron Say and Willium Crowmer, sheriff of Kent, 4 July; repitls-d at London Bridge; amnestied, 6 July; withdrew to Rochester; repulHttl at Queenborough; mortally wounded at Heathfield, 12 July.
  186. ^ John Cade (1734-1806), antiquary; educated at Darlington school; linen draper in London and Dublin; retired and studied antiquities.
  187. ^ Laurence Cade or Caddy (ft. 1583), Roman catholic seminarist; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge; became a catholic; entered Douay College, 1678; imprisoned in the Tower; publicly renounced Catholicism, 1581; Carmelite friar at Paris, 1583.
  188. ^ Salusbury Cade (1680?–1720), physician ; M.D. Trinity College, Oxford, 1691: physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, 1708-20.
  189. ^ Cadell (d. 909), Welsh prince; son of Rhodri Mawr; began to reign over Oeredigion, 877; said to have conquered Powys; ravaged Dyved and Brecheiniog; submitted to King Alfred, 885 ?; his territory ravaged by A narawd, king of Gwynedd 894; harassed by the Irish Danes.
  190. ^ Cadell (d. 943), Welsh prince ; son of Arthvael ; lord of Morgan wg and part of Qwent; rebelled against the West-Saxons, 940; killed by the Saxons,
  191. ^ Cadell (d. 1175), Welsh prince; son of Gruffudd, the son of Rhys; ruled over part of Ceredigion and the vale of Towy, 1137; captured the Norman castles on the Towy, including Carmarthen, 1145-7; wasted Kidwelly, 1152; won back Ceredigion from Owain Gwynedd; severely handled by the Flemings of Tenby in an ambuscade; made pilgrimage to Rome; became a monk at Strata Florida.
  192. ^ Francis Cadell (1822–1879), Australian explorer ; midshipman in the East India Company's service; served in the Chinese war, 1840-1; captain of a vessel, 1844; studied steamboat building; examined the mouth of the Murray river, 1848; explored the Murray and its tributaries in steamers, 1853-9; squatter on the Darling; murdered by his crew at sea.
  193. ^ Jessie Cadell (1844–1884), Persian scholar ; wife of an army officer; long resident at Peshawur; published Ida Craven a novel, 1876; wrote on Omar Khayyam, 1879; died at Florence.
  194. ^ Robert Cadell (1788–1849), Edinburgh publisher; entered the house of Archibald Constable & Co., 1807; partner, 1811; dissolved partnership, 1826; secured copyright of Sir Walter Scott's novels, 1827, of which he issued several editions.
  195. ^ Thomas Cadell , the elder (1742–1802), London publisher; apprenticed to Andrew Millar in the Strand, 1758; partner, 1765; took over the business, 1767; retired, 1793; alderman of London, 1793, and sheriff, 1800-1.
  196. ^ Thomas Cadell , the younger (1773–1836), publisher; son of Thomas Cadell the elder; took over his father's business, 1793, and carried it on till death.
  197. ^ William Archibald Cadell (1775–1865), traveller; educated at Edinburgh: Scottish advocate, 1798; F.R.S., 1810; published narrative of his continental Journey, 1817-18 1820; author of mathematical papers.
  198. ^ Sir Thomas Cademan or Cadyman (1590?-1651), physician to Queen Henrietta Maria; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1609; M.D. Padua, 1620: catholic recusant, 1626; F.R.C.P., 1630; held patent for distilling strong waters and vinegar; wrote medical tracts.
  199. ^ Cadoc the wise, in Welsh CATTWG DDOETH (d. 570?), Welsh saint; son of Gwynllyw Filwr, lord of Gwynllwg in Glamorganshire; taught by Irish ascetics; visited Rome, Jerusalem, Ireland, and Scotland; founded abbey and school of Llancarvan, Glamorganshire; suffered martyrdom at Beneventum; commemorated on 14 Jan.; reputed composer of proverbs, triads, and fables.
  200. ^ Charles Cadogan, second Baron Cadogan (1691-1776), general; entered the army, 1706; served m Mnrlborough's later campaigns, and in Scotland, 1716; M.P. for Reading, and for Newport, lale of Wight; succeeded to barony, 1726; general, 1761.
  201. ^ Henry Cadogan (1780-1813), colonel; educated at Eton; entered the army, 1797; gained rapid promotion by purchase; lieutenant-colonel, 1805; aide-de-camp to Wellesley in the Peninsula, 1808-10; commanded the 71st Highlanders, 1810-11; commanded brigade, 1811-13; killed at Vittoria; honoured with a monument in St. Paul's.
  202. ^ William Cadogan (1601–1661), parliamentarian; went to Ireland, 1633; captain of horse there before 1641; major of horse in Cromwell's Irish army, 1649; governor of Trim, 1649-61.
  203. ^ William Cadogan, first Earl Cadogan (1675-1726), general; cornet at the Boyne, 1690; served in the dragoons under William III in Ireland and Flanders; quartermaster-general to Marlborough, 1701-11, and present in all his great battles; colonel of the dragoon regiment, calledCadogan's horse 1703-12; brigadier-general, 1704; M.P. for Woodstock from 1705; major-general, 1706; envoy to the Spanish Netherlands, 1707-10; lieutenant-general, 1709-12; lieutenant of the Tower, 17091715; took Bouchain, 1711; quartermaster-general to Ormonde, 1712; withdrew to Holland; ejected by the Jacobite party from his offices, 1712; returned to London, 1714; restored to his lieutenant-generalship, 1714; lieutenant of ordnance, 1714-18; colonel of Coldstream guards, 1714; M.P. for Woodstock, 1714; envoy at the Hague, 1714-18; second in command against Scotch insurgents, 1715-16; created Baron Cadogan, 1716: governor of the Isle of Wight, 1716; general, 1717; created Earl Cadogan, 1718; negotiated the quadruple alliance, 1720; commander-in-chief, 1722
  204. ^ William Cadogan (1711–1797), physician ; B.A. Oriel College, Oxford, 1731; M.D. Leyden, 1737; army physician; practised medicine in Bristol; physician to the London Foundling Hospital, 1754; M.D. Oxford, 1755; wrote on medical topics.
  205. ^ Saint Cadroe (d. 976?), abbot in Lorraine ; born in Scotland of noble parents; brought up by a clerical kinsman, Beanus, at lona; studied at Armagh; taught in Scotland; travelled from Abernethy, 940 ?, through Strathclyde to Winchester, 942 ?, thence to Peronne, 943; anchorite in Sylva Theorascensis; monk at Fleury, 944; abbot of Wassor, near Dinant, 946, and of St. Felix and (948) of St. Symphorien, both near Metz.
  206. ^ Cadvan (6th cent.), Welsh saint ; fled from Brittany from the Franks early in the sixth century; built churches in Wales; abbot of a monastery on Bardsey Isle.
  207. ^ Cadvan (d. 617? or 634?), semi-mythical king of Gwynedd (or North Wales); fought against the Angles of Northumbria.
  208. ^ Cadwaladr (d. 1172), Welsh prince; son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd; with his brother, Owain, conquered Meirionydd, 1121, and the north of Ceredigion, 1135-6; granted lordship of these when Owain succeeded to Gwynedd, 1137; expelled by Owain for slaying (1143) Anarawd, son of Gruffudd of South Wales; to avenge himself, brought over Danes from Ireland, who, suspecting treachery, blinded him; ransomed; driven from Meirionydd by his nephews, 1146-8, from Ceredigion by the brothers of Anarawd, and from Anglesey by Owaiu; fled to the English; restored by Henry II, 1157; invaded South Wales, 1168; resisted Henry IPs third invasion, 1165; buried at Bangor.
  209. ^ Cadwaladr Casail (fl. 1590), Welsh poet.
  210. ^ Cadwaladr Vendigaid , i.e. the Blessed (d. 661?), semi-mythical king of the Britons; led the North and Strathclyde Welsh in their struggle against the Angles under Oswiu and Penda; died of the plague.
  211. ^ Roger Cadwallador (1568–1610), Roman catholic martyr: fdiu-aUil at U lid ma and Valladolid; catholic priest in Herefordshire, 1594; arrested and executed, 1610.
  212. ^ Cadwgan (. 1112), Welsh prince; son of Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, king of part of Qwynedd; attacked Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of South Wales, 1087, but was defeated at Llechryd; ravaged Dyved, 1093, but was driven out by the Normans; joined Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Qwynedd, In recovering Ceredigion and Dyved and ravaging the English border; ravaged Pembrokeshire; repulsed William Rufos's invasion, 1097; defeated in Anglesey by the Earl of Shrewsbury, 1099; accepted Oeredigion and part of Powys as a fief from the earl, 1100; joint-! 1 him in making war on Henry 1, 1102; restored to his territories by lorwerth; driven, 1110, from Ceredigion by his nephews, who had been incited to attack his son Owain for carrying off Nest, wife of Gerald of Windsor; deposed by Henry I; granted Powys, 1111; murdered by Ms nephew.
  213. ^ Cadwgan also called Martin (d. 1241), bishop of Bangor; styled of Llandyvai; abbot of Whitland, Carmarthenshire; named bishop of Bangor by King John, 1215; resigned, 1236, and entered Dore Abbey, Herefordshire.
  214. ^ Sir Thomas Cadyman (1590?–1651). See Cademan.
  215. ^ Caedmon (corruptly Cedmon), Saint (fl. 670), poet ; entered the monastery of Streaneshalch (Whitby), when already an elderly man, between 658 and 680; said by Baeda to have been an unlearned man, who received suddenly, in a vision, the power of putting into English verse passages translated to him from the scriptures; generally recognised as a saint: commemorated on 11 or 12 Feb. The name Oaedmon cannot be explained in English, and has been conjectured to be Celtic (an adaptation of the British Catu maims). In 1655 Francois Dujon (Franciscus Junius) published at Amsterdam from the unique Bodleian manuscript long scriptural poems, which he took to be those of Caedmon. It is now generally admitted that these poems are of at least two dates, the first portion (containing versions of Genesis, Exodus, Daniel) being earlier than the second portion (1. the fall of man; 2. the descent into hell, ascension, and second advent; 3. the temptation), and all of them later than Csedmou. Three pieces are by some still claimed for Oaedmon himself: 1. a Northumbrian version of Baeda's Latin paraphrase of Caedmou's first song, found in a Cambridge manuscript of Baeda, in a hand possibly of the eighth century; 2. The Dream of the Holy Rood of which a fragment is found in runes on the Ruthwell cross, Dumfriesshire, and the whole in a West-Saxon manuscript at Vercelli; 3. the fragment on the temptation and fall of man, interpolated in the version of Genesis in the Bodleian manuscript, published in 1665.
  216. '^ Caedwalla (d. 634), also spelt Cadwalader and Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd or North Wales ; sou of Cadvan(d. 617? or 634?); invaded Northumbria, 629; defeated by the Anglian king, Eadwine, and driven to Ireland: in alliance with Penda of Mercia, defeated and slew Eadwine at Hatfield, near Doncaster, 633; mercilessly ravaged Northumbria; killed Osric and Eanfrith, Northumbrian princes, who tried to recover the kingdom, 634; defeated and slain near Hexham by Oswald, nephew of Eadwine.
  217. ^ Caedwalla (659?–689), king of Wessex ; expelled from Wessex by King Centwine; lived as an outlaw in the forest of Anderida; met Wilfrith, c. 681; ravaged Sussex, and killed King JEthelwealh, 685; acknowledged king of Wessex, 686; subdued Sussex, ravaged Kent, and conquered the Isle of Wight; resigned, 688; baptised at Rome by Pope Sergius I, 689; died at Rome.
  218. ^ Lewis of Caerleon ov (15th cent.), mathematician, theologian, and medical writer of Oxford.
  219. ^ Adelmare Caesar (d. 1569), physician ; originally known as Cesare Adelmare; graduate of Padua; censor of the College of Physicians, London, 1655; medical adviser to Queen Mary in 1558, and subsequently to Queen Elizabeth.
  220. ^ Sir Charles Caesar (1590–1642), judge; third son of Sir Julius Caesar; entered Magdalen College Oxford, 1602; fellow of All Souls 1605-11, by king's mandate; M.A., 1608; entered the Inner Tetnple, 1611; D.C.L., 1612; knighted, 1613; M.P. for Bletchingley, Surrey, 1614; master of chancery, 1616-39; judge of court of audience and master of the faculties from before 1626 till death; paid James I 15,000l. for the mastership of the rolls, 1639; died of small-pox.
  221. ^ Henry Caesar (1562?–1636), dean of Ely; educated at Oxford and Cambridge; withdrew to the continent as a Roman catholic; returned and recanted, 1583; vicar of Lostwithiel, Cornwall; prosecuted as a suspected papist, 1584, 1589; D.D. Oxford, 1595; rector of St. Christopher-le-Stocks, London, 1596-7, and of Somersham, Huntingdonshire, 1597; prebendary of Westminster, 1609-25: dean of Ely, 1614-36.
  222. ^ Sir Julius Caesar (1658–1636), judge ; son of an Italian, Cesare Adelmare, physician to Queen Mary and Elizabeth; M.A. Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1578; entered the Inner Temple, 1580; LL.D. Paris, 1581; D.C.L. Oxford, 1584; judge of the admiralty, 1584; a master of chancery, 1588-91; M.P., Reigate, 1589, Bletchingley, 1593, Windsor, 1596 and 1601, Westminster, 1607-11, Middlesex, 1614, and Maldon, 1620-2; master of requests, 1591 (senior master, 1600); master of St. Katharine's Hospital, London, 1596; knighted, 1603; chancellor of the exchequer, 1606; master of the rolls, 1614-36; wrote on legal topics.
  223. ^ Julius Caesar (1656?–1712?), physician, of Rochester; composed catches.
  224. ^ Sir Thomas Caesar (1561–1610), judge; brother of Sir Julius Caesar: left Merchant Taylors School, 1578; entered the Inner Temple, 1580; cursitor baron of the exchequer and knighted, 1610.
  225. ^ Sir James Crawford Caffin (1812–1883), admiral; entered the navy, 1824; commander, 1842; on the commission which adopted screw-propeller for navy, 1845; captain, 1847; served in the Baltic, 1854-5; director of stores, 1858-68; rear-admiral, 1865; K.C.B., 1868; admiral, 1877.
  226. ^ Matthew Caffyn (1628–1714), general (or Arminian) baptist; claimed to have been expelled from Oxford for nonconformity; farmer and baptist minister at and near Horsham, Sussex, his native place; several times imprisoned for unlicensed preaching; engaged in platform and pamphlet war with quakers, 1655-62; first accused of Arianism, 1673; local churches and the baptist assembly greatly agitated by his doctrinal position, 16911701, the result being a schism in the connexion, 1701-4; wrote polemical tracts.
  227. ^ Daniel William Cahill (1796–1864), Roman catholic lecturer; educated at Carlow College and Maynooth, 1816; ordained; teacher of mathematical sciences at Carlow College, 1825; created D.D. by the pope; kept school at Williams town, 1835-41, and at Blackrock, Dublin, 1841-6; journalist in Dublin till 1859; lectured and preached in the United States on behalf of Roman catholic institutions, 1860-4; remains removed to Glasnevin, 1885.
  228. ^ John Caillaud (d. 1810), Indian officer ; arrived in India, 1753; in constant service till his retirement, 1775; brigadier-general, 1763; settled at Aston-Rowant, Oxfordshire; hon. D.O.L. Oxford, 1773.
  229. ^ Caillin (fl. 560), Irish saint ; educated at Rome ; recalled to stay feuds among his kindred, the Conmaicne, of Dunmor (Connaught); obtained for them lands in Roscommon, Mayo, and other counties; at Duubaile converted to Christianity Aedh dubh (afterwards called Aedh finn), son of Fergna, king of Breifney, received Dunbaile (now Fenagh, in Leitrim) from Aedh dubh, and built a monastery there; commemorated on 13 Nov.
  230. ^ Caimin or Camin, Saint (d. 653) ; of the race of Cathaoir Mór of Leinster; son of Dima, a noble, and Cumman; an ascetic; lived on Keltra island in Lough Derg; reputed author of glosses on the 119th Psalm.
  231. ^ Rhys Cain (16th cent.), Welsh poet ; named from his birth near the river Cain, Merionethshire; wrote complimentary poems, 1570-1600.
  232. ^ Cainnech or Cannicus, Saint (d. 598?), Irish saint, after whom Kilkenny (Cill-raiiineth) and Cambuskenneth, in S-otlaml, were named; studied in Vules and Italy; lived at lonurd Abbey, Meath, c. 543, and subsequently at i;ia-iieviu, Dublin; visited Columba at lonu; founded Aghaboe (Acliadh-bo) Abbey, Queen's County, some time before 577.
  233. ^ Sir James Caird (1816–1892), agriculturist and author; educated at high school and university, Edinburgh; managed a farm near Stranraer; occupied farm of Baldoon, near Wigtown, 1841-60; took part in free trade controversy: commissioned by Peel to report to government on agricultural state of Ireland, 1846; special commissioner ofTimesto inquire into distressed state of agriculture since adoption of free trade, 1850; liberal conservative M.P. for Dartmouth, 1857-9; toured in Canada and United States, 1858-9, and published Prairie Farming in America 1859; M.P. for Stirling burghs, 1859-65; chairman of royal commission on condition of sea fisheries, 1863-6; advocated increased importation of cotton from India, 1863; enclosure commissioner, 1865-82; senior member of laud commission, 1882; G.B., 1869; F.R.S., 1865; on commission to inquire into Indian famine, 1878-1879; president of Statistical Society, 1880 and 1881; K.C.B., 1882; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884; privy councillor, 1889; director of land department of board of agriculture, 1889-91. He published numerous writings on agricultural questions.
  234. ^ John Caird (1820–1898), principal of Glasgow University; studied at Glasgow University; M.A., 1845; honorary D.D., 1860; minister of Lady Tester's, Edinburgh, 1847-9, Errol, Perthshire, 1849-57, and Park Church, Glasgow, 1857; professor of theology, Glasgow, 1862; principal, 1873; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884; Gifford lecturer at Glasgow, 1890-1 and 1896; published works, including Introduction to the Pliilosophy of Beligion (1880).
  235. ^ Alexander Cairncross (d. 1701), archbishop of Glasgow; a dyer in Edinburgh; parson of Dumfries; bishop of Brechin, 1684; archbishop of Glasgow, 1684-7; bishop of Raphoe, 1693-1701.
  236. ^ Robert Cairncross (d. 1544), bishop of Ross ; provost of Corstorphine; abbot of Holyrood; bishop of Ross, 1539, holding in commendam the abbacy of Fern; lord high treasurer of Scotland, 1528-9 and 1537-9.
  237. ^ Saint Cairnech (d. 539?), son of 'Sarran, king of Britain'; harassed in his monastery by his brother, King Luirig; delivered by his cousin, Mucertach MacErca: attended a synod at Tours; bishop of Temhar (Tara) and the clan O'Neil, c. 604.
  238. ^ David Cairnes (1645–1722), defender of Londonderry; a lawyer; advised defence of town, December 1688; sent to William III to ask help; commanded regiment during the siege, April-August 1689; afterwards recorder and M.P. for Londonderry.
  239. ^ John Elliot Cairnes (1823–1875), economist ; educated at private schools; employed in a brewery at Drogheda; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1854; professor of political economy, 1856-61, and at Galway, 1859-65; Irish barrister, 1857; professor of political economy, University College, London, 1866; invalided, 1872; hon. LL.D. Dublin, 1874; published anti-slavery tracts, economic treatises, and pamphlets on university education in Ireland.
  240. ^ Hugh McCalmont Cairns, first Earl Cairns, (1819-1885), lord chancellor; educated at Belfast academy and Trinity College, Dublin; B.A., 1838: barrister of the Middle Temple, 1844; migrated to Lincoln's Inn and soon acquired a large practice; M.P. for Belfast, 1862; Q.C., 1866; made his mark as a speaker in parliament, 1858; attorney-general and lord justice of appeal, 1866; created Baron Cairns, 1867: lord chancellor, 1868; leader of the conservative opposition in the lords, 1869-74; strongly opposed disestablishment of Irish church; lord chancellor, 1874-80; created Earl Cairns, 1878; a lucid lawyer; philanthropist.
  241. ^ John Cairns (1818–1892), presbyterian divine; son of a shepherd; studied at Edinburgh University; M.A., 1841; honorary D.D., 1858; honorary LL.D., 1884; entered Presbyterian Secession Hall, 1840; studied at Merlin, 18-13-4; licensed preacher, 1845; minister of Golden Square Church, Berwick-on-Tweed, 1845-76; professor of apologetics in United I'rt-.-tiytcrian Theological Hall, 1867, ! and joint professor of systematic theology and apologetics, I 1876; principal, 1879; Cunningham lecturer at Free rhmvh, 1.S77 and 1880; preached in America and in many Continental towns; published religious works and translations and contribute largely to periodicals; he wrote the article on Kant in the Encyclopaedia Britannicii 8th edition.
  242. ^ William Cairns (d. 1848), philosophical writer ; educated at Glasgow; divinity student at the Anti-burgher College, 1800; minister of the secession church, Johnshaveu, Kincardiueshire, 1808-15; professor of logic in Belfast Institution, 1816-48; publishedTreatise on Moral Freedom 1844.
  243. ^ Richard Caistor (d. 1420), theologian ; vicar of St. Stephen's, Norwich, 1402; his tomb in Norwich subsequently a place of pilgrimage.
  244. ^ Earls of Caithness . See SINCLAIR, SIR WILLIAM, first EARL, 1404 ?-1480; SINCLAIR, GEORGE, fourth EARL, d. 1582; SINCLAIR, GKORQE, fifth EARL, 1566 ?-1643; SINCLAIR, JAMES, fourteenth EARL, 1821-1881.
  245. ^ John Caius or Kay, called the elder (fl. 1480), translator into English of a Latin poem on the defence of Rhodes (1480), printed in London, 1506.
  246. ^ John Caius (1510–1673), scholar and physician, called John Caius, junior; educated at Norwich, and Gouville Hall, Cambridge (fellow, 1533; M.A., 1535); studied Greek; went to Padua, 1539; lectured there on Aristotle, studied medicine under Giambattista Montano and anatomy under Andre Vesale; M.D. Padua, 1541; visited the great libraries of Italy, France, and Germany; lectured on anatomy in London, 1644-64; resided at Shrewsbury (where he observed the sweating sickness), and Norwich; F.C.P., 1547; physician to Edward VI and Mary; refounded Gonville Hall, Cambridge, 1557, and was master, 1559-73; dismissed from attendance on Queen Elizabeth as a Roman catholic, 1568; published under the name Loudinensis a tract claiming for Cambridge priority over Oxford, 1668; edited and translated Galen, and wrote on medical subjects and Greek pronunciation.
  247. ^ Thomas Caius or Key (d. 1672), author ; fellow of All SoulsCollege, Oxford, 1525; M.A., 1630; registrar of the university, 1535-52; prebendary of Salisbury, 1559; master of University College, Oxford, 1561-72; rector of Tredington, Worcestershire, 1563-72; defended the priority of Oxford against John Oaius (1510-1673) ; author of translations into English and Latin.
  248. ^ John Calah (1758–1798), composer of church I music; organist of Newark-on-Trent, 1781-5, and of Peterborough Cathedral, 1785-98.
  249. ^ Benjamin Calamy (1642–1686), divine ; second son of Edmund Oalamy the elder; educated at St. Paul's School; entered Catharine Hall, Cambridge, before i 1660; M.A., 1668 and fellow; D.D., 1680; incumbent of St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 1677; vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry, 1683; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1685; tried to obtain pardon for Alderman Henry Cornish, 1685; published sermons.
  250. ^ Edmund Calamy , the elder (1600–1666), puritan ; B.A. Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1619; known as a Calvinist; B.D., 1632; vicar of St. Mary's, Swaffham, Cambridge; lecturer at Bury St. Edmunds, 1627 ?-36, retiring when the bishop insisted on observance of church ceremonies; lecturer at Rochford, Essex; incumbent of St. Mary's, Aldermanbury, 1639-62; one of the authors of Smectymnuus written against Bishop Joseph Hall's claim of divine right for episcopacy; member of Westminster Assembly, 1643; presbyterian and intolerant of Congregationalism; opposed Charles I's trial and execution; advocated the Restoration; compelled by his wife to refuse the see of Lichfield and Coventry; member of Savoy conference, 1661; ejected, 1662; imprisoned for unlicensed preaching, 1663; published sermons.
  251. ^ Edmund Calamy , the younger (1635?–1685), puritan; eldest son of Edmund Calamy the elder; educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, 1652-6, and at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1656; M.A., 1658; ordained presbyterian minister, 1653; intruded rector of Moreton, Essex, 1659-62; withdrew to London; preached in private houses: opened meeting-house, 1672.
  252. ^ Edmund Calamy (1671–1732), nonconformist biographer; only son of Edmund Calamy the younger : educated in private schools kept by ejected puritan ministers; studied at Utrecht, 1688-91: resided In Oxford, 1691-2, reading in the Bodleian and preaching in meeting-houses in the district; assistant minister to presbyterian congregation at Blackfriars, 1692-5, and at Bishopsgate, 1696-1703; brought about a public presbyterian ordination, 1694; presbyterian minister at Westminster and lecturer at SaltersHall, 1703-32; visited Scotland, 1709, and was made D.D. of Edinburgh, AberdeiMi, and Glasgow; visited the west of England, 1713; published sermons and biographies, including an * Account of the Ministers... ejected by the Act for Uniformity 1702, and A Continuation of the Account 1727; wrote an autobiography (printed, 1829).
  253. ^ Edmund Calamy (1697?-1755), presbyterian; eldest son of Edmund Calamy (1671-1732); educated at Westminster School, Edinburgh University (M.A., 1717), and Leyden; assistant presbyterian minister in London, 1726-49.
  254. ^ Wellins Calcott (fl. 1756–1769), author of essays (published 1756), and a treatise on freemasonry, 1769.
  255. ^ Sir Granby Thomas Calcraft (1770–1820), cavalry officer; younger son of John Calcraft the elder ; cornet, 1788; served in Flanders, 1793-5; knighted for protecting the Emperor Leopold at Villiersen-Couche, 1794; aide-de-camp to General Lord Paget, 1799; in command of the 3rd dragoon guards, 1800-13; M.P. for Wareham, 1807-8; served through the Peninsular war, partly in command of cavalry brigades, 1809-13; major-general, 1813.
  256. ^ John Calcraft , the elder (1726–1772), politician; son of the Duke of Rutland's election agent at Grantham; placed by the Rutland influence in the pay office; made agent for several regiments by Henry Fox, lord Holland, paymaster-general, 1757; deputy commissary-general, 1757-63; made a fortune as army contractor; deserted Fox for Pitt, 1763; M.P. for Rochester, 1768; agitated for parliamentary reform; bought Rempston, Isle of Pur beck, 1757, and Wareham, Dorset, 1767.
  257. ^ John Calcraft , the younger (1765–1831), politician; eldest son of John Calcraft the elder; M.P. for Wareham, 1786-90, 1800-6, and 1818-31, for Rochester, 1806-18, and for Dorset, 1831; clerk of ordnance, 1806-7; paymaster-general, 1828-30; a whig; joined tones, 1828; voted for the Reform bill, 1831; committed suicide.
  258. ^ William Calcraft (1800–1879), hangman; successively shoemaker, watchman, butler, and hawker; employed to flog boys at Newgate; first acted as hangman, 1828; appointed hangman, 1829; last public execution, 26 May, and first private, 3 Aug. 1868; pensioned, 1874.
  259. ^ John Caldecott (1800–1849), astronomer ; commercial agent for the rajah of Travancore at Allepey, 1832-6: director of the rajah's observatory at Trevandrum, 1837-49; author of meteorological and other papers.
  260. ^ Randolph Caldecott (1846–1886), artist; educated at Chester school; early showed drawing talent; bank official at Whitchurch and Manchester; settled in London, 1872; drew for periodicals; made his mark as a book-illustrator, 1875; designed in colour children's books, 1878-85; worked for the Graphic; exhibited at various galleries.
  261. ^ Thomas Caldecott (1744–1833), bibliophile; educated at Winchester; fellow of New College, Oxford; B.C.L., 1770; barrister of the Middle Temple; collected a fine library of English sixteenth-century literature; printed privately Shakespearean commentaries.
  262. ^ James Tait Calder (1794?–1864), author; educated at Edinburgh: parish schoolmaster of Canisbay, Caithness; published poems, 1842-6, and a meritorious Sketch of. -. lli.-toryof Caithness 1861.
  263. ^ John Calder (1733–1815), author; educated at Aberdeen; secretary to the Duke of Northumberland; librarian of Dr. Daniel Williams's Library, London; nonconformist minister in London; helped in Thomas Percy's edition of the Spectator.
  264. ^ Robert Calder (1650?–1723), Scottish episcopalian; educated at Aberdeen; minister of Neuthorn, Berwickshire, 1689, but ejected as a Jacobite; in prison at Edinburgh, 1693; conducted a private episcopalian chapel at Aberdeen till 1707; prevented from settling in Elgin; conducted chapel in Edinburgh; published treatise in defence of episcopalian positions; reputed compiler of the caustic Scottish Presbyterian Eloquence displayed 1693.
  265. ^ Sir Robert Calder (1745–1818), admiral; entered the navy, 1759; shared in the prize-money for the Spanish Hermione, the richest prize on record, 1762; commanded ships on the home station, 1780-3; fought at the battle of St. Vincent; knighted for bringing home the despatches, 1797; created baronet, 1798; rear-admiral, 1799; allowed a French squadron to outmanoeuvre him, 1801; came upon Villeneuve's fleet off Finisterre, 22 July 1805; neglected to engage it, 23 July; dispersed his ships, and had to fall back before Villeneuve, 9 Aug., leaving English coast exposed to attack; recalled, and censured for error of judgment, 1806; admiral, 1810.
  266. ^ James Calderbank (1769–1821), Benedictine monk; priest; stationed at Weston, Somerset; at Bath, 1809-17, and afterwards at Liverpool; published controversial letters.
  267. ^ Leonard Calderbank (1809–1864), Roman catholic priest and canon of Clifton; educated at Ampleforth, at Prior Park, Bath, 1829, and in Rome; priest, 1832; missiouer in west of England from 1833; vice-president and professor at Prior Park, 1849-50.
  268. ^ Philip Hermogenes Calderon (1833–1898), painter; born at Poitiers; articled to civil engineer in England; studied in Paris under Francois Edouard Picot; first exhibited Royal Academy, 1863; R.A., 1867; keeper of Royal Academy, 1887. He was regarded as the leader of the St. John's Wood school of painters. Among his most important works are After the Battle 1862, Her Most High, Noble, and Puissant Grace," 1866 (gold medal, Paris, 1867), and The Renunciation of St. Elizabeth of Hungary 1891.
  269. ^ David Calderwood (1575–1650), presbyterian apologist; educated at Edinburgh; minister of Crailing, Roxburghshire, 1604; confined to his parish for opposing Bishop James Law, 1608; one of the protesters against James I's church measures, 1617; personally scolded by the king: banished; in Holland, 1619-25; published The Altar of Damascus 1621, a defence of presbyterianism; and an expanded Latin version of it, 1623; minister of Pencaitland, East Lothian, 1640; one of the compilers of the official Directory for Public Worship; wrote History of the Kirk of Scotland (first printed, in an abridgment, 1678); published controversial tracts.
  270. ^ Henry Calderwood (1830–1897), philosopher ; educated at Edinburgh University and Theological Hall of United Presbyterian Church; licensed preacher, 1856; published, 1864, Philosophy of the Infinite, a criticism of the agnostic tendencies of Sir William Hamilton's philosophy; ordained minister of Greyfriars Church, Glasgow, 1866-68; examiner in philosophy, Glasgow, 1861; LL.D. Glasgow, 1865; professor of moral philosophy, Edinburgh, 1868; F.R.S. Edinburgh, 1869; moderator of synod, 1880; editedUnited Presbyterian Magazine; first chairman of Edinburgh school board, 1873-7; published philosophical works, including Evolution and Man's Place in Nature 1893.
  271. ^ Margaret Calderwood (1716–1774), diarist ; nte Steuart; married, 1735; withdrew to Brussels, 1766; wrote from that date a diary and narrative of events in Scotland (printed 1842).
  272. ^ Sir William Calderwood, Lord Polton (16607-1733), Scottish advocate, 1687; knighted before 1707; lord of session, 1711.
  273. ^ Alfred James caldicott (1842–1897), musician; chorister at Worcester Cathedral: articled aa organist; studied music at Leipzig; organist at St. Stephen's, Worcester, 1865-82; composed operettas for Thomas German Reed; conducted at Prince of Wales's Theatre, 1889-90; conductor to Miss Agnes Huntingdon's light opera company in America, 1890; professor at Royal College of Music and Guildhall School of Music, 1K90-2: principal of London College of Music; conductor at Comedy Theatre, 1893. He composed many part-songs, operettas, and glees.
  274. ^ James Caldwall (6.1739), portrait-engraver; exhibited, 1768-80.
  275. ^ Richard Caldwall (1505?–1584), physician; H.A. brasenose College, Oxford, 1533; student of Christ Church, 1547; M.D., 1555; practised in London. 1
  276. ^ Sir Alexander Caldwell (1763–1839), artillery officer; educated at Woolwich; served in Bengal, 1783-1806; at the storming of Seringapatam, 1799; major, 1807; served in Java, 1811; lieutenant-colonel, 1812; retired, 1821; major-general and K.CJB., 1837.
  277. ^ Andrew Caldwell , the elder (1733–1808), Irish barrister: studied law in London; Irish barrister, 1760; published pamphlets.
  278. ^ Sir Benjamin Caldwell (1737?–1820), ad miral; entered the navy, 1756; commanded frigate, 1765; (mmander of the Agamemnon in the Bay of Biscay, 1781, and in the West Indies, 1782-3; rear-admiral, 1793: commanded the Impregnable in the action of 1 June 1794; in command on Leeward Islands station, 1794-5; admiral, 1799; G.C.B., 1820.
  279. ^ Hume Caldwell (1733–1762), Irishman ; colonel in the Austrian service; served through the seven years war; led the storming party at Schweidnitz, 1761; died of wounds.
  280. ^ Sir James Lillyman Caldwell (1770–1863), general: cadet in East India Company's service, 1788; ensign, Madras engineers, 1789; captain-lieutenant, 1796; captain, 1802; colonel, 1825; major-general, 1846; general, 1854; served in campaigns against Tippu, 1791-2 and 1799; engineer in charge of central division of Madras army, 1811; special surveyor of fortresses, 1813; O.B., 1815; acting chief engineer of Madras, 1816; lieuteuantcolonel-commandant of his corps, 1824; retired and was made K.C.B., 1837; G.O.B., 1848.
  281. ^ John Caldwell (1628–1679).
  282. ^ Robert Caldwell (1814–1891), coadjutor bishop of Madras; B.A. Glasgow, 1837; LL.D., 1867; sent by London Missionary Society to Madras; joined English church and associated himself with Society for Propagation of Gospel, 1841; established himself at Tinnevelly, 1841; consecrated bishop of Tinnevelly as coadjutor to bishop of Madras, 1877; assisted in Tamil versions of Prayer-book, 1842 and 1872, and bible, 1868-69; D.D. Durham, 1874; publishedComparative Grammar of South Indian Family of Languages 1856, and works relating to history of Tinnevelly mission, and other writings.
  283. ^ Walter Calenius (d. 1151), archdeacon of Oxford; name used by John Bale for an undefined Walter who was archdeacon of Oxford from 1115 to 1138, and before and after these dates; king's justiciar, 1118 ? and 1125. This Walter, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, brought from Brittany the Celtic original of the Chronicle which Geoffrey professed to translate. Galena a misreading for Calleva (i.e. Silchester), being, in the bastardLatin of the sixteenth century, used for Oxford, Bale, by 1 Calenius meant only Walter of Oxford White Kennett, following the later but equally erroneous identification of Galena, styles him Walter of Wallingford He is sometimes confused with later archdeacons of Oxford, W alter of Ooutances, 1183, and Walter Map, 1196.
  284. ^ John de Caleto or de Caux (d. 1263), minister of Henry III: so called probably from his birthplace, the Pays de Caux, Normandy; monk of St. Swithun's, Winchester, and (1247) chosen prior; abbot of Peterborough, by royal mandate, 1250-63; justice itinerant, 1254-8; treasurer of England, 1260.
  285. ^ John Caley (d. 1834), government official ; employed in the Record Office; keeper of records in the Augmentation Office, 1787, and (concurrently) in the treasury at Westminster, 1818, and (jointly with both offices) special sub-commissioner of records; secretary to the first record commission, 1801-31; accused of incompetence, indolence, and dishonesty in his offices; F.S.A., 1786; wrote on archaeological subjects.
  286. ^ James Calfhill or Calfield (1530?–1570), divine; at Eton, 1540; at King's College, Cambridge, 1545; student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1548; M.A., 1562; canon of Christ Church and B.D., 1561; rector of St. Andrew Wardrobe, London, and prebendary of St. Paul's, 1562; Lady Margaret professor of divinity, Oxford, 1564; rector and dean of Bocking, and archdeacon of Colchester, 1565-70; D.D., 1566; nominated bishop of Worcester, but died before consecration; Calvinist; wrote Latin verses and a polemical tract. CALGACTJS (J,. 84 ?).
  287. ^ Patrick Calhoun (1727–1796), American settler; emigrated from Ireland, 1733; settled successively in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina; fought against the Indians and against the British.
  288. ^ James Calkin (1786-1862), composer; musicmaster in London; organist of Regent Square Church, Gray's Inn Road, London. fidii. 253
  289. ^ Sir John Call (1732–1801), military engineer; went to Bengal with Benjamin Robins (d. 1751), chief engineer to the East India Company, 1750; employed in fortifying Fort St. David, Carnatic, 1751; served with Olive, 1752; chief engineer at Fort St. David, 1752-7; chief engineer of the Coromandel coast, 1768; at siege of Pondicherry, 1761, and Vellore, 1762; returned to England, 1769; high sheriff of Cornwall, 1771; served on commission on crown lands from 1782; M.P. for Callington, 1784-90; created baronet, 1791; became blind, 1795.
  290. ^ Callachan, King of Ireland (d. 954). See Ceallachan.
  291. ^ Jeremiah John Callanan (1795–1829), poet ; native of Cork; Erse scholar; at Maynooth and Trinity College, Dublin; taught school; wandered in south-west Ireland, collecting legends and songs (never published); died at Lisbon; wrote verses, and translated largely from the Irish and Portuguese; his poems printed, 1830.
  292. ^ Earl of Callander (d. 1674). See James Livingstone.
  293. ^ James Callander (1745–1832). See James Campbell.
  294. ^ John Callander (d. 1789), Scottish advocate; wrote notes on Milton and the Greek poets; published redaction of Australian voyages, 1766-8, and other works.
  295. ^ Henry Callaway (1817–1890), missionary bishop of St. John's, Kaffraria; schoolmaster at Heavitree, 1833; studied surgery at St. Bartholomew's Hospital; L.R.C.S., 1842; L.A.S., 1844; M.D. Aberdeen, 1853; joined Society for Propagation of Gospel, 1854, and proceeded to Durban; in charge of mission church of Ekukanyeni, near Pietermaritzburg, 1854; minister of St. Andrew's Church, 1855; settled at Spring Vale on the Insuuguze, 1868, and studied native traditions; consecrated at Edinburgh missionary bishop of St. John's, Kaffraria, 1873; honorary D.D. Oxford, 1874; resigned bishopric, 1886; chief work, Religious System of the Amazulu 1868-70.
  296. ^ Sir Augustus Wall Callcott (1779–1844), painter; chorister of Westminster Abbey; art student of the Royal Academy; R.A., 1810; married, 1827 see CALLCOTT, MARIA, LADY; knighted, 1837; exhibited at the Academy, 1799; exhibited in the main English landscapes, 1804-24, foreign landscapes, 1830-6, and figurepaintings, 1837-40.
  297. ^ John Wall Callcott (1766–1821), composer; brother of preceding; learned the organ, 1778, clarinet, 1780, and oboe, 1781; sang in the chorus of operas: assistant-organist of St. George-the- Martyr, Bloomsbury, 1783-5; Mus. Bac. Oxford, 1784; organist of the Female Orphans Asylum, 1793-1802; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1800; lecturer on music at the Royal Institution, 1806; glees and catches publishal, 1824; some of his manuscripts preserved in British Museum. latterly insane; published Musical Grammar 1806; his luscripts ii. 256
  298. ^ Lady Maria Callcott (1786–1842), author ; nfr Dundas; married (1) in India, Thomas Graham (d. 1822), captain R.N., in 1809; and (2) Sir Augustus Wall Oalloott; published descriptions of her surroundings in India, Brazil, Ohili, Italy, also Little Arthur's History of England 1885.
  299. ^ William Hutchins Callcott (1807–1882), composer; son of John Wall Callcott; organist of Ely Place Chapel: composed songs, glees, and arrangements for the piano.
  300. ^ George William Callender (1830–1878), surgeon; student of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, 1849, and surgeon, 1871; lectured there on anatomy, 1865, and surgery, 1873; published anatomical treatises. viii. 259?
  301. ^ James Thomson Callender (d. 1803), journalist; prosecuted for a pamphlet, 1793; withdrew to America, 1794; journalist at Philadelphia, 1794-8, and Richmond; wrote bitterly against the first three presidents of the United States.
  302. ^ Robert Callis (fl, 1634), serjeant-at-law; of Gray's Inn; serjeant-at-law, 1627; published law tracts.
  303. ^ John Callow (1822–1878), painter of landscapes and sea-pieces in water-colours; studied in Paris, 18351844; an esteemed teacher of drawing and painting in London; taught drawing at the military academies of Addiscombe, 1851-60, and Woolwich.
  304. ^ Sir Henry Calthorpe (1586–1637), lawyer; of the Middle Temple; counsel in political cases, 1627 and 1630, recorder of London, 1635-6, by king's mandate; attorney of court of wards, 1636; knighted,
  305. ^ Sir Charles Calthrope (d. 1616), Irish lawyer; attorney-general for Ireland, 1583-1606, employed in safeguarding crown claims on forfeited estates; knighted, 1604; justice of common pleas in Ireland, 1606.
  306. ^ Sir Hugh Calveley (d. 1393), soldier; commander of free-lances in the war in Brittany, 1341-64; fought at Auray, 1364; served with Henry of Trastamare, 1366, but left him and joined the Black Prince, 1367; wasted the county of Armagnac; governor of the Channel islands, 1376-88; deputy of Calais, and fighting the French, 1377-9; governor of Brest; a commander in Buckingham's futile invasion of France, 1380; founded college at Bunbury, Cheshire, 1385.
  307. ^ Edward Calver (ft. 1649), puritan ; published metrical pieces, 1641-9.
  308. ^ Charles Stuart Calverley (1831–1884) poet and parodist; son of the Rev. Henry Blayds, who assumed the name Calverley, 1852; at Harrow, 1846-9; athlete and writer of Latin verse; scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, 1850-2; migrated to Christ's College, Cambridge, 1852, fellow, 1858, M.A., 1859; barrister of the Inner Temple, 1865; published Verses and Translations 1862; translated Theocritus, 1869.
  309. ^ Henry Calverley (1604–1661), royalist; heir of Walter Calverley; fined for delinquency.
  310. ^ Walter Calverley (d. 1605), murderer, whose tragic history was widely celebrated; squire of Calverley Hall, Yorkshire; studied at Cambridge, 1579; forced by his guardian to marry Philippa Brooke; by gambling and drink brought himself to bankruptcy; murdered two of his young sons, 1605; pressed to death at York; subject of Miseries of Enforced Marriage 1607, and Yorkshire Tragedy 1608.
  311. ^ Caroline Louisa Waring Calveet (1834–1872), author of descriptions of Australian scenery and Australian tales, published under her maiden name, LOUISA ATKINSON; daughter of a settler in New South Wales: lived on the rivers Hawkesbury and Kurrajong; collected specimens for the government botanist; the genus Atkintonia and the species (Epacrit) Calver liana named after her; married (1870) James Snowden Calvert.
  312. ^ Charles Calvert , the elder (1754–1797), estate agent and amateur jainter.
  313. ^ Calvert Ol-ARLES, the younger (1785–1852), landscape-painter; Cotton merchant, then art-teacher, in Manchester.
  314. ^ Charles Alexander Calvert (1828–1879), actor; educated at King's College School, London; clerk in the city: appeared O n the provincial stage, 1852; appeared in London, 186i; stage-manager at Manchester, J859; staged Shakespearean plays, 1864-77.
  315. ^ Edward Calvert (1799–1883), artist ; midshipman in the navy; art student at Plymouth and London; friend of William Blake; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1825-36; engraver.
  316. ^ Frederick Calvert, sixth Baron Baltimore (1731-1771), a rake; lived much abroad; the title extinct on his death; published journal of a Tour in the East ... 1763-4 and Latin verses.
  317. ^ Frederick Baltimore Calvert (1793–1877), actor and lecturer; son of Charles Calvert the elder; educated for Roman catholic priesthood; went on the stage; published A Defence of, the Drama 1824; travelled as a lecturer on elocution in Great Britain and America, 1829-46; lecturer in Edinburgh and Glasgow, 1846-77; published treatises on elocution.
  318. ^ Frederick Grace Calvert (1819–1873), chemist; resided in France studying and practising chemistry, 1835-46, chiefly under Michel Eugene Ohevreul; chemical teacher, specialist, and manufacturer in Manchester, 1846-73; died at the Vienna exhibition; published scientific papers.
  319. ^ George Calvert , first Baron Baltimore (1580?-1632), statesman; entered Trinity College, Oxford, 1594; B.A., 1597; travelled; secretary to Sir Robert Cecil; clerk of council in Ireland, 1608; M.P. for Bossiney, 1609-11; temporary secretary of state, 1612-13; a commissioner to investigate Irish grievances, 1613; knighted, 1617; secretary of state, 1619-25; a pensioner of the king, 1620; M.P. for Yorkshire, 1621; received large grants of land in Longford county; planted a colony (Avalon) in Newfoundland, 1621-3; professed Roman catholic, 1625; created baron, 1625; wintered at Avalon, 1628-9; prevented by the Virginia Company from planting a colony south of the James river, 1629-31; obtained a grant of land for a colony (Maryland) north of the Potomac, 1632.
  320. ^ George Calvert (1795–1825), surgeon.
  321. ^ Sir Harry Calvert (1763?–1826), general; entered the army, 1778; served in America, 1779-81; ; prisoner-of-war, 1781-3; captain, 1786; aide-de-camp to the Duke of York in Holland, 1793-4; adjutant-general of the forces, 1799-1818; major-general, 1803; G.O.B., 1816; created baronet, 1818; lieutenant-governor of I Chelsea Hospital, 1820; general, 1821; his journals published, 1853.
  322. ^ James Snowden Calvert (1825–1884), Australian explorer; emigrated, 1840; joined Ludwig Leichhardt's exploring party, 1844-5.
  323. ^ Leonard Calvert (d. 1647), governor of Mary1 land; second son of George Oalvert, baron Baltimore ; planted Maryland, 1634; fought with Captain Olayborne, a prior settler, 1636; sent out to Maryland with a new commission, 1644; finally defeated Clayborne, i 1646-7.
  324. ^ Michael Calvert (1770–1862), author of a History of Knaresborough 1844; druggist,
  325. ^ Raisley Calvert (d. 1794), sculptor.
  326. ^ Thomas Calvert (1606–1679), puritan; educated at Cambridge; preacher in York minster and incumbent of two churches in York; ejected, 1662: published sermons,
  327. ^ Thomas Calvert (1776–1840), divine; called Thomas Jackson till 1819, when he inherited property; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1797; fellow, 1798: tutor, 1814; D.D., 1823; Norrisian professor of divinity, 1814-24; vicar of Holme, Yorkshire, 1822; warden of Manchester, 1823; published sermons.
  328. ^ Sir James Cambell or Campbell (1570–1642), ironmonger, of London; aldermau, 1620; lord mayor, 1629; knighted, 1630.
  329. ^ Giraldus Cambrensis (1146?-1220?). See Giraldus.
  330. ^ Duke of Cambridge (1774–1850). See Adolphus Frederick.
  331. ^ Earls of Cambridge . See LANGLEY, EDWARD DE, 1341-1402; RICHARD, d. 1415; HAMILTON, JAMES, first EARL, 1589-1625: HAMILTON, James, second EARL, 1606-1649; HAMILTON, WILLIAM, third EARL, 16161651.
  332. ^ John Cambridge (d. 1335). See John de Cantebrig.
  333. ^ Richard Owen Cambridge (1717–1802), author; educated at Eton and St. John's College, Oxford, 1734; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1737; published satirical verses, 1752-6, and a History of the War upon the Coast of Ooromandel 1761.
  334. ^ Marquis of Camden (1759–1840). See John Jeffreys Pratt.
  335. ^ Earl of Camden (1713–1793). See Charles Pratt.
  336. ^ William Camden (1551–1623), antiquary and historian; educated at Christ's Hospital and (1564-6) at St. Paul's School; servitor (apparently to Thomas Cooper, schoolmaster) at Magdalen College, Oxford, 1566; migrated to Broadgates Hall, and afterwards to Christ Church (perhaps as servitor); asked grace for B.A., 1570; left Oxford, 1671, having been excluded from an All Soulsfellowship by the catholic fellows; began to travel up and down England, probably subsidised by Gabriel Goodman (d. 1601), dean of Westminster, collecting archaeological material; usher of Westminster School, 1575-93; appointed head-master, 1593; continued in vacations, 1578-1600, his personal tours of antiquarian investigation; publishedBritannia 1586; asked grace for M.A., June 1688; prebendary of Salisbury (though a layman), 1589-1623; published a Greek grammar, 1597; Clarenceux king-of-arms, 1597-1623; answered in his fifth edition of Britannia 1600, the criticisms (printed, 1599) of Ralph Brooke (or Brookesmouth); printed the epitaphs in Westminster Abbey, 1600: published certain chronicles (being some of his early collections for the Britannia,Anglica... a veteribus scripta Frankfort, 1603, containing in the text of Asser the interpolation about King Alfred's foundations in Oxford, and, 1605, Remains concerning Britain; issued the sixth (greatly enlarged) edition ofBritannia and printed the official account of the Gunpowder plot trials, 1607; named a foundation fellow of Matthew Sutcliffe's projected college at Chelsea, 1610; offered M.A. by Oxford University, 1613; communicated to Thuanus (Jacques Auguste de Thou) his manuscript history of Elizabeth's reign, c. 1607; published Annales... regnante Elizabetha... ad annum 1589 1615 the second part was printed posthumously, 1628; wrote a skeleton life of James I (printed, 1691); founded a chair of history in Oxford University, 1622; memorial verses, Camdeni Insignia, printed after his death by Oxford University, 1624; his correspondence printed by Thomas Smith, 1691.
  337. ^ Cameleac (d. 927). See Cimelliauc.
  338. ^ Camelford first Baron (1737–1793). See Thomas Pitt.
  339. ^ Sir Alan Cameron (1763–1828), of Errach, general; volunteer officer in America, 1776-82; prisoner of war, 1782; returned to Scotland, 1784; raised the Cameron Highlanders (79th regiment), 1794; commanded it in Flanders, 1795, and the West Indies, 1796; lieutenant-colonel, 1796; recruited his regiment, 1798; commanded it in Holland, 1799, and Egypt, 1801; raised a second battalion, 1804; colonel, 1804; commanded the 79th in Denmark, 1807; brigadier-general, 1808; collected the stragglers of Sir John Moore's army, 1809; commanded brigade at Talavera, 1809, and Busaco, 1810; major-general and invalided home, 1810; K.O.B., 1815; lieutenant-general, 1819.
  340. ^ Alexander Cameron (1747–1828), Roman catholic prelate; educated at Rome; missioner at Strathav. M, 1772; rector of the Scots college, Valladolid, 1780; titular bishop of Mnximianopolis, 1798; coadjutor-bishop in Scotland, 1802, and vicar-apostolic of the Lowlands, 1806-26.
  341. ^ Sir Alexander Cameron (1781–1860), of Inverailort, general: ensign, 1797; lieutenant, 1800; served in Holland, 1799, Denmark, 1800, and Egypt, 1801: captain, 1805; served with distinction in Peninsula, 1808-13; brevet major, 1811; brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1812; served in Flanders, 1813, and at Quatre Bras and Waterloo, 1815; major-general and K.C.B., 1838.
  342. ^ Archibald Cameron (1707–1753), Jacobite; a younger son of Lochiel; studied medicine at Edinburgh and Paris; practised in Lochaber; acted as physician to the insurgents, 1745: effected the escape of Prince Charles, 1746; became physician to a regiment in the French service; arrested, 1753, while collecting money in Scotland; executed at London.
  343. ^ Charles Duncan Cameron (d. 1870), British consul; army officer, 1846-51; served in South Africa, 1846-7 and 1851-2; political agent in Zululand and magistrate in Natal; officer it the Turkish service at Kars, 1855; British vice-consul in A. in Minor, 1858; consul at Massowah, 1862; imprisoned by King Theodore at Gondar, 1864, an act which occasioned the Abyssinian war; released, 1868.
  344. ^ Charles Hay Cameron (1795–1880), jurist; barrister, Lincoln's Inn, 1820; commissioner on law administration in Ceylon, 1831, and on the poor laws, 1833; law member of the Supreme Council of India, 1835; employed in codifying the Indian penal laws; returned to England, 1848; retired to Ceylon, 1875.
  345. ^ Donald Cameron (1695?–1748), the Gentle Lochiel; succeeded to chieftaincy of the clan Cameron, 1719; reluctantly joined Prince Charles, 1745; accompanied him to Edinburgh and Derby; wounded at Fal kirk, 1746, apd Culloden, 1746; attainted; escaped with i Prince Charles to France, 1746; commanded regiment in ithe French service.
  346. ^ Sir Duncan Alexander Cameron (1808j 1888), general; ensign, 42nd royal highlanders, 1825; I captain, 1833; lieutenant-colonel, 1843; served in Crimea, with local rank in Turkey of brigadier; C.B., 1865; major-general, 1859; commander of forces in New Zealand, 1861; K.C.B., 1864; resigned commission and returned to England, 1865; colonel, 1863; general, 1874; governor of Sandhurst, 1868-75; G.C.B., 1873.
  347. ^ Sir Ewen Cameron or Evan (1629–1719), of Lochiel; a hostage in the hands of the Marquis of Argyll, 1641-7; resided in Lochaber, 1647, hunting wolves and fighting the Macdonalds; raised his clan to fight the Commonwealth forces, 1652; submitted on honourable terms to Monck, 1658; accompanied Monck to London; received at Charles IPs court, 1660, but his claims disregarded; at feud with the Macintoshes; knighted, 1681; raised his clan to join Viscount Dundee, 1690; retired to Lochaber after Killiecrankie; submitted to William III, 1692; sent his clan to join the Earl of Mar's rising, 1714.
  348. ^ George Poulett Cameron (1806–1882), colonel; cadet in the Madras army, 1821; served against the Mahrattas, 1824-5: served with Don Pedro in Portugal, 1832-3; in the Persian service, 1836-8; in the East India Company's service, 1842-58; published travels and memoirs.
  349. ^ Hugh Cameron (1705–1817), millwright; introduced spinning-wheel into the highlands; designed the first barley-mill north of the Forth; built numerous lintmills in the highlands.
  350. ^ John Cameron (d. 1446), bishop of Glasgow; probably of a Midlothian family; official of Lothian, 1422; rector of Cambuslang, Lanarkshire, 1424; secretary to James I of Scotland; provost of Lincluden, 1426; keeper of the privy seal; keeper of the great seal, 1426: chancellor of Scotland, 1426-39; bishop of Glasgow, 1428; supported the royal authority against the ecclesiastical courts: envoy to the council of Basle, 1433, to Italy, 1436, and to England, 1437.
  351. ^ John Cameron (1579?–1626), theologian; educated at Glasgow; taught Greek and Latin at Bordeaux, 1600, and Sedan, 1602; sent by the protestant church at Bordeaux to study divinity at Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg, 1604-8: protestant minister at Bordeaux, 1608-17; professor of divinity at Saumur, 1618; withdrew to London, 1630; principal of Glasgow University, 1622; hated for his subserviency to James I; returned to Saumur, 1623; professor of divinity at Montauban, 1624; wrote theological treatises.
  352. ^ John Cameron (1724–1799), presbyterian; bookseller's apprentice at Edinburgh; graduated M.A. there; minister of the reformed presbyterian church; itinerant preacher in Ulster, 1750; presbyterian minister at Dunluce, 1765-99: published, mainly anonymously, treatises of a Unitarian tendency.
  353. ^ John Cameron (1771–1815), of Fassiefern, colonel; educated at Aberdeen; ensign, 1793; lieutenant, 1794; served in Holland, 1799, and Egypt, 1801; major, 1801; lieutenant-colonel, 1808; commanded Gordon Highlanders (92nd regiment) in Holland, 1809, and throughout the Peninsular war, 1810-14; killed at Quatre Bras.
  354. ^ Sir John Cameron (1773–1844), of Oalchenna, general; educated at Eton; ensign, 1787; served in West Indies, 1793; captain, 1794; prisoner of war, 1794-7; served in West Indies, 1797-1800: lieutenant-colonel, 1807; commanded battalion of 9th regiment in Portugal, 1808, Holland, 1809, and the Peninsula, 1810-13; colonel, 1814; held command in Canada, 1814, and France, 1815: K.O.B., 1816; major-general, 1821; lieutenant-general, 1837.
  355. ^ John Alexander Cameron (d. 1885), war correspondent; bank clerk in Inverness; merchant's clerk in Bombay; war correspondent in Afghanistan, 1878-80, Natal, 1880-1, Egypt, 1882, Madagascar, Tonquin, and Egypt, 1884; killed in action.
  356. ^ Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–1879), photographer of Charles Darwin, Alfred Tennyson, and Robert Browning: n6e Pattle; born at Calcutta; married, 1838, Charles Hay Cameron; came to England, 1848; took up photography, c. 1865; retired to Ceylon, 1876.
  357. ^ Lucy Lyttelton Cameron (1781–1858), writer of religious tales for children: daughter of George Butt; married, 1806, the Rev. Charles Richard Cameron.
  358. ^ Richard Cameron (d. 1680), covenanter ; schoolmaster and precentor at Falkland, Fife; tutor in the family of Scott of Harden; field preacher in Dumfries and Lanark shires; went to Holland, 1678; returned, 1680; joined in the act of deposing Charles II at Sanquhar; outlawed; killed in a skirmish at Aird's Moss, Ayrshire. The Reformed Presbyterians are from him popularly termed Oameronians
  359. ^ Verney Lovett Cameron (1844–1894), African explorer: entered navy, 1857; midshipman, 1860: lieutenant, 1866: in Abyssinian campaign, 1868; employed in suppression of slave trade in East Africa; leader of Royal Geographical Society's expedition to aid Livingstone, 1873; journeyed from Rahenneko to Unyanyembe, where he heard of Livingstone's death; proceeded to Lake Tanganyika, and the sources of the Zambesi and Bine, and arrived at Katombela, 1876: commander and O.B., 1876; received R.G.S. gold medal; honorary D.O.L. Oxford: travelled in Asiatic Turkey, 1878; accompanied Sir Richard Francis Burton to west coast of Africa, 1882; retired from navy, 1883; published tales of adventure and accounts of his travels.
  360. ^ William Cameron (1761–1811), Scottish poet; educated at Aberdeen: minister of Kirknewton, Midlothian, 1786; joint-editor of the ScotsParaphrases wrote chiefly didactic verse.
  361. ^ John Camidge , the elder (1735–1803), organist : chorister of York Minster; partly taught by Handel; organist of York Minster, 1756-99.
  362. ^ John Camidge , the younger (1790–1859), organist; taught by his father, Matthew Camidge; ilns.Bac., 1812, and Mus. Doc. Cambridge, 1819; assistant organist at York Minster, and organist, 1842-69: published church music.
  363. ^ Matthew Camidge (1758–1844), organist ; son of John Oamidge the elder; chorister of the Chapel Royal; assistant organist at York Minster; organist, 1799-1842; published musical compositions,
  364. ^ Anne Camm (1627–1705), quakeress ; nte Newby; educated in puritan surroundings in London, 1640-7; married, at Kendal, 1650, John Audland (d. 1663); joined the quiikers, 1652, and preached for the rest of her life, especially in Oxfordshire; imprisoned at Banbury, 1663; married Thomas Oamm, c. 1665.
  365. ^ John Camm (1604?–1656), quaker minister; joined the quakers, 1652; came to London to interview Cromwell, 1654; visited Bristol and London, 1656; published tracts.
  366. ^ Thomas Camm (1641–1707), quaker minister ; son of John Oamm; imprisoned for not paying tithes, 1674; fined for unlicensed preaching, 1678; imprisoned, probably for preaching, 1680-6; published tracts.
  367. ^ Saint Cammin (d. 653). See Calmin.
  368. ^ George Camocke (1666?–1722?), naval officer ; of an Essex family; born in Ireland; entered the navy, 1682: lieutenant, 1690; served in the Channel, the Mediterranean, and off Spain, 1690-7; served, chiefly on the Irish coast, 1699-1712; captain, 1702; served in Mediterranean, 1713-14; convoyed the Spanish army from Sicily to Spain on his own responsibility, 1714, and was cashiered in consequence, 1715; rear-admiral in the Spanish service; tried to bribe English naval officers to join the Jacobite party, 1718: defeated off Cape Passaro, 1718; banished by Spain to Ceuta, 1719.
  369. ^ Thomas de Camoys, fifth Baron (d. 1420), succeeded to the barony, 1372; served in France, c. 1377, Scotland, 1385, and Spain, 1386; removed, by Gloucester's influence, from the court of Richard II, 1388; served against the Welsh, 1401; envoy to Flanders, 1405, and France, 1406; commanded left wing at Agincourt, 1415; E.G., 1416.
  370. ^ Alexander Campbell (d. 1608), bishop of Brechin, 1566-1608; made bishop by the Earl of Argyll, solely that that nobleman might get hold of the estates of the see; never consecrated, though he sat in parliament; studied at Geneva, 1573; acted as minister at Brechin after his return in 1574, and was frequently prosecuted in the church courts for neglect of duty.
  371. ^ Alexander Campbell, second Earl of Marchmont (1675–1740), younger son of Patrick Hume, first earl; took the name Campbell on his marriage with the heiress of Campbell of Cessnock, Ayrshire, 1697; studied law at Utrecht; Scottish advocate, 1696; lord of session with style of Lord Cessnock, 1704-14: M.P. for Berwickshire in the Scottish parliament, 1706; advocated the union: lord-lieutenant of Berwickshire, 1716; envoy to Denmark, 1715-21; lord clerk register of Scotland, 1716-33; envoy to the congress at Cambray, 1722; succeeded to the earldom, 1724; a representative Scottish peer; opposed Walpole's excise scheme, 1733.
  372. ^ Alexander Campbell (1764–1824), miscellaneous writer; organist and music-master in Edinburgh, Sir Walter Scott being one of his pupils; studied medicine; published tours in Scotland, collections of Scottish songs, musical compositions, and verses.
  373. ^ Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), founder of the Oampbellites; native of Antrim; studied at Glasgow, 1808; followed his father, a secession church minister, to the United States, 1809: ordained minister in his father's sect, 1811: prospered as a farmer; allied himself to the baptists, 1812; quarrelled with the baptists, 1826, and founded a new church, calledthe Church of the Disciples (popularly the Campbellites); founded for it Bethany College, West Virginia, 1841; wrote theological tracts.
  374. ^ Sir Alexander Campbell (1822–1892), Canadian politician; taken to Canada at early age; admitted attorney, and called to bar, 1842; Q.C. and bencher of Law Society, 1856; dean of faculty of law. Queen's University, Kingston; member for Cataraqui of legislative council, 1858, and speaker, 1863; commissioner of crown lands, 1863-4; privy councillor of Canada, 1867: postmaster-general, 1867-73, 1879, 1880, and 1885-7; senator, 1867; leader of conservative opposition in te IH::, M; receiver-general, 1878; minister of militia, isTi; minister of justice, 1881; K.C.M.G., 1879; lieutenant-governor of Unturio, 1887-92.
  375. ^ Anna Mackenzie Campbell, Countess of Balcarres and afterwards of Argyll (1621?-1706?), daughter of Colin Mackenzie, earl of Seaforth; married, 1640, Alexander Lindsay, afterwards earl of BaL (d. 1G5 (.), an ardent royalist; joined her husband in the highlands, 1051; sold tier jewels to meet debts incurred by her husband in the king's cause, 1661; accompanied her husband to France, 1654; governess to the Prince of Orange at the Hague, 1657-9; returned to France, Itito; was living in England in distressed circumstances, 1661; returned to Scotland, 1662; received a pension from the n, 1664; laboured to clear the Balcarres estates of debt; married, 1670, Archibald Campbell, marquis and eighth earl of Argyll; impoverished by his forfeiture, imprisoned at Stirling, 1685, but released after Argyll's execution.
  376. ^ Archibald Campbell, second Earl of Argyll (d. 1513), eldest son of Colin Campbell, first earl; v. led to the earldom, 1493; lord high chancellor of ml, 1494; joint-administrator of the lordship of the , Jim; suppressed revolt of islanders, 1504; governor of the Argyllshire islands, 1506; slain at Flodden.
  377. ^ Archibald Campbell, fourth Earl of Argyll(d. 1558), eldest sou of Colin Campbell, third earl; snivelled to the earldom, 1530; suppressed rebellion in Argyllshire islands, 1530; imprisoned on charge of having ..d the rebellion by oppression; joined Huntly and other peers in taking the infant queen Mary from the ly of the Earl of Arran, then regent, 1543; resisted tit Earl of Lennox's descent on the Clyde, 1544, and obtained a grant of his forfeited estates; commanded right wing at Pinkie, 1547; generally opposed the aggressions of Henry VIII: became a reformer; entertained John Knox at Castle Campbell, Clackmannanshire, 1656; signed the first protestaut engagement, 1557.
  378. ^ Archibald Campbell, fifth Earl of Argyll (1530-1573), eldest son of Archibald Campbell, fourth earl; styled Lord of Lorne up to 1558; a hearer of John Knox, 1556; joined in inviting Knox to return from Geneva, 1557; signed the first protestaut engagement, 1557; succeeded to the earldom, August 1558; supported the queen-regent in repressing the protestant mob at Perth, May 1559, but joined Lord James Stuart andthe lords of the congregation in signing the protestant engagement; present at the destruction of St. Andrews Cathedral, June 1559; marched with Lord James Stuart against the queen-regent at Cupar-Fife; captured Perth and Edinburgh; brought his highlanders to fight the French garrison of Leith; asked Elizabeth's intervention, 1560, in return for a promise to help her in subduing Ireland; a commissioner to destroy popish monuments in the west, 1560: received Queen Mary at Leith, 1561, and entertained her in Argyllshire, 1663; opposed her marriage with Darnley, 1565; forced by Queen Elizabeth's nonintervention to make his peace with Mary; privy to the plot to murder Darnley, 1567; assented to Mary's marriage with Bothwell, 1567; intrigued to deliver Mary from Lochleven Castle; sentenced by the general assembly to do penance for his domestic quarrels; Mary's defeat at Langside caused by his half-hearted support, 1568; submitted to the regent Moray, 1569; intrigued for Mary's return, 1570; again submitted to the young king James VI's party, 1571; lord high chancellor, 1572.
  379. ^ Archibald Campbell, seventh Earl of Argyll (1576?-1638), eldest son of Colin Campbell, sixth earl; succeeded to the earldom, 1584; defeated by Huntly at Glenlivat, 1594; imprisoned at Edinburgh, 1595; reconciled to Huntly, 1603; joined Huntly in exterminating the Macgregors, 1608; embraced Catholicism; subdued the Clandonalds of Kintyre, 1615; fled from his creditors into Flanders, ceding his estates to his son, 1619; attainted ou-account of his being in the Spanish service, 1619; restored, 1621; returned to London.
  380. ^ Archibald Campbell, Marquis of Argyll and eighth Earl (1598-1661), nicknamed, from his squint, Gillespie Grumach and the glaed-eyed marquis; eldest son of Archibald Campbell, seventh earl; styled Lord of Lorne till November 1638; fought in Kintyre, 1615; took over the estates from his father, 1619; privy councillor, i 1626; extraordinary lord of session, 1G34; summoned to London to advi-e Charles I, after the renewal of the covenant, 1638; discovered that Charles I had empowered the Earl of Antrim to invade Kintyre; succeeded to the earldom, November 1638; accepted the abolition of episcopacy by the general assembly, 1638; raised un army, took Brodick Castle, ami i-ncanipcd at Stirling; negotiated the peace of Berwick between the Scots and (harles I, June 1639; iilienated by his continual opposition to the king from Montrose; jM'rsuaded the Scottish parliament to sit in defiance of the king's order, and to appoint an executive committee, 1640; ravaged the lands of royalist nobles in IVrth, Aberdeen, and Forfar shires; imprisoned Montrose on a charge of slandering him to the king, June 1641: negotiated with the king at Edinburgh, September 1641; fled from Edinburgh, alleging that there was a plot to arrest him, October 1641; forced Charles I to accept the terms of the Scottish parliament, November 1641; intrigued to prevent Charles from getting help from Scotland, 1642; accompanied the Scottish army into England, January 1644; sent to repress Huntly's northern rising, April, and the Irish invasion of the west, July, 1644; resigned his commission, having been out-generalled by Montrose; surprised at Inverary by Montrose, and the Campbell country ravaged, December 1644; routed by Moutrose at Inverlochy, February 1645, and at Kilsyth in August; recovered his influence after Montrose's defeat at Philliphaugh, September 1645; negotiated with Charles at Newcastle, May 1646, and at London with the parliament, June 1646; became head of j the new executive committee and invited Cromwell to Edinburgh, October 1646; enraged at the execution of 1 Charles I, joined in proclaiming Charles II, February 1650; consented to Montrose's execution, May 1650; joined Charles II, but did not obtain his confidence; set the crown on Charles II's head, January 1651; vainly opposed the invasion of England; was besieged at Inverary; submitted to the Commonwealth, August 1652; engaged in intrigues in London, 1656; M.P. for Aberdeenshire in the Commonwealth parliament, 1658; came to London to welcome Charles II, 1660; charged with high treason; condemned at Edinburgh and executed, May 1661.
  381. ^ Archibald Campbell , ninth Earl of Argyll (d. 1685), eldest son of Archibald Campbell, marquis and eighth earl of Argyll; styled Lord of Lorne till 1663; travelled in France and Italy, 1648-9; a far more energetic royalist than his father; captain of Charles II's Scottish lifeguard, 1650; fought at Dunbar; tried to raise his clan for Charles II, September 1650; joined the highland royalists, 1653; quarrelled with them and withdrew his own men, January 1654; was excepted j from Cromwell's act of pardon, May 1654, and remained in arms; directed by Charles II to make his peace with Cromwell, March 16S6; submitted accordingly, 1655; suspected of plotting a royalist rising, August 1656; imprisoned at Edinburgh, 1657-60; well received at Charles II's court, 1660; strong efforts made by Middleton to involve him in his father's fall, 1661; supported by Lauderdale; imprisoned, July 1661, and sentenced to death, August, but the date left in Charles II's hands; released, June 1663; sentence of death recalled; restored to earldom and heavily burdened estates, 1663; Scottish privy counsellor, 1664; disarmed covenanters in Kintyre, 1665; hated by the extreme episcopalians, who accused him of favouring the insurgents. 1666; commissioner for quieting the highlands, 1667; raised a militia regiment, 1670; was constantly enjoined to repress conventicles after 1671, and constantly urged gentler measures; extraordinary lord of session, 1674-80; at war with the McCleans of Mull, 1674-8; ordered to disarm and secure i highland papists, 1679; ordered to send his highlanders to be quartered in the whig districts; opposed the arbitrary I measures resorted to by James, duke of York, then high l commissioner for Scotland, 1680; strongly opposed the Scottish test act, 1681; imprisoned on a charge of treason, November, sentenced to death and his estates forfeited, December 1681; escaped to London and to Holland, 1682; in treaty with the Rye House conspirators, 1683; appointed commander of the descent on Scotland, April 1685; published declaration in favour of Monmouth at Caiapbeltown, May, but was not joined by his clan; worsted by the king's ships at Inverary: taken prisoner, June 10S5: executed, without trial, at Edinburgh, in virtue of the sentence passed in 1681.
  382. ^ Archibald Campbell , first Duke of Argyll (d. 1703), eldest son of Archibald Campbell, ninth earl ; granted maintenance out of the forfeited estates, c. 1682: offered to resist his father's invasion, 1685; (ailed to obtain restoration of his title and estates by embracing Catholicism; joined William of Orange at the Hague, and accompanied him to England; took his place in the Scottish convention as Earl of Argyll, March 1689: commissioner to offer the crown of Scotland to William and Mary; Scottish privy councillor, May; restored to the title and estates, June 1689: undertook to extirpate the Macdonalds of Glencoe, 1692; extraordinary lord of session, 1694; created Duke of Argyll, June 1701.
  383. ^ Archibald Campbell (d. 1744), bishop of Aberdeen; said to have taken part in Argyll's invasion, 1685; withdrew to Surinam; a rigid noujuror on his return; frequently imprisoned: consecrated bishop by three ejected Scottish bishops, 1711; resided in London; negotiated for the union of the nonjurors with the Greek church, 1717; elected bishop of Aberdeen, 1721, but resided in London; resigned, 1724, and formed a separate noujuring community; published theological tracts.
  384. ^ Archibald Campbell (1691–1756), theologian ; educated at Edinburgh and Glasgow; minister of Larbert, 1718; a philosophical treatise by himself published fraudulently under a friend's name, 1728; professor of church history at St. Andrews, 1730; published theological treatises,
  385. ^ Archibald Campbell , third Duke of Argyll (1682-1761), younger son of Archibald Campbell, first duke; styled Lord Archibald Campbell till 1705; educated at Eton and Glasgow; studied law at Utrecht: served under Marl borough; lord high treasurer of Scotland, 1705: promoted the union; created Earl of Islay, October 1705; a Scottish representative peer, 1707; extraordinary lord of session, 1708; justice-general, 1710; lord register of Scotland, 1714; raised Argyllshire for George I, 1715: fought at Sheriffmuir, 1715; overcame Scottish opposition to the malt tax, 1725, and became Walpole's chief adviser in Scotland; keeper of the privy seal, 1725, and of the great seal, 1734-61; chancellor of Aberdeen University; succeeded to the dukedom, 1743; advised the raising of highland regiments, 1746; rebuilt Inverary Castle.
  386. ^ Archibald Campbell (1726?–1780), satirist: son of Archibald Campbell (1691-1756); purser of a man-of-war; befriended William Falconer, 1745; satirised Biimuel Johnson in Lexiphanes and other writers in Sale of Authors 1767; died at Kingston, Jamaica,
  387. ^ Sir Archibald Campbell (1739–1791), of Inverneil, general; captain, 1757; served in America, 1757-64, and in India till 1773, becoming lieutenant-colonel; M.P. for Stirling burghs, 1774 and 1789; prisoner of war in America, 1775; brigadier-general, 1776; captured Savannah; major-general, 1782; governor of Jamaica, and active in checking the French; K.C.B., 1785; governor of Madras, 1786-9.
  388. ^ Sir Archibald Campbell (1769–1843), general ; ensign, 1787; served in India, 1788-99, distinguishing himself at Seringapatam: captain, 1799; major, 1804; served in Portugal and in Sir John Moore's campaign, 1808; lieutenant-colonel, 1809: commanded Portuguese regiment, 1810, and Portuguese brigade, 1811-14; colonel, 1814; K.O.B., 1815; Portuguese commander at Lisbon, 1816-20; commanded regiment in India, 1821; entrusted with conduct of Burmese war; took Rangoon, May 1824; defeated Bundoola, the chief Burmese general, 1825; took Prome; made major-general; marched on Ava, December 1825; dictated terms of peace, February 1826: governor of British Burmah, 1826-9; created baronet, 1831; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswickr-1831-7; 1ieutenant-feneral, 1838.
  389. ^ Colin Campbell , second LORD CAMPBELL and first EARL OF ARGYLL (d. 1493), succeeded his grandfather in the peerage, 1453: obtained by marriafrc and treuty the estates and lordship of Lome; created Earl of Argyll, 1457; lord justiciary, 1465; lord high chancellor, 1 l.sii; joined the conspiracy against James III, envoy to England, 1488.
  390. ^ Colin Campbell , third EARL OF ARGYLL (d. 1530), eldeft son of Archibald Campbell, st-i-oinl earl ; succeeded to the earldom, 1513; frustrated the plans of Donald, lord of the Isles, 1518-17; became the chief power in the west highlands; one of the council of regency, 1525; took James V's side against the regent Angus, 1528; made hereditary sheriff of Argyllshire and hereditary justiciary; lord justice-general, 1529.
  391. ^ Colin Campbell , sixth EARL OF ARGYLL (d. 1584), second son of Archibald Campbell, fourth earl ; succeeded his half-brother, Archibald Campbell, fifth earl, 1573; compelled by the regent Morton to surrender the crown jewels, 1575; plotted with Atholl to overthrow Morton, 1578; collected an army, but came to terms; lord high chancellor, 1579; a promoter of Morton's execution, 1581; implicated in the raid of Ruthveu 1 to seize James VI, 1582, and in the plot to release him, June 1583.
  392. ^ Colin Campbell (1644–1726), theologian; edu-i cated at St. Andrews; minister of Ardchattan, Argyllshire, 1667-1726; corresponded with Isaac Newton; wrote theological treatises.
  393. ^ Colin Campbell (d. 1729), architect ; designed the Rolls House, Chancery Lane, 1717, and Drumlaurig Castle; published Vitruvius Britanuicus 1717-25.
  394. ^ Colin Campbell (d. 1782), of Kilberry, Argyllshire; major in the army; cashiered for the manslaughter of Captain John McKaarg at Martinico, 1762.
  395. ^ Colin Campbell (1754–1814), general; ensign, 1771; lieutenant, 1774; served in North America and West Indies, 1775-95; major, 1783; lieutenant-colonel, 1795; served in Ireland, 1796-1811; at Vinegar Hill, 1798; major-general, 1811; lieutenant-general, 1811; acting governor of Gibraltar, 1811-14.
  396. ^ Sir Colin Campbell (1776–1847), general ; ran away to sea, 1792; midshipman on an East Indiaman, 1793; militia officer, 1795; served in West Indies, 17991801; lieutenant, 1801; served in India, 1802-6: distinguished himself at Ahmednuggm 1803; brigade-major at Assaye, 1803; served In Denmark, 1807. and in Portugal, 1808; major, 1808; served in the Peninsula, 1809-14; brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1810; assistant quartermaster-general, 1812; K.C.B., 1814; at Waterloo, 1815: major-general, 1825; appointed governor ot Nova Scotia, 1833, and of Ceylon, 1839; returned to England, 1847.
  397. ^ Sir Colin Campbell , BARON CLYDE (1792–1863), field marshal: son of Colin Macliver, a Glasgow carpenter; took the name Campbell through an error of the Duke of York, 1807; ensign, 1808; served in Portugal and under Sir John Moore, 1808; at Walcheren, 1809; lieutenant, 1809; served in the Peninsula, 1810-13, displaying conspicuous courage at Barossa, 1811, San Sebastian, and the Bidassoa, 1813; captain, 1813; served in Nova Scotia, 1814, at Gibraltar, 1816, and in the West Indies, 1819-26; major, 1825; lieutenant-colonel, 1832; served in China, 1842-6; brigadier-general, 1844; served in India, 1846-53; K.C.B., 1849; major-general, 1854; commanded highland brigade at the Alma, 1854; commanded first division in Crimea, 1854-5; returned to England, having been badly treated by the authorities, 1855; lieutenant-general, 1856: D.C.L. Oxford, 1867; commander-in-chief in India, 1857-60; suppressed the Indian mutiny, 1867-8; created Baron Clyde, 1858; field-marshal, 1862; buried in Westminster Abbey.
  398. ^ Daniel Campbell (more correctly DONALD) (1666-1722), divine: educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh; M.A. Aberdeen, 1686; minister of Glassary, Argyllshire, 1691-1722; publishedSacramental Meditations 1698, and other devotional works.
  399. ^ Daniel Campbell or DONALD (1671?–1763), of Shawfield, member of parliament; a successful Glasgow merchant: M.P., Inverary, 1702; bought Shawfield, 1707; M.P., Glasgow burghs, 1716-34; Shawfield House burnt by the malt- tax mob, 1725; bought Islay, 1727.  :
  400. ^ Donald Campbell (d. 1562), ecclesiastic; youngest son of Archibald Campbell, second earl of Arevll q. v.l; abbot of Cupar-Angus, 1626 till death: keeper of the privy seal; lord of session, 1541; privy coum-illor,,1643 and 1647; lord of the articles, 1546 and 1654; nominated to the see of Brechin, but refuse! admission by the pope, 1659.
  401. ^ Donald Campbell (1751–1804), of Barbreck, Indian traveller; published account of his Journey over land to India
  402. ^ Duncan Campbell (1680?–1730), charlatan; born in Lapland; son of a Scottish seaman and a native; deaf and dumb; a fortune-teller in London, 1694; withdrew, in debt, to Rotterdam; returned to London; told tor-turns and sold miraculous cures; married a rich widow Pamphlets on his life and adventures were written by Daniel Defoe, 1720-6.
  403. ^ Lord Frederick Campbell (1729–1816), lord clerk register of Scotland, 1768-1816; M.P., Glasgow burghs, 1761-80; M.P., Argyllshire, 1780-99.
  404. ^ Frederick William Campbell (1782–1846), genealogist; eldest son of Donald Campbell (1751-1804) ; captain in the army; compiled genealogy of the Campbells of Barbreck.
  405. ^ George Campbell (1719–1796), theologian ; educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh; minister of Banchory Ternan, Aberdeenshire, 1748; minister of Aberdeen, 1767; principal of Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1759-92, and professor of divinity there, 1771-92; D.D., 1764; minister of Grey Friars, Aberdeen, 1771-92. His works include a Dissertation on Miracles 1762.
  406. ^ George Campbell (1761–1817), poet ; shoemaker at Kilmarnock; studied at Glasgow; minister of the secession church, Stockbridge, Berwickshire, 1794-1817; published Poems 1787, and Sermons 1816.
  407. ^ Sir George Campbell (1824–1892), Indian administrator; educated at Edinburgh New Academy, Madras College, St. Andrews, St. Andrews University, and Haileybury; went to India, 1842; collector at Badaon, Rohilcund, 1843; in England, 1851-4; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1854; magistrate and collector of Arimghur, 1854; assistant to John Russell Colvin In general government of northern provinces, 1855; commissioner of Ois-Sutlej states, 1855; served in Indian mutiny; employed by Lord Canning, governor-general, to write official account of mutiny for the home authorities, 1857; second civil commissioner of Oude; judge of high court of Bengal, 1862; head of commission to inquire into causes of famine in Bengal, 1866; chief commissioner of central provinces, 1867; D.C.L. Oxford, 1870; lieutenant-governor of Bengal, 1871-4; K.O.S.I., 1873; liberal M.P. for Kirkcaldy, 1875-92. His works include Ethnology of India 1865.
  408. ^ George Douglas Campbell , eighth Duke of Argyll (1823–1900) ; succeeded his brother, John Henry (b. 1821), as Marquis of Lome, 1837; published writings relating to the struggle in church of Scotland, 1842-8; succeeded to dukedom, 1847; F.R.S., 1851; chancellor of St. Andrews University, 1861; lord rector of Glasgow University, 1854; president of Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1861; prominent in politics as a whig; privy seal, 1853-5, 1859-60, and 1860-6; postmaster-general, 1855-8 and 1860; secretary of state for India, 1868-74, and adopted foreign policy of friendship to neighbouring states, and financial policy of decentralisation; opposed tory government's policy iu Eastern question, and in Afghanistan, 1877-80; privy seal, 1880-1; opposed home rule, 1886 and 1893; K.T., 1856; D.O.L. Oxford, 1870; K.G., 1883. A follower of the cataclysmal school in geology, and never in agreement with the younger evolutional school, he yet exerted a useful influence on scientific progress. H published works on science, religion, and politics.
  409. ^ Sir Guy Campbell (1786–1849), major-general; eldest son of Colin Campbell (1754-1814); ensign, 1795; lieutenant, 1796; served in Ireland, 1798, and Canada, 1803; captain, 1804; served in Portugal and with Sir John Moore, 1808; major, 1813; served in the Peninsula, 1813; baronet, 1816; at Waterloo, 1815; in Ireland, 1828; major-general, 1841.
  410. ^ Harriette Campbell (1817–1841), novelist; mblishedThe Only Daughter 1837, and two other novels.
  411. ^ Hugh Campbell , third EARL OF LOUDOUN (. 1731); succeeded to the earldom, 1684; Scottish privy councillor, 1697; extraordinary lord of session, 16991731: joint secretary of state for Scotland, 1704; strongly advocated the union; keeper of the great seal of Scotland, 1708-13; Scottish representative peer; English privy councillor, 1708; lord-lieutenant of Ayrshire, 1715; fought at Sheriffmuir, 1715; frequently lord high commissioner to the general assembly of the kirk of Scotland,
  412. ^ Sir Ilay Campbell (1734–1823), of Succoth, Scottish judge; advocate, 1757; engaged on the Douglas peerage case, c. 1764-9; solicitor-general for Scotland, 1783; lord advocate, 1784; M.P. for Glasgow burghs, 1784; lord president of the court of session, 1799-1808, styled Lord Succoth; created baronet, 1808; published Scots law reports.
  413. ^ Sir James Campbell (1570–1642). See Cambell.
  414. ^ Sir James Campbell (1667–1745), of Lawers, general; lieutenant-colonel of the Scots Greys, 1708; at Malplaquet, 1709; colonel, 1717; M.P., Ayrshire, 1727; major-general, c. 1727; governor of Edinburgh Castle, 1738; lieutenant-general, 1742; knighted at Dettingen, 1743; killed at Fontenoy, 1745.
  415. ^ Sir James Campbell (1763–1819), of Inverneil, general; ensign, 1780; lieutenant, 1781; served in America; captain, 1787; served in India, 1787-94; major, 1794; served in Ireland; lieutenant-colonel, 1804; served in Sicily, 1805-13; major-general, 1808; lieutenant-general, 1813; governor of the Ionian islands, 1814-16; created baronet, 1818.
  416. ^ Sir James Campbell (1745–1832), of Ardkiuglass ; eldest son of John Callander (d. 1789); took the name Campbell on succeeding to the estate; ensign, 1759; served with troops in Mediterranean till 1802; involved in a celebrated matrimonial suit; wrote his own Memoirs
  417. ^ Sir James Campbell (1773?–1835), general ; captain, 1794; served at Minorca, 1798; major, 1803; lieutenant-colonel 1804; served with distinction in India, 1803-7, and the Peninsula, 1810-13; colonel, 1813; majorgeneral, 1819; K.C.B., 1822.
  418. ^ James Dykes Campbell (1838–1896), biographer of Coleridge; entered house of Messrs. Cochrane & Co., manufacturers ofVerreville pottery Glasgow, 1854; partner in Ireland, Fraser & Cos firm in Mauritius, 18731881. He spent many years in collecting materials for a biography of Coleridge, which was prefixed to an edition of Coleridge's poetical works, 1893, and appeared in a separate volume, 1894.
  419. ^ Sir John Campbell (1470–1563), of Lundy, Scottish judge; lord of session, 1532-63; captain-general of foot, 1533; privy councillor, 1540; often employed as envoy by James V of Scotland.
  420. ^ John Campbell , first EARL OF LOUDOUN (1598–1663), travelled abroad; married, 1620, the heiress of the barony of Loudoun; in bis wife's right, took his seat m the Scottish parliament, 1622 his patent for an earldom stopped by Charles I because of his strenuous opposition to episcopacy, 1633; took leading part in organising the covenant, 1637-8; a leader of the armed insurrection in Scotland, 1639; envoy from Scotland to Charles 1, 1640: imprisoned in the Tower; joined the Scottish army of invasion, August 1640; again envoy to London; lord chancellor of Scotland, 1641-60; created Earl of Loudoun, 1641; frequently envoy to Charles I from the parliament 1642-7; present at the coronation of Charles II, 1651, and fought at Dunbar; joined the highland rising, 1663; submitted to Monck; excepted from Cromwell's act of parI don, 1654; heavily fined by Charles II, 1662.
  421. ^ John Campbell , first EARL OF BREADALBANE (1635-1716), joined the royalist insurgents in the highlands, 1653; M.P. for Argyllshire, 1661; obtained from the bankrupt Earl of Caithness a cession of his title and estates, 1672; took possession of the estates, 1673; obtained a patent for the title, 1677; led his highlanders to be quartered on the west-country whips, 1G7H: made war on the heir-male, vlio claimed tin- (aithncss peerage, 1680; obtained the earldom of Breadalbane, when the privy council decided against his claim to the Caithness peerage and estates, 1681; privy councillor, 1685; submitted to William III, September 1689; employed to bribe the highland chiefs to submit to William III, 1690l9l; contrived the massacre of the Macdonalds of Qlencoe, 1692: encouraged a French invasion, 1707; halfheartedly joined Mar's rising, 1715, but withdrew after Sheriff rnuir.
  422. ^ John Campbell , second Duke of Argyll and Duke of Greenwich (1678–1743), eldest son of Archibald Campbell, first duke; entered the army, 1694; served in Flanders, 1702; succeeded to dukedom of Argyll, 17C3; a prime agent in bringing about the union, 1705; created Earl of Greenwich in the English peerage, 1705; served with much distinction in Flanders, 17061709; lieutenant-general, 1709; developed bitter hostility to Marlborough, 1709; ambassador and Commander-inchief in Spain, 1711; commander-in-chief in Scotland, 1712: violently opposed tlie proposed malt tax, 1713: took a leading part in proclaiming George 1, 1714; sent to suppress Mar's insurrection, 1715; collected troops at Stirling, secured Edinburgh, and repulsed Mar at Sheriffmuir, 1715; crushed the revolt, January 1716; deprived of his offices, 1716; restored, 1719; created Duke of Greenwich, 1719; helped to remove Scottish opposition to the malt tax, 1725; field-marshal, 1736; defended Edinburgh city from the indignation of the court after the Porteoosriot, 1737; began violently to oppose Walpole, 1738; deprived of hi* offices, 1740; restored, 1742, but speedily resigned.
  423. ^ John Campbell (1708–1776), miscellaneous writer ; lawyer's clerk at Windsor; highly successful as a professional man of letters in London; LL.D. Glasgow, 1754; agent for Georgia, 1765-75; contributed much to historical and biographical series, and edited books of travel. His chief works are Military History of Prince Eugene 1736, Travels of [a fictitious] Edward Brown 1739, Lives of the Admirals 1742-4, and Political Survey of Britain 1774.
  424. ^ John Campbell , third EARL OF BREADALBANE (1696-1782); educated at Christ Church, Oxford; styled Viscount Glenorchy, 1716-52; envoy to Denmark, 1718; K.B., 1725; M.P., Saltash, 1727 and 1734; ambassador to Russia, 1731; M.P., Oxford City, 1741; master of the jewel office, 1746; succeeded to the earldom, 1752; Scottish representative peer, 1762; D.C.L. Oxford, 1756; a chief-justice in eyre, 1761-6; vice-admiral of Scotland, 1776.
  425. ^ John Campbell , fourth EARL OF LOUDOUN (1705-1782) only son of Hugh Campbell, third earl; entered the army, 1727; succeeded to the earldom, "731; Scottish representative peer, 1734-82; governor of Stirling Castle, 1741; supported George II in the highlands, 1745-6; commander-in-chief in America, 1766; superseded, 1758; second in command in Portugal, 1762; general, 1770: fond of forestry.
  426. ^ John Campbell (1763–1784), lieutenant-colonel ; ensign, 1771; lieutenant, 1774; served in America, 17741780; major, 1777; lieutenantcolonel, 1781; in India, 1782; defended Maugalore against Tippoo Sultan, May 1783-Jauuary 1784.
  427. ^ John Campbell (1720?–1790), vice-admiral ; apprenticed to the master of a coaster; midshipman, 1740; sailed round the world with Anson: lieutenant, 1745; captain, 1747; in constant service, 1747-79: rear-admiral, 1778; vice-admiral, 1779; governor of Newfoundland, 1782-6.
  428. ^ John Campbell (1766–1840), philanthropist; a founder of the Scottish Religious Tract Society; advocated Sunday schools, lay-preaching, Magdalene societies, and abolition of slavery; minister of an independent congregation, Kingslaud, London, 1802; inspected the London Missionary Society's stations in South Africa, 1812-14, and 1819-21; published accounts of his travels.
  429. ^ Sir John Campbell (1807–1865). general ; only Bon of Sir Archibald Campbell (1769-1843): ensign, 1821; lieutenant, 1824; aide-de-camp in Burmah, 1824-6; captain, 1826: civil servant in Burmah, 1826-9; aide-de-camp in New Brunswick, 1831-7; lieutenantcolonel, 1840; baronet, 1843: commanded brigade in the Crimea, 1864; major-general, 1854; killed before the lledan, 1855..
  430. ^ John Campbell , first BARON CAMI-BKLL (1779–1861), lord chancellor; son of the minister of Cupar-Fife; attended arts classes at St. Andrews, 1790, and divinity classes, 1794; private tutor in London, 1798; wrote for the press; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1800; parliamentary and law reporter; read law in chambers, 1804; barrister, 1806; quickly acquired a profitable practice; K.C., 1827; employed on commission on law of real property, 18281833; M.P. for Stafford, 1830 took a leading part in the Commons in matters of law reform; solicitor-general, 1832; attorney-general, 1834-41; liberal M.P., Edinburgh, 1834-41; his wife made Baroness Stratheden, 1836; lord chancellor of Ireland, June-September 1841; created Baron Campbell, June 1841; took a foremost place in the Lords in questions of law; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 1846; chief-justice of the queen's bench, 1860; lord chancellor, 1859; publishedNisi Prius Reports,* 1809-16,Speeches 1842, Lives of the Lord Chancellors 1845-7,Lives of the Chief- Justices 1849, 1857, law pamphlets, and Lives of Lyndhurst and Brougham 1869.
  431. ^ John Campbell , second MARQUIS OF BREADALBANE (1796–1862) ; styled Viscount Glenorchy till 1831 ; M.P. for Okehampton, 1820-6; styled Earl of Ormelie, 1831-4; M.P., Perthshire, 1832; succeeded as marquis, 1834; entertained Queen Victoria at Taymouth, 1842; a strenuous free churchman in the disruption controversy.
  432. ^ Sir John Campbell (1780–1863), soldier ; educated at Harrow; cornet, 1800; captain, 1806; served in South America, 1807, and Spain, 1808; commanded a Portuguese cavalry regiment 1809-14; knighted, 1815; military adviser of the Portuguese government. 1815-19; Portuguese major-general, 1820; English lieutenantcolonel, 1820-4; fought for Dom Miguel in Portugal, 1828-34; resided in London.
  433. ^ John Campbell (1794–1867), miscellaneous writer; a blacksmith; studied at St. Andrews and Glasgow; a congregational minister in Ayrshire, and at Moorfields, London; started the Christian Witness 1844, and other newspapers; published much on missions, ritualism, &c.
  434. ^ Sir John Campbell (1802–1877), of Lochend, Indian official: ensign, 1819; an officer in the East India Company's forces, 1820-37; captain, 1830; magistrate over the Khomls of Orissa, 1837-42: served in China, 1842; lieutenant-colonel, 1842; held command in Madras, 1842-7; reappoiuted magistrate over the Khonds, 1847-9; colonel, 1853; major-general, 1859; published narrative of affairs in Orissa, 1864; K.C.S.L, 1866; general, 1872.
  435. ^ John Francis Campbell (1822–1885), of Islay; Gaelic scholar; educated at Eton and Edinburgh; a government official; published Popular Tales of the West Highlands 1860-2; published Gaelic texts, 1872; wrote also on natural science.
  436. ^ John McLeod Campbell (1800–1872), theologian; educated at Glasgow, 1811-20, and Edinburgh, 1821; licentiate of the church of Scotland, 1821; minister of Row, Dumbartonshire, 1825; ejected for heresy, 1830; preached in the highlands, 1830-2; minister of a congregation in Glasgow, 1833-59; D.D. Glasgow, 1868; retired to Roseneath, 1870; published Sermons 1832, and theological tracts.
  437. ^ Neil Campbell (d. 1627), Scottish bishop ; parson of Kilmartin, Argyllshire, 1574; bishop of Argyll, 1606-8.
  438. ^ Sir Neil Campbell (1776–1827). general : ensign, 1797; lieutenant, 1799; major, 1805; stationed in the West Indies, 1798-1800; in home garrisons, 1800-6; in the West Indies, 1806-10: lieutenant-colonel, 1808; colonel of Portuguese infantry, 1811-13; military attache with the Russian army invadinar France, 1813-14; colonel, 1814; escorted Napoleon to Elba; served at Waterloo; major-general, 1825; governor of Sierra Leone, 1826.
  439. ^ Sir Patrick Campbell (1773–1841), of Melfort, naval officer; lietitunant, 17SH: captain, 1800; on active service, 1799-1815 and 1827-30; rear-admiral, 1830; naval commander at Cape Town, 1834-7; K.C.B., 1836; vice-admiral, 1838.
  440. ^ Robert Campbell (I. 1722), presbyterian ; native of Scotland: presbyterian minister at Ray, Donegal, 1671; imprison.-.!,; minister at Roseneath, Dumbartonshire, lt;st-91; and then again at Ray, 16911722; published sermon-.
  441. ^ Robert Calder Campbell (1798–1867), miscellaneous writer; cadet in the East India Company's service, 1817; captain, 1826; served in Burmah, 1826-7; invalided home, 11; settled in London; major, 1836; published verse and prose, 1831-57.
  442. ^ Thomas Campbell (1733–1795), miscellaneous writer; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1761; curate of CloL'her, 1761-72; chancellor of St. Macartin's, Clogher, 1773: published works on Irish topography and history; wrote a diary of his visits to England, 1775-92.
  443. ^ Thomas Campbell (1777–1844), poet ; son of a ruim-d Glasgow merchant; at Glasgow "University. 1791tor in Mull, 1795, and Argyllshire, 1796; settled in Edinburgh as law-clerk and tutor; published Pleasures of Hope 1799; travelled in Germany and Denmark, June 1800-March 1801; well received in London, 1801; returned to Edinburgh; resided in or near London, as a man of letters, 1804-44; pensioned by the crown, 1805; issued Poems 1805; visited Paris, 1814; published Specimens of the British Poets 1819; edited theNew Monthly Magazine 1820-30; advocated a university for London, 1825; lord rector of Glasgow University, 1826-9; visi to! Algiers 1835; died at Boulogne; buried in Westminster Abbey.
  444. ^ Thomas Campbell (1790–1868), sculptor in bronze and marble; apprenticed to an Edinburgh marblecutter; studied in London and (1818) at Rome; exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1827-57.
  445. ^ William Campbell (rf. 1805), presbyterian ; a native of Newry, co. Down; entered Glasgow University, 1744; licensed by Armagh presbytery, 1760; tutor in Prance; returned to Ireland, 1758; minister at Antrim, 1759; minister of First Armagh, 1764-89; D.D. Glasgow, 1784; minister at Clonmel, 1789-1805; published pamphlets,
  446. ^ Willielma Campbell , VISCOUNTESS GLENORCHY (1741-1786), a daughter of William Maxwell of Preston, Kirkcudbrightshire; married, 1761, John Campbell, viscount Glenorchy (d. 1771); adopted peculiar religious views, c. 1764; founded chapels for her followers in Edinburgh, Carlisle, Matlock, Strathflllan.
  447. ^ Viscounts Campden . See HICKS, BAPTIST, first Viscount 1551–1629 ; NOEL, EDWARD, second VISCOUNT, 1682-1643; NOEL, BAPTIST, third VISCOUNT, 1611-1682.
  448. ^ Lorenzo Campeggio (1472–1539), papal legate ; born at Bologna; studied law at Pa via and Bologna; ordained after his wife's death; bishop of Feltri, 1512; cardinal, 1517; legate to Henry VIII to urge a crusade against the Turks, 1618; bishop of Salisbury, 1524-34; archbishop of Bologna; legate to England to hear Henry VIII's suit to divorce Queen Catherine, October 1528-July 1529.
  449. ^ Edmund Campion (1540–1581), Jesuit martyr; sou of a London bookseller; educated at Christ's Hospital; delivered a speech at Queen Mary's state entry to London, 1553; fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1567; M.A., 1664; a speaker at Queen Elizabeth's state visit to Oxford, 1666; patronised by the Earl of Leicester; Anglican deacon, c. 1568; junior proctor, April 1568April 1569; asked B.D. 1569, but did not obtain it; withdrew to Dublin, 1569, expecting promotion in the projected Romanist college; withdrew, as a suspected papist, to London, June 1571; went to Douay, and graduated B.D. there; went to Rome, 1572; joined the Jesuits, 1573; passed his novitiate in Prague and Brlinn; ordained priest, 1578; chosen, with Robert Parsons, to coerce temporising catholics in England; reached Dover, Jane 1580; preached privately in London; his Decem Rationes distributed at Oxford, 1581; arrested at Lyford, Ierk-hire, 1581; sent to the Tower; examined, under torture, 1581; sentenced to death; executed, 1 Dec. 1581; published controversial works.
  450. ^ George Campion B. (1798–1870), water-colour painter; exhibited in London, 1834 onwards; drawingmaster at Woolwich; retired to Munich.
  451. ^ Maria Campion (1777–1803);
  452. ^ Thomas Campion (d. 1619), poet and musician; probably educated abroad; mentioned as doctor in phisicke 1607, and physician 1616; published Latin verses, 1596, and Observations on... English Poesie 1602; prepared masques presented at court, 1607-17; published Books of Ayres 1610, 1612, Songs on the death of Prince Henry, and a musical treatise, 1613.
  453. ^ William Campion alias Wigmore (1599-1665), Jesuit; joined the Jesuits, 1624; missioner in England, and in Wales, 1655; rector of a seminary in Ghent; wrote on transubstantiation.
  454. ^ Gerard de Camville (d. 1215?), judge ; adhered to Prince John; became, by marriage, sheriff of Lincolnshire, and keeper of Lincoln Castle, c. 1190; his removal vainly attempted by Richard I's vicegerents, 1191; removed and fined, on Richard's return, 1194; restored by King John, 1199; justice itinerant for Cambridgeshire, 1209.
  455. ^ Thomas de Camville (d. 1236), judge ; deprived by John of estates in Kent and Essex, 1215; restored, 1217; acted as a justice, 1229.
  456. ^ Viscount Canada (1567?–1640). See William Alexander.
  457. ^ James Cancellar (fl. 1564), theologian; of the queen's chapel; published devotional treatises, 1553-64.
  458. ^ Hugh Candidus (fl. 1107?–1155?). See Hugh.
  459. ^ Ann Candler (1740–1814), versifier, 'the Suffolk cottager'; daughter of a Suffolk glover named More; married a militia-man, 1762; lived in the workhouse, 1780 and 1783; wrote verses, 1788-9; her collected verses published, 1803.
  460. ^ Robert Smith Candlish (1806–1873), Free church leader; educated at Glasgow, assistant minister in Glasgow, at Bonhill, Dumbartonshire, and (1833) at St. George's, Edinburgh; minister of St. George's; from 1839 took a leading part against the authority of the civil courts in patronage cases; suggested as professor of biblical cri ticism in Edinburgh, but objected to by Lord Aberdeen; D.D. Princeton, 1841; went out at the disruption, 1843; minister of Free St. George's till death; leader of the Free church; principal of the Free church college, Edinburgh, 1862; D.D. Edinburgh, 1865; wrote theological treatises.
  461. ^ Robert Cane (1807–1868), writer on Irish history ; a chemist's assistant; M.D. Trinity College, Dublin, 1836; practised medicine at Kilkenny.
  462. ^ Vincent Canes (d. 1672), Franciscan friar, named in religion JOHN-BAPTIST; studied at Cambridge; travelled on the continent; joined the Franciscans at Douay; served on the English mission, 1648. in Lancashire and London; published controversial tracts under the initials J. V. C., 1655-72.
  463. ^ Benedict Canfield (1563–1611), Capuchin friar; really WILLIAM FITCH, of Little Canfield, Essex; of the Middle Temple; withdrew to Douay; joined the Capuchins at Paris; came to England, 1589; imprisoned for three years; master of the novices at Rouen; wrote devotional works.
  464. ^ Canicus or Kenny, Saint (d. 698?). See Cainnech.
  465. ^ Abraham Cann (1794–1864), champion wrestler of Devonshire; fought a drawn match with the Cornish champion, 1826; afterwards an innkeeper.
  466. ^ John Canne (d. 1667?), theologian ; pastor of an independent congregation in London; pastor of the English independents in Amsterdam, 1630-47; visited England, 1640; published a reference bible, 1647; returned to 1648; garrison chaplain at Hull, 1650, and in fierce controversy with his colleague, John Shawe; expelled, 1657; came to London; returned to Amsterdam; publishedBible with Marginal Notes 1664; published other theological and controversial works.
  467. ^ Cannera or Cainner, Saint (d. 530?), an Irishwoman; anchorite; wished to join the monastery of St. Senan, on Inis-cathey, but was refused.
  468. ^ Charles John Canning, Earl Canning (1812-1862), governor-general of India; third son of George Canning; educated at Eton, and, 1829-33, at Christ Church, Oxford; M.P., Warwick, 1836; succeeded as Viscount Canning in the Irish peerage, 1837; under-aecretary for foreign affairs, 1841-6; attached himself to Sir Robert Peel; postmaster-general, 1853-5; assumed the governor-generalship of India, February 1856; confronted by three difficulties: (i.) war with Persia, to restore Herat to Afghanistan, with the question of subsidising the ameer, (ii.) the assimilation of the terms of service of the Bengal native army with those of the Bombay and Madras armies, especially as regards service oversea, (Hi) the settlement of Oudh (annexed, 7 Feb. 1856); his second year marked by the outbreak of the mutiny, February 1857, the wide extent of which he, like other officials, was slow to apprehend; by a happy instinct, gave full freedom of action to Sir Henry Lawrence in Oudh, and John Lawrence in the Punjab, and showed unshaken confidence throughout; involved in a controversy with Lord Elleuborough about the terms of settlement in Oudh, 1858; created earl, 1859; engaged in reorganising the financial, legal, and administrative systems in India, 1859-62.
  469. ^ Elizabeth Canning (1734–1773), impostor; a sawyer's daughter; maid-servant in Aldermanbury; falsely asserted that she had been kidnapped and kept prisoner by a procuress, 1-29 Jan. 1753; examined before Henry Fielding; secured the conviction of the people she accused; tried for perjury and transported, 1754. Her case led to a war of pamphlets and London public opinion.
  470. ^ George Canning (1770–1827), statesman ; son of a barrister; brought up by an uncle, a whig banker in London: educated at Eton, and, 1788-91, at Christ Church, Oxford; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1791; in horror of the French revolution attached himself to William Pitt, 1793; M.P., Newport, 1794; M.P., Wendover, 1797; undersecretary for foreign affairs in Pitt's administration, 1796-9; member of the India board, 1799-1800; paymaster-general, 1800-1; opposed Henry Addington's administration, 1801-4; treasurer of the navy in Pitt's administration, May 1804-February 1806; refused office in Grenville's administration; foreign secretary in Portland's administration, March 1807; planned seizure of Danish fleet, September 1807: dissatisfied with Castlereagh's policy at the war office, 1808; fought duel with Oastlereagh, and resigned office, September 1809; refused office under Spencer Perceval, November 1809; refused the foreign office under Lord Liverpool, May 1812; M.P., Liverpool, 1812-22; visited Portugal and the south of France, 1814-16; designated ambassador extraordinary to Portugal, 1814; joined Lord Liverpool's administration as president of the India board, June 1816; resigned, January 1821, as favouring Queen Caroline; wintered abroad, 1821-2; nominated governor-general of India, 27 March, but resigned, September 1822; M.P., Harwich, 1822; foreign secretary in Lord Liverpool's administration, September 1822; acknowledged independence of Spain's American colonies, 1823; shielded Greece from conquest by Turkey, 1825-7; supported the popular party in Portugal against absolutism, 1826-7; on Lord Liverpool's death, made George IV, and chancellor of the exchequer, April 1827; endeavoured to reform the corn-laws; friend and correspondent of Sir Walter Scott. His Poems were published, 1823, and his Speeches 1828.
  471. ^ Richard Canning (1708–1775), Suffolk antiquary; at Westminster School, 1723; M.A.St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, 1735; rector of Harkstead, Suffolk 1738-69; rector of Preston, Suffolk, 1756-75; published sermons, pamphlets, a history of Suffolk, and Ipswich collections.
  472. ^ Stratford Canning , first Viscount Straford de Redcliffe (1786–1880), diplomatist, styled 'the Great Elchi' i.e. ambassador par excellence; educated at Eton, 1794, and King's College, Cambridge, 1805; clerk in the foreign office, 1807; secoud secretary to the envoy to Denmark, 1807; secretary to the envoy to Constantinople, 1808. left in charge of the embassy at Constantinople, 1810, to counteract Napoleon's influence, to protect British interests in the Levant, and to prevent war between Russia and Turkey, so as to leave Russia free to fight Napoleon; negotiated the treaty of Bucharest between Russia and Turkey, May 1812; returned to London; pensioned; visited Paris, 1814; plenipotentiary to Switzerland, 1814-20, to settle federal government there; his arrangements sanctioned by the congress of Vienna, 1815; envoy to Washington, 1820-4, but failed to obtain settlement of disputed points; envoy to St. Petersburg to settle the Alaska boundary and discuss the Greek question, 1824; envoy to Constantinople to obtain recognition of Greek independence, 1825; his mediation on behalf of Greece followed by the joint intervention of Great Britain, France, and Russia 1827, but negotiations broken off by the battle of Navarino, October 1827; withdrew to Corfu, and to London, February 182 negotiated the settlement of Greek affairs at Poros", with the French and Russian envoys, December 1828; M.P., Old Sarum, 1828; resigned his ambassadorship, 1829; G.O.B., December 1829; M.P., Stockbridge, by purchase, 1830; drew up the British case in the American boundary dispute, 1830; sent to Constantinople to obtain enlargement of the Greek frontier, November 1831; fruitlessly advised Palmerston to support the sultan against the viceroy of Egypt, 1832; failed to reconcile the rival parties in Portugal, 1832; named envoy to St. Petersburg, 1833, but the czar refused to receive him; declined governorship of Canada, 1835 and 1841; M.P., King's Lynn, 1835-41; ambassador at Constantinople, 1842; obtained abolition of execution for apostasy, 1844; obtained permission for Sir Henry Layard to explore Nineveh; home on leave, 1846-7; envoy to Switzerland, November 1847; returned to Constantinople, 1848; encouraged Turkey to protect the refugees from Hungary; visited England 1852; created Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe, May 1852; advised the sultan to refuse the czar's demands for a protectorate over the Greek church, 1853; visited the Crimea, 1855; resigned his ambassadorship, 1858; hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1858; K.G., 1869; published verses and pamphlets. A statue of him was placed in Westminster Abbey.
  473. ^ Richard Cannon (1779–1865), historian ; clerk at the Horse Guards, 1802-64; chief compiler of the incomplete official statement of the services of the several regiments,Historical Records of the British Army 1836-53.
  474. ^ Robert Cannon (1663–1722), ecclesiastic ; educated at Eton; fellow of King's College, Cambridge; B.A., 1685; D.D., 1707; married the bishop of Ely's daughter; a pluralist in rectories and prebends; dean of Lincoln, 1721; wrote controversial tracts.
  475. ^ John Canon or Canonicus (fl. 1329), schoolman; studied at Oxford; joined the Franciscans; studied at Paris; returned to Oxford and graduated D.D.; wrote commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. His commentary on the Physics of Aristotle, printed 1476, and often afterwards, was a favourite mediaeval text-work.
  476. ^ Peter Charles Canot (1710–1777), lineengraver; came from France to London, 1740; a member of the Society of Artiste, 1766, and an associate of the Royal Academy, 1770.
  477. ^ Benedict Cansfield (1563–1611). See Canfield.
  478. ^ Andrew Cant (1590?–1663), covenanting leader ; invited by the people to be minister of Edinburgh, but rejected by James I, c. 1623; minister of Pitsligo, Aberdeeushire, 1633; fruitlessly endeavoured to persuade the university and clergy of Aberdeen to adopt the covenant, July 1638; member of the Glasgow general assembly which abolished episcopacy, 1G38; minister of Newbattle, Midlothian; chaplain to the Scottish army, 1640; minister of Aberdeen, 1640; courageously advocated monarchy in the time of Cromwell.
  479. ^ John de Cantebeig or Cambridge (d. 1335), judge; a large landowner near Cambridge; M.P., Cambridgeshire from 1321; king's serjeant, 1330; knighted, October 1330; justice of common pleas, 1331.
  480. ^ Fulk de Cantelupe, Cantilupe, Cantelo, or Canteleo (fl.–1209), adherent of King John; sent to expel the monks of Canterbury and to administer Ihe archiepiscopal estates, 1207.
  481. ^ George de Cantelupe (d. 1273), styled Baron of Bergavenny; son of William, the third baron Cantelupe by tenure (l. 1254) and Eva, co-heiress of William de Braose; knighted, 1272; put in possession of his estates, April 1273.
  482. ^ Nicholas de Cantelupe , third Baron Cantelupe by vrit (. 1355), lord of Gresley, Nottinghamshire; with Kdwanl II in Scotland, 1320; knighted, 1326; governor of Jlerwick-on-Tweed, 1336: summoned to parliament, liiT 54: served in Scotland and Flanders, 1339; envoy to France, 1343; attended Edward III at Orecy, 1346; commissioner to defend Lincolnshire, 1362; founded a chantry in Lincoln Cathedral and a Carthusian house in Nottinghamshire.
  483. ^ Roger de Cantelupe (ft. 1248), legist ; adherent of Henry III; envoy to Rome, 1231; perhaps prebendary of St. Paul's, 1248.
  484. ^ Simon Cantelupe , called Le Norman (d. 1249), chancellor; envoy to Rome, 1238; archdeacon of Norwich, 1238-40; chancellor, August 1238, but removed for opposing wool tax, 1239.
  485. ^ Thomas de Cantelupe (1218?-1282), saint; bishop of Hereford; son of William de Cantelupe, second baron; nephew of Walter de Cantelupe, bishop of Worcester; studied possibly at Oxford, 1237, afterwards at Paris; attended council of Lyons, 1245, and obtained papal dispensation to hold benefices in plurality; studied civil law at Orleans and canon law at Paris; taught canon law at Oxford; chancellor of Oxford University, 1262-3; stated the case of the revolted barons before St. Louis at Amiens, 1263-4; lord chancellor of England, February-August 1265; pensioned by Henry III, March 1265, but took refuge at Paris in August; lectured in theology at Paris, and, 1272, at Oxford; possibly again chancellor of Oxford University; prebendary of Hereford, 1273, in a place claimed by Peter de Langona; held several canonries and rich rectories, especially in Herefordshire, in plurality; attended council at Lyons, 1274; elected bishop of Hereford, June, and consecrated, September 1275; chief supporter of Edward I and opponent of Llewelyn of Wales; a bitter enemy of the Jews; active in reforming diocese of Hereford, and in maintaining claims of see against Earl Gilbert of Gloucester, 1278, Lord Corbet, and the bishops of St. Asaph and St. David's; led the opposition to Archbishop Peckham in the council at Reading, July 1279; involved in a bitter dispute with Peckham regarding jurisdiction; withdrew for safety to Normandy, and appealed against Peckham to Rome, c. 1281; vigorously sued at Rome for the prebend of Hereford by Peter de Langona, 1281; tried to bribe the curia; excommunicated by Peckham through a dispute as to jurisdiction; appealed to Rome; went in person to Italy to press his appeal, March 1282; died at Orvieto, August; buried in Hereford Cathedral; translated to a new tomb there, 1287; miracles worked at his tomb; popularly accepted as a saint; the pope urged to canonise him, 1290, 1299, 1305; canonised by Pope John XXII as St. Thomas of Hereford, 1320.
  486. ^ Walter de Cantelupe (d. 1266), bishop of Worcester; defender of English liberties against the encroachments of the crown and the papacy; second son of William, first baron Cantelupe; pluralist, while still in minor orders; at Rome, 1229; justice itinerant, 1231; elected bishop of Worcester, 1236; ordained deacon and priest, and consecrated bishop at Viterbo, May 1237; enthroned, October 1237; defended pluralities against the papal legate, Otho, at the council of St. Paul's, 1237; laboured earnestly to reform his diocese; mediated between BisJiop Grosseteste and the chapter of Lincoln, 1239; escorted Otho ns far as Burgundy, 1241; tirLrpd Henry III to accept William de Raleigh as bishop of Winchester; accompanied Archbishop Boniface to the papal court at Lyons, 1245; promised to join the crusaders, 1247; again at Lyons, 1260; a second time vowed to go on crusade, 1250; resisted Archbishop Boni face's claim of the right of visitation, 1251, and the pope's demand of a tenth for Henry 1 1 1, 1252; joined in excomi municating the infringers of Magna Charta, 1253; went with Henry III to Gascony, 1253, and was sent as envoy to Castile; resisted demand for an aid for the pope and Henry III, 1255; envoy to France, 1267; a representative of the barons on the committee of regency provisions of Oxford, 1258; aided Prince Edward's escape from Bristol, 1264; encouraged the barons at Lewes, 1264, and Evesham, 1265; suspended by Ottoboni and summoned to Rome; died before starting, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral.
  487. ^ William De Cantelupe , first Baron Cantelupe (d. 1239), a constant adherent of King John ; steward of the household; sheriff of Warwick, Leicester, Worcester, and Hereford for John; justiciar, 1203; attached himself to Henry III, 1216; sheriff of Warwick and Leicester; justice itinerant in Bedfordshire, 1218; a witness to the confirmation of Magna Charta, 1236; founder of Studley Hospital.
  488. ^ William de Cantelupe , second Baron Cantelupe (d. 1251), son of William de Cantelupe, first baron ; an adherent of King John and of Henry III; steward of the household to Henry III; envoy to the papal court at Lyons, 1245.
  489. ^ William de Cantelupe , third Baron Cantelupe (d. 1254), son of William de Cantelupe, second baron; obtained by marriage the honour of Bergavenny; accompanied Henry III to Gascony, 1263.
  490. ^ Viscounts Canterbury . See Charles Manners-Sutton , first VISCOUNT, 1780–1845 ; John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton, third VISCOUNT, 1814–1877.
  491. ^ Richard Cantillon (d. 1734), economist; of Irish extraction; merchant in London and Paris; said to have helped John Law to float his paper-money scheme in Paris, 1716; returned to London; murdered by his cook. His Essai sur la Nature du Commerce(published, 1755), contains striking anticipations of later theories.
  492. ^ John Canton (1718–1772), electrician ; Twelver's apprentice; went to London, 1737, and taught school there; conducted valuable experiments in electricity and magnetism; F.R.S., 1749.
  493. ^ Henry Cantrell (1685?–1773), controversialist ; educated at Derby grammar school; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1710; incumbent of St. Alkmund's, Derby, 1712-73; wrote against lay-baptism,
  494. ^ Andrew Cantwell (d. 1764), physician ; of j Irish birth; graduated in medicine at MoutpeUier, 1729: I migrated to Paris, 1733; M.D. Paris, 1742, and professor ; of surgery, 1750, and of pharmacy, 1762; a bitter oppoi nent of inoculation against small-pox; visited England; j wrote on medical subjects.