Wikipedia:WikiProject Rocks and minerals/Worklist

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This is a list of the various minerals, mineraloids, and varieties that are in Wikipedia. The list is split into 3 sections - those done up top, those to do below, and minerals without wiki articles last. Note that this list was generated from List of minerals, so any omissions here ought to be corrected there too.

Minerals tagged with [i] are in need of images

Articles with infobox mineral[edit]

Existing Articles to be re-formatted[edit]

Important minerals after rruff.info[edit]

Introduction[edit]

Based on rruff.info/ima/, Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species (2008) and Nickel–Strunz (10 ed, mindat.org)

  • Gemstones
    • Readily available gemstones (N: 47, abbreviation 'ravg')
    • Unlikely available gemstones (N: 62, abbreviation 'unavg')
    • Rare gemstones (N: 33, abbreviation 'rare')
    • Extremely rare gemstones (N: 167, abbreviation 'xtr')
  • Rock-forming minerals (N: 270, abbreviation 'rckf')
  • Textbook minerals (N: 457, abbreviation 'txtbk')
  • Water soluble minerals (N: 315, abbreviation 'slbl')
  • Radioactive minerals (N: 264, abbreviation 'rdact')
  • Mindat.org lists 289 solid solution series
    • Excluding doubles and questionable minerals (belyankinite and manganbelyankinite), ilmenorutilestrüverite (both rutile varieties) and albite–orthoclase
  • For the sake of completness, abbreviation 'none':
    • Cadmium and chromium (native elements), moissanite (a natural silicon carbide, a diamond simulant and a LED), apophyllite-NaF (apophyllite group), euxenite-(Y) (columbite–euxenite), plumboferrite structural group (oxides), spertiniite (hydroxides), sulfate class, niobates (sulfates), bastnäsite-(Nd) and hydroxylbastnäsite (carbonates), scorodite (phosphates), zeunerite (phosphates), tsumcorite group (phosphates), berzeliite group (phosphates)
    • Moganite (silica family), tritomite group (nesosilicates), hafnon (nesosilicates), piemontite-Sr (sorosilicates), pumpellyite structural group (sorosilicates), osumilite-(Mg) (cyclosilicates), astrophyllite group (inosilicates), allophane (phyllosilicates), halloysite (phyllosilicates), imogolite (nanotube-like, phyllosilicates), brewsterite-Sr (zeolites), faujasite series (synthetic X and Y zeolites), mazzite-Mg (zeolites), thomsonite-Sr (zeolites)
  • Other abbreviations: platinum group elements (PGE), rare earth elements (REE), light-emitting diode (LED), coltan (short for columbite–tantalite), standard temperature and pressure (STP), monosulfide solid solution (MSS)



  • The spinel structural group includes ringwoodite, a high-pressure polymorph of the olivine solid solution series.
  • The quartz structural group includes the berlinite group.
  • The rocksalt structural group includes periclase (oxide mineral).
  • The wurtzite structural group includes moissanite (silicon carbide) and zincite (oxide mineral).
  • Fleischer's Glossary had dmisteinbergite, a phyllosilicate, in the feldspar group.
  • Some minerals have to be tagged with different groups:
    • The zeolite structural group includes weinebeneite (8.DA.20, WEI) and pahasapaite (8.CA.25, RHO, a beryllophosphate zeolite related to synthetic zeolite rho). Fleischer's Glossary had nabesite (9.EA.65), a phyllosilicate, in the zeolite group.
    • Amalgams include silver alloys.


Mineral groups, series and informal groups[edit]

  • Amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist (2003), 41, p. 1355.
  • Hornblende group: aluminous amphiboles in the calcium amphibole subgroup (Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1997) Rock-forming minerals, volume 2B, Double Chain Silicates).
  • Chlorite group: Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1962) Rock-forming minerals, volume 3, Phyllosilicates?, p. 131.
  • Melilite group: Ca
    2
    M(XSiO
    7
    )
    , where M generally is Al or B and X is Si, Al or B.
  • Micas: true micas, interlayer-deficient micas and brittle micas.
  • Nigerite group: ferronigerite, magnesionigerite and zinconigerite
  • Plagioclase: Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (2001) Rock-forming minerals, volume 4A, Framework Silicates - Feldspars, 2 ed.
  • Garnets
  • Pyralspite group: almandine, pyrope and spessartine garnets.
  • Ugrandite group: uvarovite, grossular and andradite (u–gr–and); goldmanite, hibschite, katoite, kimzeyite and schorlomite garnets.
  • Pyroxenes: Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1978) Rock-forming minerals, volume 2A, Single-Chain Silicates, 2 ed.
  • Serpentine: Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1962) Rock-forming minerals, volume 3, Phyllosilicates?, p. 170.
  • Smectite group: Hailiang Dong, Donald R. Peacor, and Robert L. Freed (1997). "Phase relations among smectite, R1 illite-smectite, and illite" (PDF). America Mineralogist 82: 379–391. 
  • Tourmaline: Deer, W.A., R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1986) Rock-forming minerals, volume 1B, Disilicates and Ring Silicates, 2 ed., p. 559.
  • Zeolites: Canadian Mineralogist (1997), 35, p. 1597.


Informal groups
  • Illite (clay–mica) group: clay-like series, essentially a K-deficient muscovite. Reviews in Mineralogy 13 (1984), 495.
  • Brammallite group: Na-rich illite. Canadian Mineralogist 36 (1998), 905.
  • Glauconite group: Reviews in Mineralogy 13 (1984), 545.
  • Lepidolite group: Canadian Mineralogist 36 (1998), 905.
  • Feldspathoid group: silica deficient alkali feldspars (sometimes alumino-silicate frameworks, Al:Si (1:1); but feldspar: Al:Si (1:3))
  • Clays: granular material (stricto sensu, phyllosilicates excluding some chlorites) of a size smaller than silt (from 0.0039 to 0.0625 mm). Gravel (from 2 mm up to 64 mm), then sand (from 0.0625 mm (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 mm) then silt then clay (smaller than 2 μm).


Named solid solution series:
  • Lepidolite solid solution series (polylithionite–trilithionite)
  • Olivine solid solution series (fayalite–fosterite)
  • Chromite solid solution series (chromite–magnesiochromite)
  • Wolframite solid solution series (ferberite–hübnerite)
  • Scapolite solid solution series (marialite-meionite): wernerite intermediate member
  • Enstatite–ferrosilite solid solution series: enstatite less than 12%, var. bronzite c. 12 - 25% FeSiO3, var. hypersthene 25 - 50% FeSiO3, ferrosilite more than 50%
  • Hydrogrossular solid solution series (grossular–hibschite)
  • Phengite solid solution series (between muscovite–celadonite)
  • Zinnwaldite solid solution series (siderophyllite–polylithionite)

Mineral properties[edit]


  • Specific gravity:
    • Heavy: gold (19), lead (11), nickel (8.9), iron (7.9), mafic igneous rocks (more than 3), granite – felsic igneous rock (2.65 - 2.75)
    • Quart and feldspar: quartz (2.65), anorthite – feldspar (2.72 - 2.75), albite - feldspar (2.60 - 2.65), orthoclase – feldspar (2.55 - 2.63)
    • Light: natrolite – fibrous zeolite (2.25), heulandite – tabular zeolite (2.2), water (1 at 4°C), ice (0.917)


Nickel–Strunz mineral classes and subclasses[edit]

Elements, ice, water, and organic compounds[edit]

Elements (metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
Minerals of the 'native elements' class, minerals of the zeolite subclass, minerals of the 'organic compounds' class and ice are important for teaching purposes. Some of their synthetic, anthropogenic or handcrafted counterparts are quite readily available (e.g. brass, bronze, gold leaf alloys, lead, iron–nickel alloys, copper, mercury (amalgam (chemistry), amalgams with high mercury content are liquid at STP), aluminium foils, tin soldering, hot-dip galvanization (zinc), chrome plating, faceted diamond, faceted moissanite or carborundum, graphite content in pencil cores).
Minerals: none moissanite (carbide, wurtzite structural group), txtbk schreibersite (phosphide), txtbk mercury (element), xtr rckf txtbk sulfur
Note "amalgams":
Ice (oxide mineral)
slbl txtbk ice
Organic compounds
formiates, acetates, oxalates
Minerals: none weddellite and none whewellite (calcium oxalates), none mellite (aluminium salt of mellitic acid)

Sulfides, sulfosalts, oxides, hydroxides and sulfites[edit]

Sulfides and sulfosalts (sulfides, selenides, tellurides, arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; etc.)
Sulfides, selenides, tellurides, arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; 02.A-F: txtbk acanthite, txtbk bornite, txtbk calaverite, txtbk chalcocite (chalcocite–yarrowite), txtbk chalcopyrite (chalcopyrite–eskebornite, chalcopyrite structural group), rare txtbk cinnabar, xtr txtbk cobaltite (cobaltite–gersdorffite, cobaltite group), rckf txtbk covellite, rckf cubanite (cubanite structural group), txtbk digenite (anilite, digenite grouping), txtbk djurleite, txtbk kostovite, txtbk krennerite, txtbk marcasite (marcasite–lollingite group), unavg txtbk millerite, txtbk molybdenite (molybdenite group), txtbk montbrayite, txtbk muthmannite, txtbk orpiment (laphamite, orpiment grouping), txtbk patrónite, txtbk pentlandite (cobaltpentlandite–pentlandite, pentlandite structural group), txtbk petzite, txtbk pyrrhotite, rare txtbk realgar, txtbk sylvanite, txtbk troilite, txtbk uytenbogaardtite
  • Arsenopyrite group (Fleischer, 2008): txtbk arsenopyrite, txtbk glaucodot
  • Rocksalt structural group
  • Spinel structural group
  • Thiospinel or linnaeite group (Fleischer, 2008): txtbk linnaeite
  • Series: nickelskutterudite–skutterudite
  • Wurtzite structural group
Sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, sulfarsenates, sulfantimonates, oxysulfosalts, etc.; 02.G-M: txtbk enargite, txtbk nagyágite
  • Series: freibergite–tetrahedrite, tennantite–tetrahedrite, argentotennantite–freibergite


Oxide mineral class (hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
Oxides, stricto sensu (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed, 04.A-E)
Minerals: xtr rckf txtbk anatase, xtr rckf txtbk brookite, rare rckf txtbk cuprite, rckf txtbk hausmannite (hausmannite group), txtbk litharge, txtbk minium (mineral), rare simpsonite, txtbk ramsdellite (ramsdellite structural group), txtbk tenorite, rare txtbk zincite (wurtzite structural group), txtbk yttrotantalite-(Y)
  • Columbite-euxenite group (Fleischer, 2008): columbite (rckf txtbk columbite-(Fe), txtbk columbite-(Mg), txtbk columbite-(Mn)), none rdact euxenite-(Y), tantalite (txtbk tantalite-(Fe), txtbk tantalite-(Mg), xtr txtbk tantalite-(Mn))
  • Corundum structural group:
  • Series: ilmenite–pyrophanite, geikielite–ilmenite
  • Hollandite supergroup (IMA 11-F, Biagioni et al. (2013), mindat.org)
  • Series: armalcolite–pseudobrookite
  • Rutile group (Rruff, 2013), excluding 'sellaite': rare rckf txtbk cassiterite, txtbk pyrolusite, ravg rckf txtbk rutile
  • Spinel structural group
  • Series: jacobsite–magnetite, chromite–hercynite, chromite–magnesiochromite, chromite–magnetite, gahnite–hercynite, gahnite–spinel, hercynite–spinel, magnesiochromite–spinel, magnesioferrite–magnetite, manganochromite–vuorelainenite
  • Series: thorianite–uraninite
  • Series: ferberite–hübnerite
Hydroxides (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed, 04.F-G): txtbk birnessite, txtbk gibbsite, unavg txtbk lepidocrocite, rckf txtbk manganite, none spertiniite
V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed, 04.H-K):

Carbonates, nitrates, halides and borates[edit]

Carbonates (nitrates)
Minerals: txtbk aurichalcite, rare rckf txtbk azurite, unavg hydrocerussite, txtbk hydrozincite, rckf txtbk malachite, slbl txtbk natron, xtr txtbk phosgenite
  • Bastnäsite grouping 05.BD.20a (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed): bastnäsite (xtr txtbk bastnäsite-(Ce), txtbk bastnäsite-(La), none bastnäsite-(Nd), txtbk bastnäsite-(Y)), hydroxylbastnäsite (none hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce), none hydroxylbastnäsite-(La)N, none hydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd))
  • Series: bastnäsite-(Ce)–hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)
  • Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed)
Minerals: rckf huntite, slbl xtr txtbk nahcolite, txtbk nyerereite
  • Series: calcite–rhodochrosite, gaspéite–magnesite, magnesite–siderite, rhodochrosite-siderite, siderite–smithsonite
  • Series: ankerite–dolomite, ankerite–kutnohorite
  • Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O (Nickel–Strunz 10 ed)
Minerals: slbl xtr txtbk gaylussite, unavg shomiokite-(Y), slbl txtbk thermonatrite, slbl txtbk trona, unavg weloganite
Nitrates: slbl txtbk niter, slbl txtbk nitratine
Halides
Minerals: unavg txtbk atacamite, slbl txtbk bischofite, slbl txtbk carnallite, unavg colquiriite, xtr txtbk cryolite, ravg rckf txtbk fluorite, txtbk iodargyrite, slbl txtbk salammoniac, slbl rare sellaite
  • Rocksalt structural group
Borates
Minerals: slbl xtr txtbk boracite (boracite–ericaite), slbl txtbk borax, xtr txtbk colemanite, ravg hambergite, txtbk hydroboracite, xtr txtbk inyoite, unavg kaliborite, slbl xtr txtbk kernite, txtbk kotoite, txtbk ludwigite (ludwigite–vonsenite), txtbk tincalconite, slbl xtr txtbk ulexite

Tetrahedral units, stricto sensu[edit]

Sulfates (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, tungstates)
Minerals: xtr rckf txtbk anhydrite, txtbk antlerite, rckf bassanite (rhabdophane structural group), txtbk brochantite, slbl txtbk chalcanthite, unavg chalcoalumite (chalcoalumite group), xtr rckf txtbk gypsum (gypsum structural group), slbl xtr txtbk hanksite, slbl xtr txtbk kainite, txtbk mangazeite, slbl txtbk mirabilite, slbl txtbk polyhalite, slbl xtr txtbk thénardite
  • Alum group (Fleischer, 2008): slbl none alum-(K), slbl none alum-(Na)
  • Celestine group (Fleischer, 2008): rare rckf txtbk anglesite, rare rckf txtbk baryte, xtr rckf txtbk celestine
  • Series: baryte–celestine
  • Series: epsomite–goslarite, epsomite–morenosite
Chromates, molybdates, tungstates and niobates
Chromates: xtr txtbk crocoite (monazite structural group)
Molybdates and tungstates: ferrimolybdite
  • Series: powellite–scheelite, stolzite–wulfenite
Niobates: txtbk fergusonite-(Ce), xtr txtbk fergusonite-(Y), none beta-fergusonite-(Ce), none beta-fergusonite-(Nd), none beta-fergusonite-(Y)
Phosphates, arsenates, vanadates
Minerals: unavg allactite (allactite structural group), unavg bayldonite, unavg beryllonite (beryllonite structural group), rare rckf brazilianite, rare unavg leiteite, ravg phosphophyllite, unavg triplite, txtbk wavellite (wavellite, allanpringite grouping)
  • Series: torbernite–zeunerite, metatorbernite–metazeunerite
  • Series: lazulite–scorzalite
  • Series: annabergite–erythrite, erythrite–hörnesite
  • Xenotime group (Fleischer, 2008): xtr txtbk xenotime-(Y), xtr txtbk xenotime-(Yb)
Arsenates and vanadates
  • Series: mimetite–pyromorphite, mimetite–vanadinite
Nesosilicates
Minerals: rckf txtbk chloritoid (ottrelite group), rare txtbk euclase, unavg eulytine, rare rckf txtbk kyanite, slbl rckf txtbk larnite, rckf merwinite, unavg txtbk mullite, txtbk ringwoodite (spinel structural group), rare rckf txtbk sillimanite, unavg spurrite (spurrite-afwillite structural group), ravg rckf txtbk topaz
  • Series: hafnon–zircon
Alunite supergroup
Alunite group, beudantite group, crandallite group
Sulfates and phosphates
Andalusite structural group
Sulfates and phosphates, olivenite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Nesosilicates, andalusite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Apatite supergroup
Ellestadite group, hedyphane group, belovite group, apatite group and britholite group
Sulfates and phosphates, apatite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Nesosilicates, tritomite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Garnet supergroup
Berzeliite group, schorlomite group, bitikleite group and henritermierite group
Sulfates and phosphates, berzeliite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Nesosilicates, garnet group (Fleischer, 2008)
Monazite structural group
Sulfates and phosphates
  • Minerals: xtr txtbk crocoite, rdact rckf huttonite, monazite (rdact unavg rckf txtbk monazite-(Ce), rdact txtbk monazite-(La), rdact txtbk monazite-(Nd), rdact txtbk monazite-(Sm))
Olivine structural group
Sulfates and phosphates, triphylite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Nesosilicates, olivine structural group
Olivine group (Fleischer, 2008)
Titanite structural group
Sulfates and phosphates, amblygonite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Sulfates and phosphates, durangite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Nesosilicates, titanite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Tsumcorite group (Fleischer, 2008)
Sulfates and phosphates
Minerals: none cobalttsumcorite, unavg natrochalcite, none tsumcorite

Polymeric silicates: sorosilicates and cyclosilicates[edit]

Sorosilicates
Minerals: xtr rckf bertrandite, txtb fersmanite, xtr rckf txtbk hemimorphite, unavg txtbk ilvaite, rare kornerupine (kornerupine–prismatine), txtbk lamprophyllite, unavg txtbk lawsonite, rckf rosenbuschite, rare txtbk vesuvianite, txtbk wadsleyite
  • Axinite group (Fleischer, 2008): ravg rckf txtbk axinite-(Fe), ravg axinite-(Mg), ravg rckf txtbk axinite-(Mn)
  • Series: axinite-(Fe)–axinite-(Mn), axinite-(Mn)–tinzenite
  • Series: clinozoisite–epidote
  • Series: åkermanite–gehlenite
  • Pumpellyite group (Rruff, 2013): julgoldite (none julgoldite-(Fe2+), rckf julgoldite-(Fe3+), julgoldite-(Mg)), pumpellyite (none pumpellyite-(Al), none pumpellyite-(Fe2+), rckf pumpellyite-(Fe3+), xtr rckf pumpellyite-(Mg), none pumpellyite-(Mn2+), var. chlorastrolite)
  • Series: julgoldite-(Fe2+)–pumpellyite-(Fe2+), julgoldite-(Fe2+)–pumpellyite-(Mg), pumpellyite-(Fe2+)–pumpellyite-(Mg)
Cyclosilicates
Minerals: rare rckf txtbk cordierite (cordierite–sekaninaite), unavg benitoite, xtr rckf catapleiite (calciocatapleiite–catapleiite), xtr txtb dioptase, xtr rckf eudialyte, unavg papagoite, txtbk pseudowollastonite
  • Series: dravite–elbaite, dravite–schorl, dravite–uvite, elbaite–liddicoatite, elbaite–schorl

Polymeric silicates: inosilicates and phyllosilicates[edit]

Inosilicates, single chains
Minerals: rckf carpholite (carpholite–ferrocarpholite), unavg chkalovite, rckf epididymite, txtbk howieite, txtbk plancheite, xtr rckf txtbk prehnite, pyroxferroite–pyroxmangite (txtbk pyroxferroite, xtr txtbk pyroxmangite), xtr rckf txtbk rhodonite, txtbk shattuckite, unavg stokesite
  • Series: astrophyllite–kupletskite, kupletskite–kupletskite-(Cs)
  • Series: pectolite–sérandite
  • Series: unavg txtbk aegirine–augite, enstatite–ferrosilite, hedenbergite–johannsenite
Inosilicates, multiple chains
Double chain silicates
  • Series: actinolite–ferro-actinolite, actinolite–tremolite, anthophyllite–ferroanthophyllite, anthophyllite–gedrite, barroisite–ferrobarroisite, edenite–pargasite, edenite–parvo-mangano-edenite, ferrikatophorite–katophorite, ferro-actinolite–tremolite, ferropargasite–pargasite, ferrotschermakite–tschermakite, hastingsite–magnesiohastingsite, magnesiohastingsite–pargasite, sodic-ferro-anthophyllite–sodicanthophyllite, sodic-ferrogedrite–sodicgedrite
Triple chain silicate: txtbk jimthompsonite
Inosilicates, note: the cleavages of 'jimthompsonite' are at 142 degrees and 38 degrees, and 135 degrees and 45 for 'chesterite'; compared to the cleavage angles of pyroxene at about 94 degrees and 86 degrees and amphibole about 124 and 56 degrees.
Phyllosilicates
Minerals: unavg ajoite, txtbk chrysocolla (allophane, chalcedony and spertiniite?), none imogolite, txtbk neptunite (manganoneptunite–neptunite), txtbk palygorskite, txtbk sepiolite
  • Apophyllite group: xtr txtbk rckf apophyllite-(KF), rckf apophyllite-(KOH), none apophyllite-(NaF)
  • Series: apophyllite-(KF)–apophyllite-(KOH)
  • Series: muscovite–paragonite, polylithionite–trilithionite
  • Series: clinochlore–chamosite
  • Series: beidellite–montmorillonite, beidellite–saponite

Polymeric silicates: tectosilicates[edit]

Minerals belonging to tectosilicates without zeolitic H2O
Minerals: ravg txtbk danburite, ravg rckf txtbk petalite
  • Series: albite–anorthite, albite–orthoclase, celsian–hyalophane, celsian–orthoclase, hyalophane–orthoclase
Feldspathoids (informal group), zeomic frameworks, tectosilicates
  • Cancrinite-sodalite structural group
Zeolites (Fleischer, 2008), zeomic frameworks, tectosilicates
Minerals: none cowlesite, rckf edingtonite (EDI), unavg rckf epistilbite (EPI), rckf txtbk gismondine (GIS), rckf txtbk laumontite (LAU), rckf txtbk mordenite (MOR), rckf offretite (OFF), txtbk wenkite (WEN)
  • Series: analcime–pollucite, analcime–wairakite
  • Brewsterite framework (BRE): rckf brewsterite-Ba, none brewsterite-Sr
  • Dachiardite framework (DAC): rckf dachiardite-Ca, rckf dachiardite-Na
  • Chabazite framework (CHA): SSZ-13
  • Chabazite series (Fleischer, 2008): xtr rckf txtbk chabazite-Ca, xtr rckf txtbk chabazite-K, xtr rckf txtbk chabazite-Na, txtbk chabazite-Sr
  • Erionite framework (ERI)
  • Erionite series (Fleischer, 2008): rckf txtbk erionite-Ca, rckf txtbk erionite-K, rckf txtbk erionite-Na
  • Faujasite framework (FAU): X and Y zeolites
  • Faujasite series (Fleischer, 2008): none faujasite-Ca, none faujasite-Mg, none faujasite-Na
  • Ferrierite framewrok (FER)
  • Ferrierite series (Fleischer, 2008): rckf ferrierite-K, rckf ferrierite-Mg, rckf ferrierite-Na
  • Gmelinite framework (GME)
  • Gmelinite series (Fleischer, 2008): xtr rckf txtbk gmelinite-Ca, xtr rckf txtbk gmelinite-K, xtr rckf txtbk gmelinite-Na
  • Heulandite framework (HEU)
  • Series: clinoptilolite-Ca–heulandite-Ca, clinoptilolite-K–heulandite-K, clinoptilolite-Na–heulandite-Na
  • Clinoptilolite series (Fleischer, 2008): rckf txtbk clinoptilolite-Ca, rckf txtbk clinoptilolite-K, rckf txtbk clinoptilolite-Na
  • Heulandite framework (HEU) and the ratio Si : Al ≥ 4.0.
  • Heulandite series (Fleischer, 2008): txtbk heulandite-Ba, txt rckf txtbk heulandite-Ca, rckf txtbk heulandite-K, rckf txtbk heulandite-Na, txtbk heulandite-Sr
  • Heulandite framework (HEU) and the ratio Si : Al < 4.0
  • Phillipsite series (Fleischer, 2008): rckf txtbk phillipsite-Ca, rckf txtbk phillipsite-K, rckf txtbk phillipsite-Na
  • Series: phillipsite-Ca–phillipsite-K, phillipsite-Ca–phillipsite-Na, phillipsite-K–phillipsite-Na, harmotome–phillipsite-Ca
  • Stilbite framework (STI): rckf txtbk stilbite-Ca, rckf txtbk stilbite-Na
  • Thomsonite framework (THO): xtr rckf txtbk thomsonite-Ca, none thomsonite-Sr

Zeolite formation[edit]

Zeolites transform to other minerals under weathering, hydrothermal alteration or metamorphic conditions. Some examples:[1]
  • The sequence of silica-rich volcanic rocks commonly progresses from:
  • The sequence of silica-poor volcanic rocks commonly progresses from:
  • Volcanic ash, an open system, an example:
    • Unaltered glas → heulandite → analcime → K-feldspar–quartz → water table
  • Volcanic ash, saline lake zoning, an closed system, an example:
    • Unaltered glas than fresh water (unaltered glas and clays) → saline water (phillipsite and heulandite) → more saline water (analcime) → highly saline water (K-feldspar)
  • Deep sea zeolites an example:
    • Sea water than silica-rich fossil radiolarians and phillipsite → heulandite
  • Cooling of a volcanic flow, alteration of volcanic glas in cavities or veins, an example:
    • Clay → phillipsite → chabazite or clay → levyne–offretite → thomsonite–mesolite-scolecite → chabazite or clay → mordenite–heulandite → stilbite → mesolite-scolecite → chabazite
  • Hydrothermal zeolite zoning, western Iceland:
    • Chabazite zone at 55-70°C (levyne, phillipsite) → mesolite-scolecite zone at 60-90°C (thomsonite, gismondine) → stilbite–heulandite zone at 90-110°C (epistilbite, mordenite) → laumontite zone at 110-230°C (mordenite, analcime) → analcime–wairakite zone at 170-300°C → prehnite zone → epidote zone at over 230°C (chlorites) → actinolite zone (chlorites)
    • Calcite and montmorillonite are found throughout.
  • Contact hydrothermal metamorphism zoning
    • Stilbite–heulandite–mordenite zone (under 150°C) → laumontite–quartz zone (150-180°C) → wairakite–yugawaralite–prehnite zone (180-280°C) → epidote–actinolite zone (280-390°C) → hornblende–biotite zone (390-600°C) → granitic magma
  • Burial metamorphism zoning, New Zealand
    • Two km thick unaltered glas → zeolite facies [heulandite (mordenite, quartz) → analcime–heulandite → wairakite → laumontite–albite–pumpellyite] → greenschist facies (albite–prehnite–pumpellyite–epidote) → epidote–amphibolite facies → amphibolite facies → granulite facies
  • Contact metamorphism zoning, Cretaceous trachytes, Bulgaria
    • Mordenite–quartz → chabazite–stilbite–heulandite–gmelinite → mesolite–scolecite–natrolite–thomsonite–laumontite–analcime → albite–epidote–prehnite–pumpellyite → granitic intrusion
  • Contact metamorphism, Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria
    • Quartz–chalcedony–mordenite–ferrierite → stilbite–heulandite–chabazite–harmotome–laumontite → natrolite–analcime → albite–epidote → granitic intrusion
  • Pegmatites
    • Middle to late pegmatite crystallization (400 to 300°C): pollucite
    • Cooler hydrothermal phase (250 to 150°C): cesian-analcime
    • Upon further cooling: lepidolite and muscovite (micas)
  • Notes: laumontite associated with prehnite, pumpellyite and epidote; has a high temperature origin. Its synthesis requires 250°C and more than 1000 bars in the laboratoy, but it crystallizes at 89-43°C and pH 7.74 at Sespe Hot Springs CA. Yugawaralite is pressure-sensitive: less than 500 m in geothermal systems (less than 234°C and 550 bars). Platy zeolites (e.g. stilbite, heulandite) have a high water content, fibrous zeolites grow even under water limiting conditions.
  • Supergene (geology), hypogene (geology)

End notes[edit]

Class silicates, subclass germanates
carboiritechloritoid solid solution series (ottrelite group, nesosilicates)
Other mindat.org solid solution series
Native elements: gold–palladium, gold–silver, palladium–silver, antimony–arsenic, braggite–vysotskite, ferronickelplatinum–tulameenite, taimyrite-I–tatyanaite
Others, sulfides: arsenosulvanitesulvanite
Others, halides, oxides:
Others, carbonates, borates:
Others, sulfates: arcanitemascagnite, atlasovitenabokoite, boussingaultitemohrite, carlosruizitefuenzalidaite, halotrichitepickeringite, hemihedriteiranite, jarositenatrojarosite
Others, phosphates: adamite-olivenite, arrojadite-(KFe)–dickinsonite-(KMnNa), arsenogorceixitearsenogoyazite
Others, silicates:


Hydrotalcite supergroup
Hydrocalumite group: none hydrocalumite, none kuzelite (Ca4Al2(OH)12(SO4)·6H2O)
Hydrotalcite group: none desautelsite (Mg6Mn2CO3(OH)16·4H2O), none hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2CO3(OH)16·4H2O), none stichtite (Mg6Cr2CO3(OH)16·4H2O) ...
Cualstibite group: none cualstibite (Cu2AlSb(OH)12), none omsite ((Ni,Cu)2Fe(OH)6[Sb(OH)6]), none zincalstibite (Zn2AlSb(OH)12)
Fougèrite group: none fougèrite (Fe2+
6
Fe3+
2
(OH)
18
·4H
2
O
), none mössbauerite, none trébeurdenite (IMA 2012-B)
Glaucocerinite group: none glaucocerinite, none zincaluminite ((Zn,Al)9(SO4)2(OH)18·nH2O), ...
Quintinite group: none quintinite (Mg4Al2(OH)12CO3·3H2O), none zaccagnaite (Zn4Al2(OH)12(CO3)·3H2O), ...
Wermlandite group: none wermlandite (Mg8Al2(OH)18(SO4)2·12H2O), none shigaite (NaAl3Mn6(SO4)2(OH)18·12H2O), none motukoreaite ...
Woodwardite group: none zincowoodwardite, none woodwardite ((Cu,Al)9(SO4)2(OH)18·nH2O), none honessite


Cement and ceramics
Cement: pseudowollastonite, brownmillerite, grossite, larnite, mayenite, tobermorite, katoite (synthetic tricalcium aluminate hydrate, C3AH6)
  • Clay bearing limestone, undergone high temperature low pressure metamorphosis
Ceramics: mullite, anorthite

Sources for elements[edit]

Zeomic frameworks[edit]


Zeomic frameworks


  • Feldspathoid group, informal group
    • Cancrinite–sodalite structural group
    • Nepheline group (Fleischer, 2008)
    • Some minerals of zeolite structural group


Hidden notes[edit]