Wikipedia:WikiProject Wikislice/Chemistry

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About chemistry[edit]

Chemistry, from Arabic language khemeia meaning "alchemy", is a branch of science. Modern chemistry focuses on the study of elements of the world and the bonds between elements. Chemistry also deals with composition, structure, and properties of substances and the transformations that they undergo. In the study of matter, chemistry also investigates its interactions with energy and itself. Because of the diversity of matter, which is mostly in the form of compounds, chemists often study how atoms of different chemical elements interact to form molecules, and how molecules interact with each other.

Periodic table[edit]

H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As S e Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba * Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra ** Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
* La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr


Chemical series of the periodic table (book)
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Lanthanides Actinides Transition metals
Poor metals Metalloids Nonmetals Halogens Noble gases

State of matter at STP and natural occurrence.

Primordial Trace radioisotopes
Solids Liquids Gases

Chemistry in society[edit]

Acid rain - Air pollution - Amphetamine - Anabolic steroids - Asbestos - Aspartame - Aspirin - CFCs - Cholesterol - Cocaine - Carbohydrates - Carbon dioxide - Chemical warfare - Ecstasy - Enzymes - Estrogen - Fat - Fatty acid - Free radicals - Gasoline - Heroin - Insulin - LSD - Morphine - Nuclear fuel - Nuclear fusion - Paracetamol - Penicillin - Plastic - Radioactive waste - Ozone - Smog - Soil contamination - Sugar - Tamiflu - Testosterone - Viagra - Vitamins

Introduction[edit]

American Chemical Society - biochemistry - chemistry - computer-assisted drug design - computational chemistry - dependent variable - environmental chemistry - experiment - geochemistry - hypothesis - independent variable - inorganic chemistry - law - matter - medicinal chemistry - organic chemistry - pharmacology - pharmacognosy - physical chemistry - scientific notation - theory - toxicology - variable

Measurement[edit]

absolute error - absolute temperature - absolute zero - accuracy - ampere - Angstrom - atto- - base unit - calibration - Celsius - centi- - cgs - conversion factor - coulomb - density - derived unit - dyne - femto- - gram - gross error - hydrometer - kelvin - kilo- - limit of quantitation - mass - measurement - mega- - meter - micro- - milli- - mistake - nano- - pico- - power - precision - random error - relative error - relative standard deviation - second - significant figure - SI - specific gravity - specific volume - standard deviation - systematic error - trueness - unit - weight

Matter[edit]

absorption - adsorbent - adsorption - aeration - aerosol - alkali metal - alkaline earth - alkaline earth metal - allotrope - alloy - amalgam - analysis - atom - boiling - boiling point - chemical change - chemical property - chromatography - colloid - column chromatography - compound - concentration - condensation - congener - crystallization - density - dialysis - diffusion - dilution - distillate - distillation - ductile - electrolysis - electrorefining - element - element symbol - emulsion - evaporation - evaporate - extensive property - extraction - foam - fractional distillation - gas - gel - group - heterogeneous mixture - high performance liquid chromatography - homogeneous mixture - intensive property - ion exchange - kinetic energy - lanthanide - law of conservation of mass - law of definite proportions - law of multiple proportions - liquid - malleable - mass - matter - metal - molecule - nonparticulate - nonmetal - nonpolar - nonpolar molecule - particulate - periodic table - period - phase - phase boundary - physical change - physical property - plasma - polymorph - potential energy - precipitate - precipitation - pure substance - qualitative analysis - quantitative analysis - sedimentation - semipermeable membrane - sol - solid - soluble - soluble salt - solution - solvent - solvent extraction - sorption - state of matter - stationary phase - stoichiometry - stripping - sublimation - thin layer chromatography - transition metal - zone refining

Consumer chemistry[edit]

abrasive - acidulant - activated charcoal - antichlor - antioxidant - antiozonant - antipyretic - aqua regia - bleach - caffeine - carbonate hardness - dry cell - EDTA - emollient - glutamate receptors - glutamate - glyceride - humectant - mixed glyceride - MSG - natural gas - permanent hardness - propellant - saturated fat - soap - temporary hardness - unsaturated fat - vinyl - vitamin - water gas - water hardness - water softener - water softening - zeolite - zincography

Atoms, elements, and ions[edit]

allobar - allotrope - alpha particle - alpha ray - anion - anode - atomic mass unit - atomic nucleus - atomic number - atomic theory - atomic weight - atom - beta particle - Brownian motion - calutron - cathode ray - cathode - cation - chemical change - compound - deuterium - electric charge - electron - element - element symbol - group - heavy water - ion - isotope - isotopic abundance - isotopic mass - IUPAC - law of conservation of mass - law of definite proportions - law of multiple proportions - mass number - mass spectrometer - mass spectrometry - mass spectrum - metal - natural abundance - neutral - neutron - nonmetal - nuclear binding energy - nucleon - nuclide symbol - nuclide - periodic table - period - polymorph - proton - radioactivity - stoichiometry - x-ray spectrum

Molecules and compounds[edit]

acetate - acetic acid - acid - addition compound - alkaline earth - alkane - ammonia - ammonium ion - anhydrous - anion - base - binary compound - Brönsted acid - Brönsted base - cation - chemical bond - covalent bond - covalent compound - cupric - cuprous - diatomic molecule - efflorescent - element - empirical formula - ferric - ferrous - formula weight - formula unit - halide - hydrate - hydrazine - hydrocarbon - hydronium ion - hydroxide - hygroscopic - hygroscopicity - inorganic compound - ionic bond - ionic compound - IUPAC - law of conservation of mass - law of definite proportions - law of multiple proportions - molecular formula - molecular model - molecular weight - nomenclature - octane - organic - polyatomic ion - polyatomic molecule - propane - proton donor - stoichiometry - structural formula - sugar - superoxide - thio- - water of crystallization

Reactions in solution[edit]

analyte - anode - aqueous - balanced equation - Brönsted acid - Brönsted base - catalyst - cation - chemical change - chemical equation - combination reaction - combustion - complete ionic equation - compound - decomposition - displacement - double displacement - electrolyte - endpoint - equivalence point - formation - indicator - insoluble - ionic dissociation - ionic equation - limiting reactant - molecular equation - net ionic equation - neutral - neutralization reaction - nonelectrolyte - percent yield - polar molecule - precipitate - precipitation - product - reactant - rearrangement reaction - redox reaction - saturated solution - solubility - spectator ion - standard solution - stoichiometry - strong acid - strong base - strong electrolyte - supersaturated solution - synthesis - theoretical yield - titrant - titration curve - titration - weak acid - weak base - weak electrolyte - yield

Stoichiometry[edit]

aliquot - alkalinity - Avogadro - Avogadro number - empirical formula - experimental yield - formula weight - formula unit - limiting reactant - mass percentage - molar - molarity - mole - molecular formula - molecular weight - percent yield - theoretical yield - volume percentage - yield

Gases[edit]

absolute zero - atmosphere - Avogadro - Avogadro number - Avogadro's law - bar - barometer - Boltzmann constant - Boyle's law - Charles' law - Dalton's law - diffusion - diffusion rate - effusion - gas - ideal gas - ideal gas law constant - law of combining volumes - manometer - molar volume - momentum - Pascal (unit) - pressure - SATP - standard molar volume - standard pressure - STP - torr - van der Waals equation - xenon

Energy & chemical change[edit]

adiabat - adiabatic - average bond enthalpy - Boltzmann constant - Boltzmann equation - bond energy - bond enthalpy - calorie - calorimeter - calorimetry - empirical temperature - endothermic - energy - enthalpy - enthalpy of atomization - enthalpy of combustion - enthalpy of fusion - enthalpy of hydration - enthalpy of reaction - enthalpy of sublimation - enthalpy of vaporization - entropy - exothermic - first law - formation - free energy - Gibbs free energy - Gibbs free energy of formation - heat capacity - heat - Helmholtz free energy - Hess's law - indicator diagram - internal energy - isobar - isobaric - isochore - isochoric - isotherm - isothermal - joule - kinetic energy - latent heat - molar heat capacity - perfect crystal - potential energy - second law - specific heat - spontaneous - standard entropy of reaction - standard enthalpy change - standard enthalpy of formation - standard enthalpy of reaction - standard molar entropy - standard state - standard pressure - state function - temperature - thermal energy - thermochemical equation - thermochemistry - thermodynamic equilibrium - thermodynamics - thermometry - water gas - work

Quantum theory[edit]

amplitude - constructive interference - destructive interference - diffraction - electromagnetic radiation - frequency - gamma rays - Hertz - infrared radiation - interference - microwave - momentum - node - phase - photoelectric effect - photoelectron - photon - Planck's constant - quantum - quantum mechanics - quantum number - ultraviolet light - uncertainty principle - visible light - wavefunction - wavelength - wave - x-ray - x-ray diffraction pattern - x-ray spectrum - x-ray tube - zero point energy

Electrons in atoms[edit]

absorption spectrum - angular momentum quantum number - atomic orbital - aufbau principle - Balmer series - band spectrum - basis function - basis set - Bohr atom - continuous spectrum - core electron - degenerate - diamagnetism - effective nuclear charge - electron configuration - emission spectrum - excited state - f orbital - ground state - Hund's rule - isoelectronic - line spectrum - magnetic quantum number - noble gas core - orbital - paramagnetism - Pauli principle - penetration - principal quantum number - pseudocore - shell - shielding - spectrophotometry - spectroscopy - spectrum - spin - spin pair - subshell - unpaired spin - valence electron - valence shell

The periodic table[edit]

actinide - alkali metal - alkaline earth - alkaline earth metal - amphoteric - atomic radius - block - congener - first ionization energy - group - halogen - ionic radius - ionization energy - lanthanide contraction - lanthanide - main group elements - metal - nonmetal - periodic law - periodic table - periodic trend - period - second ionization energy - transition metal

Chemical bonding[edit]

alkane - antibonding orbital - average bond enthalpy - axial - bond energy - bond enthalpy - bond length - bond order - chemical bond - covalent bond - electric dipole - electric dipole moment - electronegativity - enthalpy of atomization - free radical - geometric isomer - hydrogen bond - incomplete octet - inductive effect - inert pair - infrared spectroscopy - ionic bond - ionic compound - Lewis structure - lone pair - molecular geometry - molecular orbital - multiple bond - octet - octet rule - pi bond - polar bond - polar molecule - resonance - resonance effect - sigma bond - triple bond - valence - valence bond - valence electron - valence shell

Solids[edit]

allomer - amorphous - crystal - crystalline solid - enthalpy of sublimation - freezing point - lattice - network covalent solid - perfect crystal - solid - unit cell - van der Waals force - van der Waals radius - x-ray crystallography

Liquids[edit]

adhesion - Antoine equation - boiling - boiling point - Clausius-Clapeyron equation - cohesion - critical point - critical molar volume - critical pressure - critical temperature - dipole-dipole interaction - dynamic equilibrium - enthalpy of fusion - enthalpy of vaporization - flash point - miscibility - intermolecular force - liquid - London force - meniscus - miscible - Newtonian fluid - non-Newtonian fluid - nucleation - partial miscibility - Pascal's law - phase - phase diagram - poise - specific gravity - supercritical fluid - supercooling - surface tension - surfactant - thixotropic fluid - van der Waals force - van der Waals radius - viscosity - wetting - partial miscibility

Solutions[edit]

activity - aeration - aerosol - aliquot - aqueous - azeotrope - boiling - boiling point - boiling point elevation - colligative property - colloid - dilution - ebulliometry - emulsion - enthalpy of hydration - equivalent - eutectic mixture - foam - fractional distillation - freezing point depression - gel - Henry's Law - hydrophilic - hydrophobic - hypertonic - hypotonic - ideal solution - mass percentage - molality - molar - molarity - mole fraction - normality - osmometry - osmosis - osmotic pressure - parts per million - Raoult's law - reverse osmosis - saturated solution - semipermeable membrane - sol - solubility - solubilizing group - solute - solution - solvent - sorption - specific gravity - standard solution - supersaturated solution - Tyndall effect - unsaturated compound - vapor pressure lowering - volume percentage

Acids and bases[edit]

acetic - acid - acid-base indicator - acid dissociation constant - alkaline - amphiprotic solvent - amphoteric - aprotic solvent - aqua regia - autoprotolysis - base hydrolysis constant - Brönsted acid - Brönsted base - buffer - hydronium ion - ionic dissociation - Kw - litmus - litmus paper - neutral - neutralization reaction - nitric acid - pH - phenolphthalein - proton donor - strong acid - strong base - weak acid - weak base

Redox reactions[edit]

agar - anode - anodize - autoxidation - battery acid - cathode - cation - corrosion - coulomb - disproportionation - dry cell - electrochemical cell - electrolytic cell - electrolysis - ferroin - kilogram - oxidation - oxidizing agent - oxidation number - potential difference - redox indicator - redox reaction - redox titration - reducing agent - reduction - salt bridge - volt - voltage - voltaic cell - voltaic pile - voltammeter

Reaction rates[edit]

activated complex - activation energy - Arrhenius equation - catalyst - collision frequency - collision theory - elementary reaction - enzyme - first order reaction - half life - integrated rate law - intermediate - order - rate constant - rate law - reaction mechanism - reaction rate - second order reaction - unimolecular reaction - zero order reaction


Environmental chemistry[edit]

activated charcoal - carbonate hardness - cyanide process - dissolved oxygen - domoic acid - environmental chemistry - excitotoxin - free radical - glutamate receptors - molecular sieve - neurotransmitter - permanent hardness - temporary hardness - teratogen - water hardness - water softener - water softening

Organic chemistry[edit]

acid anhydride - acid halide - -al - alcohol - aldehyde - aliphatic - alkane - alkene - alkoxide - alkyl - alkyne - allo- - allyl - amide - amine - amino acid - ammine - arene - aromatic ring - aromatic compound - aryl - azo - carbonyl - carboxylic acid - carotene - chelate - chiral - chiral center - conformers - coordination number - crystal field splitting energy - crystal field theory - D- - dextrorotatory - diazonium salt - diazotization - dichloromethane - EDTA - ester - fatty acid - free radical - functional group - glycerol - heterocyclic - high spin complex - homolog - hydrocarbon - inductive effect - inorganic chemistry - inorganic compound - ketone - L- - levorotatory - ligand - low spin complex - methyl - mixed glyceride - molecular sieve - monodentate - octane - optical activity - organic - organic chemistry - paraffin - phenol - phenyl - polydentate - polymer - propane - racemic - resonance effect - strong ligand - superoxide - tautomer - thin layer chromatography - triglyceride - unsaturated compound - water gas - wax - weak ligand - -yl - zwitterion

Inorganic chemistry[edit]

ammine - chelate - coordination number - crystal field splitting energy - crystal field theory - EDTA - high spin complex - inorganic chemistry - inorganic compound - ligand - low spin complex - monodentate - polydentate - strong ligand - superoxide - water gas - weak ligand

Polymers[edit]

acetate - copolymer - ebulliometry - monomer - osmometry - polymer - polymerization - polymerize - thermoplastic - thermosetting - vinyl

Laboratory practices[edit]

auto-ignition temperature - autoxidation - Bunsen burner - flash point - MSDS - pyrophoric