Wikipedia:Wikipedia as a court source

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This is a sortable table of documents used in legal proceedings that have cited Wikipedia as a source. This may also include important regulatory or administrative government decisions, as well as landmark decisions in other languages than English.



Jurisdiction Court/
Body
Date Case Name/
Link
Case Citation Cited article Remarks/
Quotes
 United States United States District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin 2014-06-06 Wolf v. Walker 14-cv-64-bbc George Washington U.S. District Judge Barbara B. Crabb: "There is also little to no stigma attached to childless married couples. Neither defendants nor amici point to any social opprobrium directed at the many millions of such couples throughout this country’s history, beginning with America’s first family, George and Martha Washington, who had no biological children of their own. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington (visited June 6, 2014)."
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2014-04-14 Conrad v. AM Community Credit Union, et al. No. 13-2899 Dance notation Posner, J. writes: "To comply with the requirement of fixity she would have had either to have recorded the performance or to have created a written 'dance notation' of it...'Dance Notation,' Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dance_notation. She did neither."
 United States:
Utah Utah
Utah Court of Appeals 2012-08-16 Fire Insurance Exchange v. Oltmanns and Blackner[1] 285 P.3d 802 Jet ski
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit 2012-04-20 United States v. Lawson 677 F.3d 629 Criminal conviction reversed because juror improperly used Wikipedia as a source.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2012-03-27 Prude v. Clark 675 F.3d 732 Anal fissure Access date March 15, 2012; cited in a judicial opinion rebuking a county sheriff for ignoring a Federal lawsuit.
 Philippines Supreme Court 2011-3-7 Bank of Commerce v. Goodman Fielder
G.R. No. 168715 Checkwriter
 Council of Europe European Court of Human Rights 2010-12-7 Jakobski v. Poland Buddhist cuisine Cited by the Polish government.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit 2010-10-26 Gonzales v. Arizona 624 F.3d 1162 Exclusive or In footnote 7 of his dissent, Judge Alex Kozinski cites: "Wikipedia gives the following example to illustrate the difference between the exclusive and the inclusive 'or'..."
 Philippines Supreme Court 2010-9-15 Medline Management v. Roslinda
G.R. No. 168715 Hemodialysis
 United Kingdom High Court of England and Wales, Chancery Division 2010-7-23 SAS Institute Inc. v World Programming Ltd
([http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/Ch/2010/1829.html)
[2010] EWHC 1829 SAS language Justice Arnold wrote (at paragraph 56): In my judgment the SAS Language is a programming language. I am comforted by the fact that this assessment coincides ... also with that of the anonymous author of the entry for "SAS language" in Wikipedia (as last modified on 25 April 2010), which states...
 Philippines Supreme Court 2010-5-5 Bonifacio v. RTC-Makati
G.R. No. 184800 Blog, Yahoo Groups
 Philippines Supreme Court 2010-3-26 Orceo v. COMELEC
G.R. No. 190779 Airsoft gun, Air gun Separate Opinion of Justice Arturo Brion
 Philippines Supreme Court 2010-3-3 Leonis Navigation v. Villamater
G.R. No. 179169 Colorectal cancer
 United Kingdom Milton Keynes County Court 2009-12-04 Petrie v The Standard Life Assurance Ltd Floating rate note Referred to by one of the parties; District Judge Hickman said "it seems to me that while it is inappropriate to use Wikipedia or similar internet resources as a source of quasi-expert evidence, it is perfectly appropriate and proportionate to use such a resource to find an explanation for an unfamiliar expression, just as it is accepted practice to refer to a reputable dictionary."
 Philippines Supreme Court 2008-9-12 Republic v. Cagandahan
G.R. No. 166676 Intersexuality
 United States:
New Jersey New Jersey
Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division. 2009-08-29 Palisades Collection v. Graubard No. A-1338-07T3 (Unpublished) See law.com article. Additionally, see the opinion of the court, which reverses the trial court. The appellate court held that Wikipedia articles are not admissible as reliable evidence.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit 2008-08-29 Badasa v. Mukasey 540 F.3d 909 See Wired article.
 United Kingdom High Court of Justice, Queen's Bench Division 2008-04-09 Meisels v. Lichtman [2008] EWHC 661 Satmar (Hasidic dynasty) Cited to explain the cultural background and underlying attitudes of all the parties, who were from this branch of orthodox Judaism.
 Germany Federal Patent Court 2007-11-27 33 W (pat) 99/07 FTSE All-Share Index
 Israel Small claims court, Petah Tikva 2007-10-28 Bar-Ziv vs. Peled he:דואר זבל Used as reference to define spam. First known court citation of a Hebrew Wikipedia article. First known citation in Israeli jurisprudence.
 Malaysia Federal Court of Malaysia 2007-10-23 PP v. Kok Wah Kuan Unclear, probably Lord Chancellor Used as an additional reference to support the claim the Lord Chancellor was a member of all 3 branches of government
 Canada:
Ontario Ontario
Court of Appeal for Ontario 2007-10-22 R. v. Budd Trust Cited by the trial judge of first instance.
 Australia:
Victoria (Australia) Victoria
Supreme Court of Victoria 2007-10-17 Timoney Technology Limited & Anor v ADI Ltd Bushmaster IMV "This case is not the appropriate vehicle to determine whether or to what extent information appearing on a Wikipedia website may be admissible in evidence."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-10-17 Formula One Licensing B.V. v. Racing-Live S.A. "The applicant filed abundant material (listed above) with a view to proving that 'F1', far from being a trade mark, is a descriptive indication identifying a type of motor racing event. A significant part of the evidence comes from Wikipedia."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-10-16 Case no. 071516093 Homosexuality in India Cited by the applicant.
 United States:
Wisconsin Wisconsin
Wisconsin Court of Appeals 2007-10-16 Godoy v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 743 N.W.2d 159 Processing of lead metal from ore
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit 2007-10-12 U.S. v. Bazaldua 506 F.3d 671 PIT maneuver
(accessed Sept 20, 2007)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit 2007-10-10 Lennon v. Metro. Life Ins. Co. 504 F.3d 617 Blood alcohol
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-10-03 CBS Worldwide Inc. v. Funkwerk plettac electronic GmbH CBS, CBS Evening News, Orbit News, Sky News, de:Der Preis ist heiß, de:Columbia Broadcasting System Cited by CBS.
 Australia IP Australia 2007-10-02 Sanofi-Aventis Lydia Pinkham, Lily the Pink (song) Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-09-27 Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc.
(
R 708/2006-4 Spectrogram, Tarzan "Again within the ambit of Article 74 (1) CTMR, the Board has considered the references in the 'Wikipedia' article ..."
 India Supreme Court of India 2007-09-26 Commissioner of Customs, New Delhi v. C-Net Communication (I) Pvt. Ltd Decoder
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-09-25 Hedge Invest SGR P.A. v. BI Management A/S Hedge fund
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-09-24 Case no. 071637020 Young Communist League, Nepal
(as of May 31, 2007)
 Australia IP Australia 2007-09-20 Apple Computer Inc USB
 Canada Public Service Labour Relations Board 2007-09-20 Cox v. Vezina Mobbing Cited by the complainant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-09-18 Visual Finder, S.L. v. Lilly Software Associates, Inc Visual programming language Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-09-19 Axel Springer AG v. Jerome Russell Cosmetics (USA) Inc. Bild-Zeitung Cited by the opponent.

"(...) a genuine reputation of the sign has not been proved. In particular, the opponent did not file any documents from independent sources, such as for example market surveys carried out by third specialised companies. The Annual Report comes from the opponent itself, and the Wikipedia extract cannot be properly considered as an "independent source", taking into account that it is an online encyclopaedia open for editing to everyone, collaboratively written by many of its readers."

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-09-16 CSFB Holt, LLC R 390/2007-1 Cash flow return on investment Cited by the applicant.

"Most of the internet references are connected to the applicant (firms that use CFROI with the applicant's consent) or of uncertain reliability, such as Wikipedia (an online encyclopedia that any person can edit) ..."

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Cancellation Division 2007-09-11 Cervecería Argentina S.A. Isenbeck v. Cervecería y Maltería Quilmas S.A.I.C.A. y G. Patagonia, Río Negro (Argentina) Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-09-10 Reuters Financial Software, s.a. v. Investors Bank & Trust Co. FOREX
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-09-07 Montebello, S.R.L. v. Bodegas Montebello, S.A. Fino Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-09-06 Starbucks Co. R 527/2007-2 Hear Music Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-08-31 Perusahaan Otomobil Nasional Sdn. Bhd. v. Proton Motor Fuel Cell GmbH Fuel cell
 Australia Federal Court of Australia 2007-08-31 SZIYI v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship "The learned Federal Magistrate also rejected the appellant's complaints in his written submissions that information relied upon by the Tribunal was obtained from the Wikipedia website on the internet and was therefore unreliable. She held the complaint to be misconceived. The Tribunal had identified the independent information to which it had regard and the source of that information. It was not confined to material obtained from Wikipedia but included information from various other human rights sources. There was therefore no failure to comply with the requirements of s 424A(1) of the Act simply because the Tribunal had regard to independent information."
 United States:
Maryland Maryland
Court of Appeals of Maryland 2007-08-24 Atty. Griev. Comm'n v. Siskind 401 Md. 41 Opposite day
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit 2007-08-23 Zeiler v. Deitsch 500 F.3d 157 Jewish law
(accessed Aug 1, 2007)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-08-21 Case no. 071512328 Andijan massacre
 Chile Santiago Court of Appeals 2007-08-20 Constructora Salfa S.A. ./. Cruz D-4318/2002 es:Decibelio First known citation in Chilean jurisprudence.
 Australia:
Queensland Queensland
Queensland Body Corporate and Community Management Commissioner 2007-08-14 Thornton Tower Kiosk
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-08-10 Excelentisima Diputacion Provincial de Zaragoza v. Global Plastics Int. Side arms
 Australia Federal Court of Australia 2007-08-09 Nine Network Australia Pty Ltd v IceTV Pty Ltd List of Seinfeld episodes Cited by one of the parties.
 United States:
Alaska Alaska
Alaska Court of Appeals 2007-08-08 Denkinger v. State No. A-9632 Seine (fishing)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-08-01 Sony Co. R 291/2007-2 Memory stick
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-08-01 The Concentrate Manufacturing Company of Ireland v. Gonzalez Byass, S.A. Manzanilla Cited by the opponent.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit 2007-07-31 Boim v. Fulton Co. School Dist. 494 F.3d 978 School shooting
(accessed July 11, 2007)
 United States:
Alaska Alaska
Alaska Court of Appeals 2007-07-25 Stevens v. Matanuska-Susitna Borough Not Reported in P.3d
2007 WL 2143008
Chippendales dancers
 Canada
Ontario Ontario
Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Appeals Tribunal 2007-07-12 Decision No. 1344/07 Orthotics "I placed little weight on this evidence since it was unauthenticated by a professional. As I understand it, the content placed on Wikipedia can be edited by any user and thus is not reliable for accurate information, especially with regard to questions of medical causation."
 Australia:
Victoria (Australia) Victoria
Supreme Court of Victoria 2007-07-03 DPP v Dupas Peter Dupas Cited by the defence.

"The defence has applied for a permanent stay of proceedings on the ground of irremediable prejudice such as would preclude the accused having a fair trial on the charge preferred against him. Essentially the defence admission is that the 'ubiquity and pervasiveness' of the accused's reputation as a serial killer is such that no fair trial can now be had."

 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit 2007-07-02 Lands Council v. McNair 494 F.3d 771 Derrick Jensen "According to Wikipedia, Jensen is often labeled an anarcho-primitivist, who is quoted as saying in his book A Language Older Than Words that '[e]very morning when I awake I ask myself whether I should write or blow up a dam. I tell myself I should keep writing, though I'm not sure that's right.'" (some internal quotes omitted)
 United States:
Ohio Ohio
Ohio Seventh District Court of Appeals 2007-06-29 Litva v. Village of Richmond 172 Ohio App.3d 349 Lost Liberty Hotel (accessed April 19, 2007)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit 2007-06-29 Sedrakyan v. Gonzales 237 Fed. Appx. 76 Yerevan
(accessed June 20, 2007)
See footnote 1 of the opinion: "An alternate spelling of the city is Erevan." (internal quotes omitted)
 Australia:
Queensland Queensland
Queensland Body Corporate and Community Management Commissioner 2007-06-26 Case no. 0237-2007 Latticework
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-06-25 Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare (UK) Ltd. v. Microfood Poland Sp. z.o.o. Ester
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-06-20 Case no. 071295385 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-06-19 Primavera Life GmbH v. S.A. Spa Monopole N.V. SPA
 United Kingdom UK Intellectual Property Office 2007-06-14 Formula One Licensing BV v. Racing-Live Formula One (accessed May 16, 2006), Formula One engines (accessed December 19, 2005), Formula A (accessed June 12, 2006), Formula 3000 (accessed June 12, 2006), Category:Racing formulas "The evidence from Wikipedia deals essentially with the history and background of F1 racing, nothing particularly controversial. Wikipedia has sometimes suffered from the self-editing that is intrinsic to it, giving rise at times to potentially libelous statements. However, inherently, I cannot see that what is in Wikipedia is any less likely to be true than what is published in a book or on the websites of news organisations. Mr McLeod did not express any concerns about the Wikipedia evidence. I consider that the evidence from Wikipedia can be taken at face value."
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2007-06-13 MZXMM v. Minister for Immigration Armenian Apostolic Church Thorough discussion of the reliability of Wikipedia:

"Whilst Wikipedia and the web site which is the subject of the present application which is a branch of Wikipedia may loosely be described as an 'information source', the unreliability of that information for the reasons given renders it an irrelevant source. By relying upon it the Tribunal has committed jurisdictional error."

 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2007-06-12 U.S. v. Calabrese 490 F.3d 575 Chicago Outfit
(accessed June 1, 2007)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit 2007-06-08 Tandia v. Gonzales No. 06-9565 Kaédi
(accessed May 21, 2007)
 Canada:
Quebec Quebec
Court of Quebec 2007-06-04 Chéné c. Simard Document
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-05-31 TridonicAtco GmbH & Co. KG R 108/2007-2 Fruitless search for "Intelligent Voltage Guard" Cited by the applicant. An appeal (T-0297/07) against the decision before the Court of First Instance is pending.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-05-31 Case no. 071176241 Extradition
 United States:
Texas Texas
Texas Court of Appeals 2007-05-24 Freeman v. State No. 11-05-00254-CR Demographics of Dallas County, Texas See footnote 1: "The State does not concede the accuracy of Freeman's statement, contending that, as of the 2000 census, African-Americans comprised 20.31% of Dallas County's population."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-05-23 American-Cigarette Company (Overseas) Ltd. v. Philip Morris Products S.A. Tobacco
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-05-23 Huesker Synthetic GmbH v. DIFEL MÁRMOL, S.L. Building material The board comments the reliance on Wikipedia in the contested decision in the of 2005-12-19 (see infra):

"After repeating the goods of the conflicting trade marks in issue, the Opposition Division defined the term 'building materials'. It referred to a definition taken from some 'Wikipedia' page which seems to be excessively broad, which nevertheless remained uncontested by the parties."

 United States:
Louisiana Louisiana
Supreme Court of Louisiana 2007-05-22 State v. Kennedy 957 So. 2d 757 Capital punishment in the United States (accessed Feb 21, 2007)
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2007-05-17 SZIYI v. Minister for Immigration Unsuccessful complaint by one of the parties about the first court's reliance on Wikipedia:

"The Tribunal identified the independent information to which it had regard and the source of that information. It was not confined to material obtained from Wikipedia. It included information from various other human rights sources..."

 Australia Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2007-05-16 Re Fairhall Therapeutic jurisprudence
(accessed Feb 15, 2007)
 United States:
Connecticut Connecticut
Superior Court of Connecticut, Judicial District of Middlesex 2007-05-10 In re Alex O. No. H12-CP03-009053-C Hair drug testing
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2007-05-10 Thongsuk v. Minister for Immigration Chef Cited by one of the parties.
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2007-05-09 SZJTD v Minister for Immigration Indian National Lok Dal
(accessed July 9, 206)
Cited by the court of first instance.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2007-05-07 Courtney v. Halleran 485 F.3d 942 Savings and Loan crisis
(accessed April 24, 2007)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit 2007-05-04 Matthews v. Ishee 486 F.3d 883 Sarcasm
(accessed March 23, 2007)
 Canada Federal Court 2007-05-04 Hassaballa v. Minister for Citizenship and Immigration Cites the reservations against the use of Wikipedia from Fi v. Canada (see below).
  Switzerland Swiss Federal Supreme Court 2007-05-03 BGE I 871/06 de:Volleyball First citation by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland.
 Australia:
Victoria (Australia) Victoria
Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal 2007-05-03 Boeing Australia Holdings Pty Ltd Elephant in the room
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Supreme Court of Michigan 2007-05-02 Rowland v. Washtenaw County Rd. Comm'n 731 N.W.2d. 41
477 Mich 197
Ad hominem
(accessed March 9, 2007)
Cited in the partly concurring, partly dissenting opinion of Judge Kelly.
 Australia:
New South Wales New South Wales
Workers Compensation Commission of New South Wales 2007-04-13 Electrolux Home Products Pty Ltd v. Osborne Carpal tunnel syndrome
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit 2007-04-10 Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Commissioner 484 F.3d 731 Accrual
(accessed March 23, 2007)
See footnote 1 of the opinion: "The word 'accrue' is an accounting term that means to record or calculate an item of income or expense that has not yet been paid."
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2007-04-05 Crawford v. Marion County Election Bd. 484 F.3d 436 Washington gubernatorial election, 2004, Florida's 13th congressional district, Jon Tester
(accessed March 22, 2007)
 Austria Austrian Supreme Court 2007-03-29 3Ob277/06s de:Neusiedler See First citation by the Austrian Supreme Court.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-03-29 Telesis Entwicklungs- und Management GmbH v. Telesis Communications France SARL Telesis
(accessed Apr 10, 2006)
Cited by the applicant.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-03-28 E-Plus Mobilfunk GmbH & Co. KG v. Level 3 Communications, Inc. The article cited by the opponent is not identified; presumably it is de:E-Plus.

"In the case at hand, to prove the higher degree of distinctiveness, the opponent merely submitted an excerpt from the online encyclopaedia "Wikipedia" to show that the opponent's company is the third largest mobile operator in Germany with more than 8.5 million subscribers as of 2004. The Office points out that this kind of evidence alone is not at all sufficient to prove a higher than normal degree of distinctiveness."

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-03-27 Volkswagen AG v. Suzuki Motor Corp. The article cited by the applicant is not identified; presumably it is de:GTI.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-03-23 BSB Entertainment, Inc. R 1633/2006-1 Bachelor's degree
 Canada:
Ontario Ontario
Ontario Consent and Capacity Board 2007-03-22 M.L. (Re) "The self-diagnosis of his symptoms was gleaned from the Wikipedia online encyclopaedia which simplistically enabled Mr. M.L. to determine that he suffers from post traumatic stress syndrome, fictitious syndrome, disassociative syndrome or borderline personality disorder. Regrettably, Mr. M.L.'s belief that his self-diagnosis of his mental condition is to be preferred to the professional opinion of a licensed psychiatrist is compelling evidence that he fails to understand that he is ill. Therefore, the Panel concludes that Mr. M.L. lacks insight and is therefore incapable of considering information relevant to making treatment decisions."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-03-20 FIAT S.P.A. v. R82 A/S Fiat Panda "Although the opponent could have submitted more evidence in order to show the reputation of the earlier mark, the Office finds that the abstract from Wikipedia is a strong indication of the reputation acquired by the mark "FIAT PANDA" among the general public in all the territory of the European Union."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-03-19 Case no. 071105908 Hezbollah, Military of Lebanon#Conscription
(accessed March 8, 2007)
 Australia Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2007-03-16 Re Crook Therapeutic jurisprudence
(accessed Feb 15, 2007)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2007-03-13 Ross v. RJM Acquisitions Funding LLC 480 F.3d 493 Soundex, Approximate string matching Opinion by Posner, J.
 Canada:
Quebec Quebec
Quebec Superior Court 2007-03-13 Boudreau v. Violo Hedge
 Australia Migration Review Tribunal 2007-03-12 Case no. 060614374 Marriage in Pakistan
(accessed Dec 21, 2006)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-03-07 Becker v. Harman International Industries, Inc. Becker, Barbara Becker, Family name The board is sceptical when considering the first two articles, cited by the applicant:

"However, Wikipedia is an open-source website, where anybody may submit information for publication. It is not reviewed and cannot be considered as a definitive guideline."

"Regarding the fame of the applicant, the scant evidence therefore is a very short extract from the unsubstantiated website Wikipedia, stating that the applicant 'hopes to be active as a fashion designer'. The Office, in accordance with its usual practices, cannot consider this to be adequate evidence that the applicant is 'well-known' as claimed."

As to the third article, cited by the opponent, the board has a more favorable view: "An article from Wikipedia is submitted, concerning family names in countries all over the world. It shows that there are so many differences between linguistic practices that it is obvious that one name can only be very common in one country."

An appeal (T-0212/07) against the decision before the Court of First Instance is pending.

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-03-05 Red Bull GmbH v. Incorporated Beverages (Jersey) Ltd. Mixed drink shooters and drink shots
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-02-28 Memetrics Holdings Pty Ltd. v. Metrics In Marketing, S.A. Metrics
 Australia Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2007-02-28,
2007-02-20
Re Collier,
Re Carter
Therapeutic jurisprudence
(accessed Feb 2007)
 United States U.S. Tax Court 2007-02-28 Ferguson v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue T.C. Summary Op. 2007-30 Video poker, Expected value, Progressive jackpot "Pursuant to Internal Revenue Code Section 7463(b), this opinion may not be treated as precedent for any other case."
 United Kingdom Nominet UK Dispute Resolution Service 2007-02-27 Clark Equipment Co. v. Hamlen Bobcat Cited by one of the parties.
 United States:
Connecticut Connecticut
Superior Court of Connecticut, Judicial District of Middlesex 2007-02-23 In re Melody L. 43 Conn. L. Rptr. 140 Hair drug testing
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit 2007-02-22 Ordinola v. Hackman 478 F.3d 588 Calcium oxide
(accessed Nov 29 2006)
See footnote 4 of the opinion: "Lime, or calcium oxide (CaO), is commonly used in the burial of bodies in open graves because the compound suppresses the odor of decomposing bodies. See Wikipedia, Calcium oxide"
 United States U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York 2007-02-21 Alfa Co. v. OAO Alfa Bank 475 F. Supp. 2d 357 Transliteration of Russian into English Thorough discussion of Wikipedia as judicial source and of relevant precedent.
 United Kingdom Asylum and Immigration Tribunal 2007-02-20 MA v. Secretary of State Allenby Bridge
(accessed July 7, 2006)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-02-19 Case no. 061020230 Jaffna
(accessed Feb 13, 2007)
 United Kingdom Nominet UK Dispute Resolution Service 2007-02-16 Michael Page International v. Domain Administration Typosquatting
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2007-02-15 NAGG of 2002 v. Minister of Immigration Politician Cited by one of the parties.
 United States:
Connecticut Connecticut
Superior Court of Connecticut 2007-02-05 Bloomdahl v. Wolf 13 Conn. Ops. 177 Helicopter parent
(as of 14:30, January 28, 2007)
 United States:
Indiana Indiana
Indiana Court of Appeals 2007-02-02 Cincinnati Ins. Co. v. Davis 860 N.E.2d 915 Saddle valve
(accessed Dec 28, 2006)
From footnote 1 of the opinion: "A saddle valve is a valve used to supply liquid where a low volume, low pressure stream is required. The name is derived from the fact that it is mounted in such a way that it 'saddles' the line, mounting it from both sides."
 United States:
Washington (state) Washington
Washington Supreme Court 2007-02-01 Pub. Util. Dist. No. 2 of Grant County v. N. Am. Foreign Trade Zone Indus., LLC 151 P.3d 176 Sherlock Holmes
(as of Jan 29, 2007)
Cited in the dissenting opinion of Judge Chambers.
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Michigan Court of Appeals 2007-02-01 Fergison v. Stonebridge Life Ins. Co. 2007 WL 286793
App. No. 271488
Recreational vehicle
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-02-01 Allter, S.L. v. Alternova A/S Essential oil
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-01-30 Invensys Systems, Inc. v. 4Production AG Software suite
 United States:
Washington (state) Washington
Washington Supreme Court 2007-01-25 State v. O'Neal 150 P.3d 1121 (en banc) AR-15
(accessed Jan 23, 2007)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2007-01-22 Lucasfilm Ltd. R 1392/2006-2 Stormtrooper, Imperial stormtrooper
 Canada:
Ontario Ontario
Ontario Superior Court of Justice 2007-01-19 R. v. Walkem 2007 742 (ON SC) "When one Googles the phrase 'sexually transmitted diseases' you generate in excess of a million results (...) There is virtually no limit to the amount of information that can be accessed by a university bound or partially trained person living in Toronto in the 21st Century, even without resorting to the font of all information for 20 and 30 year olds, Wikipedia."
 United States:
Delaware Delaware
Superior Court of Delaware, New Castle County 2007-01-19 State v. Cooke 914 A.2d 1078 CSI effect See opinion, id., at 1083: "Widespread media coverage of criminal trials and the popularity of television programs such as C.S.I. Crime Scene Investigation ... have had the effect of developing unrealistic and preconceived notions in juror's minds about the availability and precision of forensic evidence in criminal trials. If not confronted by prosecutors, this so called "C.S.I. Effect" can lead to a misapprehension of the evidence actually introduced or encourage improper speculation by jurors during their deliberations ... See also Wikipedia"
 Australia IP Australia 2007-01-18 Pioneer KK v Pioneer Computers Peripheral device
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2007-01-18 Font Vella, S.A. v. Mathlouthi es:DEA
 Canada:
Quebec Quebec
Court of Quebec 2007-01-17 Singh v. Québec Inc. Automatic transmission "The Court wanting more information to determine whether the torque converter was part of the automatic transmission of a car consulted the Wikipedia free encyclopaedia on the web."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-01-11 Case no. 060562872 Shan
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit 2007-01-10 Gashi v. U.S. AG No. 06-12276 (Unpublished) Ibrahim Rugova See opinion: "First, Gashi submitted a biography of Ibrahim Rugova from the Wikipedia website, which indicated that Rugova was the president of Kosovo and the LDK and had died on January 21, 2006." (footnote omitted)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2007-01-09 U.S. v. Radomski 473 F.3d 728 Andrew Golota See opinion by Posner, J., id. at 731: "Radomski is a former trainer of the Polish boxer Andrew Golota—the world's most colorful boxer. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Golota."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2007-01-09 Case no. 060837625 Elie Hobeika
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-12-14 Case no. 060748603 Tibetan Buddhism
(accessed Nov 15, 2006)
"As a starting point, the Tribunal referred to Wikipedia..."
European Union European Patent Organisation Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office 2006-12-13 Rhein Chemie Rheinau v. Bridgestone Co. T 0630/04 Carbon black Cited by one of the parties.
 Canada:
Alberta Alberta
Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta 2006-12-05 Build-A-Vest Structures Inc. v. Red Deer (City) 29 M.L.P.R. (4th) 210 (Alta. Q.B.) Funeral home
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-12-04 Mediatek Inc. v. Micron Technology, Inc. Semiconductor device
 United Kingdom Nominet UK Dispute Resolution Service 2006-12-04 National Coll for School Leadership Ltd. v. Allan Typosquatting
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-11-29 Case no. 060860015 Khon Kaen Province
(accessed Nov 22, 2006)
 Australia Administrative Appeals Tribunal 2006-11-28 MacDonald and Comcare Ataxia Cited by one of the parties.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-11-15 Kaman Music Corp. v. Mühlbauer Jam block
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-11-14 Backer v. Societé générale provencale d'achat et de gestion de:Hooligan The board justifies its reliance upon Wikipedia with a quote from an opinion of the Court of First Instance:

" 'The dictionaries in the language of the relevant public may, as a rule, be taken into consideration in that respect, both by the first instance at OHIM and by the boards of appeal, even if they have not been put to the parties, because they are, a priori, well-known facts. The dictionaries provide a pertinent indication of the correct pronunciation of the word in question in the host language, although there is no guarantee that that pronunciation is the one actually used in everyday speech. Moreover, the knowledge which the various bodies of OHIM may have as a result of the nationalities of its officials or members may well confirm information used in establishing the average consumer's pronunciation.' (Court of First Instance on 01/02./2005, T-57/03 - HOOLIGAN/OLLY GAN, paragraph 59; German version printed in GRUR Int. 2005, 489; an OJ OHIM 2005, 624)."

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-11-10 NewBay Software Ltd. R 1465/2005-4 Moblog
 Philippines Court of Appeals 2006-11-10 People v. Pecson G.R. CR. No. 2957 Diesel engine
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal 2006-11-09 In re Carleisha P. 50 Cal. Rptr. 3d 777 Ammunition
(as of Nov 9, 2006)
See opinion, id. at 782: "The Wikipedia Encyclopedia states that 'ammunition' is a 'generic military term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant.' Hence, one bullet can be 'ammunition.'" (emphasis in original)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-11-07 [Mundipharma AG v. Microsulis Ltd. Science
United Nations WIPO WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center 2006-11-06 N.M.Rothschild & Sons Ltd. v. Land Exchange, Inc. Rothschild banking family of England
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-10-27 Case no. 060631942, 060634430, 060634388 Primary Indian Castes
(accessed Aug 10, 2004)
 United States:
Alaska Alaska
Alaska Court of Appeals 2006-10-27 Smart v. State 146 P.3d 15 Palladium (mythology)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-10-27 Nordmilch eG v. Molkerei Alois Müller GmbH & Co. Chutney, Relish, Müller
 Philippines Philippine Supreme Court 2006-10-25 Lambino v. COMELEC G.R. No. 174153 Vox populi, vox Dei Concurring opinion of Associate Justice Sandoval-Gutierrez.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-10-23 Case no. 060490641 Gujarat
(accessed Aug 4, 2004)
 United States:
Utah Utah
Utah Supreme Court 2006-10-20 State v. Alverez 147 P.3d 425
2006 UT 61
Jesus Malverde
(as of Oct 6, 2006)
See opinion: "While this court professes no special expertise in hagiology or folklore, some independent research reveals that Jesus Malverde is not exclusively or historically associated with the drug culture. He is a regional folk hero, in the tradition of Robin Hood, who is popular among the poor and disadvantaged of the Mexican state of Sinaloa."
 United States:
Texas Texas
Texas Court of Criminal Appeals 2006-10-18 Watson v. State 204 S.W.3d 404 Faro (card-game)
(as of Sept 1, 2006)
See footnote 17 in the opinion: "The card game faro 'enjoyed great popularity during the . . . 19th Century in the United States . . . where it was practiced by Faro dealers such as the infamous Doc Holliday.'" (some internal quotes omitted)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-10-13 Eroski, S. Coop. v. Nordmilch eG Soft drink
 United States U.S. District Court of Utah 2006-10-04 SCO v. IBM No. 2:03CV-0294 DAK (Defense exhibit) Unix Exhibit # 391 by IBM.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-10-03 Lakai, Ltd. v. T-Shirts International S.A. Extreme sport
 Cyprus Cyprus Commission for the Protection of Competition 2006-10-03 Sonae Industria SGPS S.A. and Darbo S.A.S
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-09-29 Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.
Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. (Case 774), (Case 405)
R 774/2006-2
R 405/2006-2
Machine vision, Image
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-09-29 Case no. 060508093 Indian Union Muslim League, Panchayat
 United States:
Massachusetts Massachusetts
Massachusetts Superior Court, Suffolk County 2006-09-28 Commonwealth v. Meeks Crim. No. 2002-10961 Pistol slide
(as of Sept 25, 2006)
See footnote 73: "An on-line encyclopedia provides the following: 'The slide is the part of a semi-automatic pistol that moves during the operating cycle and generally houses the firing pin or striker, extractor, and serves as the bolt face. It is spring loaded so that once it has moved to its rearmost point in the firing cycle, spring tension brings it back to chamber a fresh cartridge."
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-09-28 In re Thoroughbred Legends, LLC No. 78430194 Kelso (horse) "The examining attorney's sole support for her contention that KELSO is a race horse is a reference to Wikipedia; however, applicant has conceded that KELSO is the name of a now-deceased and well-known race horse. Br. p. 5. Thus, our determination as to the significance of the name KELSO does not rely on the Wikipedia reference."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-09-28 Bodegas y Vinedos Pascual Toso S.A. v. Bodegas San Valero, Sociedad cooperativa es:Tosos
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-09-27 In re Cosmetic Dermatology, Inc. Nos. 76606583,
76606584,
76606585
Brandt Cited by the examining attorney.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-09-25 Iron Maiden Holdings Ltd. v. New Allied Com, Ltd. Iron maiden (torture device)
United Nations WIPO WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center 2006-09-23 Media General Communications, Inc. v. Rarenames, WebReg Call sign The case involved a domain name dispute in accordance with the UDRP.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-09-21 O2 (Germany) GmbH & Co. OHG v. Nokia Corp. Loop
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-09-20 Ferrer v. The Cartoon Network LP, LLLP Toonami
 Canada Federal Court 2006-09-19 Fi v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) IMM‑2091‑06
2006 FC 1125
"In particular, the use of information from the Wikipedia website is highly questionable, as the reliability of its sources has not been demonstrated to the Court."
 New Zealand Social Security Appeal Authority 2006-09-13 Decision No. 069/06 Social Security (United States) Cited by one of the parties.
 United States:
Texas Texas
Texas Court of Appeals 2006-09-13 Living Ctrs. of Tex., Inc. v. Penalver 217 S.W.3d 44 T-4 Euthanasia Program
(as of Aug 20, 2006)
Exeplary use of a permanent link to Wikipedia.
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2006-09-07 Coolstar Holdings Pty Ltd v Cleary Ors History of Dubai
 United States:
Louisiana Louisiana
Supreme Court of Louisiana 2006-09-06 Lawson v. Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Am., Inc. 938 So.2d 35 Short circuit
(as of Feb 14, 2006)
See footnote 12: "According to the online encyclopedia Wikipedia, '[a] short circuit (sometimes known as simply a short) is a fault whereby electricity moves through a circuit in an unintended path, usually due to a connection forming where none was expected. This unintended path often has a very low resistance which means that a much larger current than normal flows, potentially causing overheating, fire or explosion.'"
 United States:
Wisconsin Wisconsin
Wisconsin Court of Appeals, District II 2006-09-06 Washington County v. Wagner No. 2006AP532-FT (Unpublished), affirmed, 724 NW 2d 274 Backstory
(as of Aug 24, 2006)
See footnote 3: "In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is defined as: [T]he history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. This literary device is often employed to lend the main story depth or verisimilitude. A back-story may include the history of characters, objects, countries, or other elements of the main story. Back-stories are usually revealed, sketchily or in full, chronologically or otherwise, as the main narrative unfolds. However, a story creator may also create portions of a back-story or even an entire back-story that is solely for his or her own use in writing the main story and is never revealed in the main story. In role-playing games, a character’s back-story is usually called his or her background."
 United States:
Indiana Indiana
Indiana Court of Appeals 2006-08-31 Property Owners Ins. Co. V. Ted's Tavern, Inc. No. 73A01-0602-CV-49 Intoxication
(accessed Aug 10, 2006)
See opinion: "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, intoxication ... redirects user to 'drunkenness,' which 'in its most common usage, is the state of being intoxicated with ethyl alcohol to a sufficient degree to impair mental and motor functioning.'" (internal parenthesis removed)
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Trial and Appeal Board 2006-08-24 In re Light Effects, Inc. No. 76583583 Mosaic Cited by the applicant.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit 2006-08-22 Phillips v. Pembroke Real Estate, Inc. 459 F.3d 128 Berne Convention, Bicycle Wheel
(accessed July 27, 2006)
See footnote 3, quoting Wikipedia: "The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement about copyright, which was first adopted in Berne, Switzerland in 1886. It was developed at the instigation of Victor Hugo, and was thus influenced by the French 'right of the author' (droit d'auteur), which contrasts with the Anglo-Saxon concept of 'copyright', which has only been concerned with economic protection."
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit 2006-08-21 Reuland v. Hynes 460 F.3d 409 Bronx, Manhattan, Brooklyn Cited in footnote 1 of the dissenting opinion of Judge Winter: "Calculated from ... and the land area of each place, Wikipedia"
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-08-07 In re Mexico 69 SRL No. 78361172 De puta madre Cited by the examining attorney as well as by the applicant.
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-08-04 In re Douglas Elslager No. 76626384 .info "Although we are aware that there are some questions about the accuracy of information in Wikipedia, because the Examining Attorney made this excerpt of record with the first Office action, and because applicant has not challenged it, we have accepted the entry as showing that .info is a top level domain."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-07-31 The Radical Fruit Company New York (Partnership) v. Burrow List of soft drinks by country Cited by the opponent.
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Supreme Court of Michigan 2006-07-31 People v. Peals 720 N.W.2d 196
476 Mich. 636
False choice
(accessed July 7, 2006)
Quoted in the dissenting opinion of Judge Kelly in footnote 16: "The logical fallacy of false choice is a correlative-based fallacy in which options are presented as being exclusive when they may not be. It is often used to obscure the likelihood of one option or to reframe an argument on the user's terms."
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-07-25 In re Regency Inns Management, Inc. Nos. 76591235 and 76591237 Convention center "With his brief, the Examining Attorney has requested that the Board take judicial notice of definitions of the words "resort" and "convention center" taken from, respectively, One Look and Wikipedia. Because the entries are from on-line references, we decline to take judicial notice of them. See TBMP §1208.04 (The Board will not take judicial notice of definitions found only in on-line dictionaries and not available in a printed format)."
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-07-20 In re White Mohawk Cited by the examining attorney.
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal, 3rd Appellate District 2006-07-20 People v. Chance 46 Cal.Rptr.3d 235 Revolver
(as of July 20, 2006)
See opinion, id. at 249.
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Supreme Court of Michigan 2006-07-19 Radeljak v. DaimlerChrysler Corp. 719 N.W.2d 40
475 Mich. 598
Ena Begovic
(accessed May 10, 2006)
See opinion, footnote 10.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-07-13 Cometform Ltd. v. Luggage America, Inc. Luggage
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-07-11 The Professional Golfers' Association Ltd. v. Ladies' Professional Golf Ass. Corp. Professional Golfers' Association An appeal (T-0248/06) against the decision before the Court of First Instance is pending.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit 2006-06-29 U.S. v. Yazzen 187 Fed. Appx. 800
No. 05-2156
Pink elephant
(accessed June 27 2006)
See opinion, footnote 1.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-06-27 Case no. 060331167 Druze
 United Kingdom High Court of England and Wales 2006-06-27 Kay v. the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis Critical mass
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-06-22 Case no. V0618399 Sworn virgin
(accessed June 7, 2006)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-06-21 Banco de Sbadell, S.A. v. Brook Street Bureau Plc Home care
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-06-16 Booker Plc v. Jim Beam Brands Co. Booker
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-06-14 PGS Onshore, Inc. R 614/2005-4 Geophysical survey
 Australia Federal Magistrates Court of Australia 2006-06-13 Mathieson & Hamilton Cryptid
 United States:
Florida Florida
Florida Fourth District Court of Appeal 2006-06-07 Olibrices v. State 929 So.2d 1176 Ethnic group,
(accessed May 11, 2006)
Quotation from Wikipedia in opinion, id. at 1178: "An ethnic group is a human population whose members identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry (Smith 1986). Ethnic groups are also usually united by common cultural, behavioral, linguistic, or religious practices. In this sense, an ethnic group is also a cultural community. . . . While ethnicity and race are related concepts (Abizadeh 2001), the concept of ethnicity is rooted in the idea of social groups, marked especially by shared nationality, tribal affiliation, religious faith, shared language, or cultural and traditional origins and backgrounds; whereas race is rooted in the idea of a biological classification of Homo sapiens according to chosen genotypic and/or phenotypic traits."
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-06-07 In re Halocarbon Products Corp. No. 76588421 Halocarbon "The examining attorney, for the first time in his brief on appeal, "paraphrased" dictionary definitions of the term "halocarbon" taken from the on-line dictionaries "MyWiseOwl.com" and "Wikipedia.com." The examining attorney did not submit copies of the Internet printouts of the definitions. Applicant, in its reply brief, has objected to the definitions as untimely submitted. The Board has stated that it will not take judicial notice of dictionary definitions submitted after appeal that have been retrieved from on-line dictionaries that are not readily verifiable and reliable. In re Red Bull GmbH, 78 USPQ2d 1375 (TTAB 2006) and In re Total Quality Group Inc., 51 USPQ2d 1474 (TTAB 1999). Thus, applicant's objection to the on-line dictionary definitions is well taken, and we have not considered them in reaching our decision herein. However, as discussed infra, the Board has taken judicial notice of a definition of the term "halocarbon" taken from a print dictionary."
 United States:
Delaware Delaware
Delaware Court of Chancery 2006-06-06 Williams v. White Oak Builders, Inc. 2006 WL 1668348
No. 17556
Sump pump, French drain
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-05-31 Aslan Arzneimittel GmbH & Co. KG v. Chetwode Ana Aslan
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal 2006-05-26 Apple v. Does 140 Cal.App. 4th 675b Firewire, Breakout box, GarageBand, Breakout, Asteroids, Arkanoid, Forum moderator, BBS, Blog, Webzine, Electronic paper "As with many of the concepts in this opinion, the most authoritative and current sources of information may themselves be found on the Web. Thus FireWire is described by a well-known cooperative encyclopedia as ..."
 United States:
Wisconsin Wisconsin
Wisconsin Court of Appeals 2006-05-23 State v. Bannister 720 N.W.2d 498
2006 WI App 136
Bloody shirt The concurring judge quotes Wikipedia in footnote 1: "The term 'bloody shirt' can be traced back to the aftermath of the murder of the third Caliph, Uthman in 656 CE, when a bloody shirt and some hair alleged to be from his beard were used in what is widely regarded as a cynical ploy to gain support for revenge against opponents."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-05-22 World Magic International AVV. v. Character Games Ltd. Street magic "The appellant claims that Wikipedia does not provide entirely reliable information as the contents are posted by its readers. However, even though it is true that there exists some controversy over Wikipedia as a source, the Board is of the opinion that the additional material provided by the respondent and the information to be found on the website www.themagicschool.com support the information given in Wikipedia, therefore the Board sees no reason to doubt its reliability in this specific case."
 United Kingdom Competition Appeal Tribunal 2006-05-15 Media Marketing & Promotions v. Office of Communications Rent
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-05-01 Case no. N05/52943 Patriotic Union (Colombia)
 United States:
Iowa Iowa
Supreme Court of Iowa 2006-04-28 State v. Leckington 713 N.W.2d 208 Jungle juice
(accessed March 28, 2006)
Footnote 1 of the opinion quotes Wikipedia: "Jungle juice is the name given to a mix of liquor that is usually served for the sole purpose of becoming intoxicated .... Often, it may include leftovers of many liquors along with a mixer (juice, cola, etc.) to make the clash of liquors easier to swallow.... Jungle juice made with Kool-Aid is called 'Hunch Punch.'"
 United States:
Indiana Indiana
Indiana Court of Appeals 2006-04-25 Biddinger v. State 846 N.E.2d 271 Hollow point bullet
(accessed Mar. 22, 2006)
Footnote 2 quotes Wikipedia: " A hollow-point bullet has "a pit, or hollowed out shape, in its tip, meant to cause it to expand upon entering a target. When the bullet strikes a soft target the pressure created in the pit forces the lead around it to expand greatly into a mushroom-shape. This causes considerably more soft-tissue damage and energy transfer than if the nose had not been hollow.... [H]ollow point bullets are one of the most common types of civilian and police ammunition, due largely to the reduced risk of bystanders being hit by over penetrating or ricocheted bullets, and the increased speed of incapacitation."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-04-25 FORMULA ONE LICENSING B.V. v. MV Innovation GmbH Formula One
 Germany Federal Patent Court 2006-04-12 26 W (pat) 142/04 Human care
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-04-10 Valrhona S.p.A.S.) R 1318/2005-2 Grand cru
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-04-03 Case no. N05/52960 Jehovah Witnesses
(accessed Jan 10, 2006)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-03-30 Axon Solutions Ltd. v. Axen SPRL Computer engineering, Telecommunication
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2006-03-29 Raymond v. Ameritech Co. 442 F.3d 600 SBC Communications
(accessed March 13, 2006)
See footnote 1 of the opinion.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit 2006-03-24 N'Diom v. Gonzales 442 F.3d 494 Mauritania
(accessed Jan 17, 2006)
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2006-03-24 In re Microsoft Corp. Cranium (board game)
 United States:
Ohio Ohio
Ohio District Courts of Appeal 2006-03-24 Ernes v. Northeast Ohio Eye Surgs., Inc. 2006 Ohio 1456 Infarction
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit 2006-03-23 U.S. v. Zajanckauskas 441 F.3d 32 SS
 Trinidad and Tobago Court of Appeal of Trinidad and Tobago 2006-03-17 NH Int. v. Urban Development Co. Value engineering
European Union Council of Europe European Court of Human Rights 2006-03-16 Ždanoka v. Latvia Demographics of Latvia Dissenting opinion of Judge Zupancic.
 United States:
Rhode Island Rhode Island
Superior Court of Rhode Island 2006-03-13 Sitkin v. R-One Alloys, Inc. No. PB 04-0495 Troy ounce See footnote 2 of the opinion.
European Union Council of Europe European Court of Human Rights 2006-03-07 Hocaogullari v. Turkey fr:Guerre du Vietnam First citation by the European Court of Human Rights.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-02-28 Case no. N05/52883 Pakistan#Religion
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-02-27 Hanse Chemie AG v. Perstorp Compounds AB Thermosetting plastics
 France District Court of Paris 2006-02-23 04/14140 fr:Styles calligraphiques chinois First known citation in French jurisprudence.
 United States:
Louisiana Louisiana
Supreme Court of Louisiana 2006-02-22 State v. Pigford 922 So.2d 517 Interstate 20
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-02-08 Dalan Kimya Endustri A.S. v. La Superquímica, S.A. Detergent
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-02-03 Freelife Int., LLC R 888/2005-4 Goji
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2006-02-02 Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG v. Zoran Corp. Computer
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-01-31 Mülhens GmbH & Co. KG v. Trishul Overseas Private Ltd. Ayurvedic medicine
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2006-01-31 Case no. N05/52275 Demographics of Algeria
(accessed Jan 23, 2006)
 United States U.S. Court of Federal Claims 2006-01-27 Campbell v. Secretary of Health and Human Services 69 Fed. Cl. 775 Febrile seizure "A review of the Wikipedia website reveals a pervasive and, for our purposes, disturbing series of disclaimers."

"At the least, an evidentiary hearing would have provided an opportunity for expert witnesses to corroborate or refute the information contained in the articles. Without such a hearing, reliance on these web materials involved an extraordinary risk that cannot be squared with the Special Master's responsibility for conducting a proceeding consistent with the principles of fundamental fairness."

 United States:
Oregon Oregon
Oregon Land Use Board of Appeals 2006-01-26 Friends of the Metolius and Johnston v. Jefferson County No. 2005-139 Grok The opinion quotes Wikipedia as follows: "Grok (pronounced grock) is a verb roughly meaning 'to understand completely' or more formally 'to achieve complete intuitive understanding.' It was coined by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in his novel Stranger in a Strange Land, where it is part of the fictional Martian language and introduced to English speakers by a man raised by Martians." (emphasis in original)
 European Union European Court of Justice 2006-01-17 Levi Strauss v. Casucci C-145/05 es:Jeans Cited in the conclusions of the Advocate General.

First known citation in proceedings of the European Court of Justice.

 India Supreme Court of India 2006-01-16 Anjaleem Enterprises Pvt. Ltd. v. Commissioner of Central Excise, Ahmedabad Integrated circuit
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2006-01-13 Facet Pedreros, S.A. v. Stelman Int. Diamond Dealers, N. V. Facet
 United Kingdom Nominet UK Dispute Resolution Service 2006-01-12 BBT Thermotechnology UK Ltd v Brainfire Group (2006) DRS 3931 Danny Buderus Cited in correspondence between the parties.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit 2005-12-28 U.S. v. Coker 433 F.3d 39 Sunroof
(accessed Oct 27, 2005).
The opinion, at footnote 1, quotes Wikipedia's definition of T-roofs; they: "open a vehicle roof to the side windows, providing a wider opening than other sunroofs. [They] have two removable glass panels, and leave a T-shaped structural brace in the roof center."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-12-19 Huesker Synthetic GmbH v. Difel Marmol, S.L. Building material
 United States:
Indiana Indiana
Indiana Court of Appeals 2005-12-12 M.K. Plastics Corp. v. Rossi 838 N.E.2d 1068 Autocad
(accessed Nov 17, 2005)
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal 2005-12-09 People v. Acevedo (Case not found) Spanish and Portuguese names
(as of Dec 6, 2005)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-12-06 Case no. N05/52155 Lebanon
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-12-05 Calico, S.A. v. Calico Jack Ltd. Video game console (last visited November 29, 2005), Software agents (last visited November 29, 2005)
 Germany:
Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate
Superior Administrative Court Rhineland-Palatine 2005-12-02 10 A 10610/05.OVG Umar Tall
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-11-24 British-American Tobacco (Germany) GmbH v. Gallaher Ltd. Three kings
 United States:
Iowa Iowa
Iowa Court of Appeals 2005-11-23 State v. Kante No. 5-730/04-0962, affirmed as 710 N.W.2d 257 Guinea
 United States:
Texas Texas
Supreme Court of Texas 2005-11-22 Neeley v. West Orange-Cove Consol. Independent School Dist., S.W.3d, 2005 WL 3116298 176 S.W.3d 746 Efficient
(accessed Oct 13, 2005)
Footnote 8 of the opinion quotes Wikipedia: "Efficiency is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-11-10 Case no. V05/18066 Military opposition to the Reconciliation, Tolerance, and Unity Bill (Fiji) Cited by the applicant.
 Germany Federal Patent Court 2005-11-08 33 W (pat) 265/03 Master unit
 Netherlands Hoge Raad der Nederlanden 2005-11-01 00013/05 nl:Botbreuk (Bone fracture) First known citation in Dutch jurisprudence.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-10-28 Multiópticas, Unipessoal, Lda v. Coburn Fresnel lens
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-10-27 Aktiv Kapital ASA v. Activa Capital S.A.S. Accountancy
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2005-10-25 Mastercard International Inc. R 450/2005-1 CompactFlash, Memory Stick
 United States:
Tennessee Tennessee
Tennessee Court of Appeals 2005-10-25 English Mountain Spring Water Co. v. Chumley 2005 WL 2756072
No. E2005-00657-COA-R3-CV
Beverage "It appears that the only case in the United States that has ever referenced Wikipedia is a nonpublished/ nonciteable California case. See Patel v. Shah (...) Given the fact that this source is open to virtually anonymous editing by the general public, the expertise of its editors is always in question, and its reliability is indeterminable. Accordingly, we do not find that it constitutes persuasive authority."
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-10-18 Vasco International S.à r.l. v. Antonio Nadal S.A. Absinthe
 Canada:
Ontario Ontario
Ontario Court of Justice 2005-10-14 R. v. N. (Y.) Explanation
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-10-13 Case no. V05/18030 Mosul
(accessed Oct 12, 2005)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-09-30 Wilhelm Sihn jr. GmbH & Co. KG v. Wi-Fi Alliance wi-fi
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-09-29 Fronsac Investment S.A. v. Yakub 360 (number)
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2005-09-27 In re ChromTech Ltd No. 78219790 Chirality (chemistry) Cited by the examining attorney.
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2005-07-15 In re Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. Princeton University Cited by the applicant.
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit 2005-09-15 Allegheny Defense Project, Inc. v. U.S. Forest Service 423 F.3d 215 Understory
(accessed August 24, 2005)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-09-14 Case no. N05/51239 Christians in Iran#Current situation
(accessed June 8, 2005)
 Philippines Philippine Supreme Court 2005-09-01 Abakada v. Ermita GR No. 168056 Constitution of the United Kingdom (accessed August 4, 2005, 11:30am PST),
Maurice Lauré (accessed August 23, 2005, 3:20pm PST)
Separate opinion of Associate Justice Panganiban.
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal 2005-08-24 People v. Hightower (cannot find case) FUBU
 Brazil:
São Paulo (state) São Paulo
São Paulo Justice Court 2005-08-18 APELAÇÃO CÍVEL n° 340.809-4/7-00. W. R. da S. v. AMIL Health Care International pt:Espectroscopia First known citation in Brazilian jurisprudence.
"A ressonância magnética espectroscópica, portanto, é apenas um método de análise para ressonância magnética nuclear. "É chamado de espectroscopia ométodo utilizado para análise da estrutura química de elementos simples, compostos ou grupos funcionais de uma substância." (...). "Existem diversos métodos de análises espectroscópicas. Os mais conhecidos são: a espectroscopia de massa; ressonância magnética nuclear ..." (cfe. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Espectroscopia)."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-08-08 Case no. N05/51215 Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(accessed June 29, 2005)
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit 2005-07-28 U.S. v. Krueger 415 F.3d 766 Cannabis shake
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-07-22 Atco-Qualcast Ltd. v. Engine Components Int., LLC Internal combustion engine
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Supreme Court of Michigan 2005-07-15 Michigan DOT v. Hagerty Corridor Partners Ltd. P'ship 700 N.W.2d 380
473 Mich. 124
Hindsight bias See footnote 37 quoting Wikipedia: "People are, in effect, biased by the knowledge of what has actually happened when evaluating its likelihood"
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2005-07-06 Antenne Niedersachsen GmbH & Co. KG v. Froehlich Telecommunication
 United States U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 2005-06-29 Amco Ukrservice & Prompriladamco v. American Meter Co. 2005 WL 1541029
Civ. A. 00-2638
Sea of Okhotsk
(accessed June 23, 2005)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-06-24 Case no. N05/50698 Al-Da'wa Party, Muqtada al-Sadr
(accessed May 4, 2005)
 United States:
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania
Superior Court of Pennsylvania 2005-06-15 In the Interest of F.P. 2005 Pa. Super. 220
878 A.2d 91
Instant messaging Footnote 2 of the opinion quotes Wikipedia: "Instant messaging differs from e-mail in that conversations happen in realtime ... Generally, both parties in the conversation see each line of text right after it is typed (line-by-line), thus making it more like a telephone conversation than exchanging letters."
 Canada:
Ontario Ontario
Ontario Superior Court of Justice 2005-05-16 R. v. Budd Trust (sociology)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2005-05-10 Banis v. BIO-FYT PHARMA N.V. Anxiolytic Cited by the appellant.
 Australia Federal Court of Australia 2005-03-16 Nine Films & Television Pty Ltd v Ninox Television Limited (2005) FCA 1404 Reality TV
 Canada Federal Court 2005-03-11 Almrei v. Minister for Citizenship and Immigration Maher Arar Cited by one of the parties.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2005-03-08 Productores Associados dos Vinhos Progresso do Douro, LDA v. Franz Wilhelm Langguth Erben GmbH & Co. KG Hernán Cortés, pt:Hernán Cortés First known citation of the Portuguese-language Wikipedia.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-02-23 Case no. N04/50301 Samajwadi Party Cited by the applicant.
 Canada Federal Court 2005-02-17 Bajraktaraj v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) "The quality of the sources relied upon by the applicant, including (...) a downloaded extract from an on-line encyclopaedia, 'Wikipedia,' that provided no references for its content, did not impress."
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2005-02-11 Case no. N04/50169 Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (accessed Aug 23, 2004) Cited by the applicant.
 United States National Arbitration Forum 2005-02-01 Paisley Park Enterprises v. Lawson No. FA0412000384834 NPG Records, Paisley Park Records, Category:Defunct record labels Cited by one of the parties.
 Philippines Philippine Supreme Court 2005-01-17 MTRCB v. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Co.) G.R. No. 15528 Documentary film, Dziga Vertov
(accessed Dec 21, 2004)
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2004-12-20 Case no. V02/14634 Ba'ath Party
 United States:
California California
California Court of Appeal, 4th District 2004-12-17 Patel v. Shah 2004 WL 2930914 Simple majority
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2004-12-15 Aldi Einkauf GmbH & Co. OHG v. The Dean and Chapter of the Collegiate College Church of St. Peter Westminster de: Westminster
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Board of Appeals 2004-12-10 etalk Corporation
R 398/2004-2 E
  Switzerland Swiss Federal Council 2004-12-10 Exe 2004.2129 de:Plagiat First known citation in Swiss jurisprudence.
 Philippines Philippine Supreme Court 2004-12-01 La Bugal-B'laan Tribal Association, Inc. v. Ramos G.R. No. 127882 Open-pit mining Dissenting opinion of Associate Justice Carpio-Morales.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2004-11-15 Case no. V04/16985 Punjab (India)
(accessed July 20, 2004)
 Philippines Court of Appeals 2004-11-12 Inter-Orient Navigation v. NLRC G.R. SP NO. 84300 Psychosis
 Austria Independent Federal Asylum Board 2004-11-08 239.234/11-I/03/04 Afghanistan_timeline_1976-1980
(accessed April 2004)
 United States U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia 2004-10-15 Demmon v. Loudoun Co. Public Schools 342 F. Supp. 2d 474 Hollywood Walk of Fame
 United States U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit 2004-10-15 Bourgeois v. Peters 387 F.3d 1303 Department of Homeland Security Advisory System
(accessed August 26, 2004)
First citation in federal appellate jurisprudence.
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2004-08-27 Case no. N04/48913 Hamas
 United States U.S. District Court for the District of Utah 2004-08-23 SCO v. IBM Civ. No. 2:03CV-0294 DAK Linus Torvalds, Andrew S. Tanenbaum Cited by the defendant IBM.
 Austria Independent federal asylum board 2004-08-02 236.047/0-XI/33/03g de:Dari First known citation in Austrian jurisprudence.
 United States:
Michigan Michigan
Michigan Supreme Court 2004-07-30 Bryant v. Oakpointe Villa Nursing Centre 471 Mich. 411 Positional asphyxia
(accessed July 27, 2004)
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2004-07-28 Banco 21, S.A. v. Banca 121 S.p.A. Bank
United Nations WIPO WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center 2004-07-07 Wachovia Corporation v. American Consumers First Schwa
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2004-07-06 Case no. V04/16635 Religious conversion
 Germany:
Bavaria Bavaria
Administrative Court, Augsburg 2004-04-28 Au 7 K 04.30251 Raï
 Australia Refugee Review Tribunal 2004-02-17 Case no. N02/45298 Pakistan, Afghanistan, North-West Frontier, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Pakistan, Pakistan, The version published on AustLII contains hyperlinks to Wikipedia. It remains uncertain whether they form part of the original text.
 Germany Federal Patent Court 2004-02-16 30 W (pat) 199/02 de:Explorer
(accessed Jan 19, 2004)
First citation in a German federal court.
 Germany:
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony
Administrative Court, Göttingen 2004-01-30 2 A 2145/02 de:Semitische Sprachen First known citation in a court ruling worldwide:

"Arabic belongs to the hamosemitic language family (cp. the following chart, cited according to Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, www.wikipedia.de)."

 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2004-01-12 Jackson v. Loders Croklaan B.V. Nutrient
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2003-11-26 Banco Gallego, S.A. v. Banca 121 S.p.A. Bank
 United States:
Texas Texas
Supreme Court of Texas 2003-11-04 New Times v. Isaacks No. 03-0019 Satire, A Modest Proposal
(accessed Oct 13, 2003)
Cited in an Amicus curiae brief of the Association of American Publishers.
 United Nations International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 2003-09-20 Malaysia v. Singapore List of countries by population density Quoted in the submisson of Singapore.
 United States U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2003-09-08 Boy Scouts of America v. Gregory J. Wrenn No. 91157313-OPP Scouting Cited by the defendant as an example of generic terms in defense of the mark "Youthscouts."
 United States:
Colorado Colorado
Colorado District Court, Larimer County 2003-07-01 State v. Kaplan (Case not found) Fuck Cited by one of the parties.
 European Union Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market, Opposition Decisions 2003-02-27 Polk v. Slob-Trot Software Oy Ab Computer program

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]