Screenshot of wiktionary.org home page
|Slogan||The Free Dictionary|
|Type of site||Online dictionary|
|Available language(s)||Multi-lingual (over 170)|
|Created by||Jimmy Wales and the Wikimedia community|
|Launched||December 12, 2002|
|Alexa rank||623 (April 2013[update])|
Wiktionary (from the words wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in 158 languages. Unlike standard dictionaries, it is written collaboratively by volunteers, dubbed "Wiktionarians", using wiki software, allowing articles to be changed by almost anyone with access to the website.
Like its sister project Wikipedia, Wiktionary is run by the Wikimedia Foundation. Because Wiktionary is not limited by print space considerations, most of Wiktionary's language editions provide definitions and translations of words from many languages, and some editions offer additional information typically found in thesauri and lexicons. Additionally, the English Wiktionary includes Wikisaurus, a category that serves as a thesaurus, including lists of slang words, and the Simple English Wiktionary, compiled using the Basic English subset of the English language.
The goal of Wiktionary is to eventually define "all words in all languages."
Wiktionary data are heavily used in various natural language processing tasks.
History and development
Wiktionary was brought online on December 12, 2002,[a] following a proposal by Daniel Alston and an idea by Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia.[b] On March 28, 2004, the first non-English Wiktionaries were initiated in French and Polish. Wiktionaries in numerous other languages have since been started. Wiktionary was hosted on a temporary domain name (wiktionary.wikipedia.org) until May 1, 2004, when it switched to the current domain name.[c] As of May 2009[ref], Wiktionary features well over 5 million entries across its 272 language editions. The largest of the language editions is the English Wiktionary, with over 3.3 million entries, followed by the French and the Malagasy Wiktionaries with over 2.3 million entries each. Nineteen Wiktionary language editions now contain over 100,000 entries each.[d]
Most of the entries and many of the definitions at the project's largest language editions were created by bots that found creative ways to generate entries or (rarely) automatically imported thousands of entries from previously published dictionaries. Seven of the 18 bots registered at the English Wiktionary[e] created 163,000 of the entries there. Only 259 entries remain (each containing many definitions) on Wiktionary from the original import by Websterbot from public domain sources; the majority of those imports have been split out to thousands of proper entries manually. Another one of these bots, "ThirdPersBot," was responsible for the addition of a number of third-person conjugations that would not receive their own entries in standard dictionaries; for instance, it defined "smoulders" as the "third-person singular simple present form of smoulder." Excluding these 163,000 entries, the English Wiktionary would have about 137,000 entries, including terms unique to languages other than English, making it smaller than most monolingual print dictionaries. The Oxford English Dictionary, for instance, has 615,000 headwords, while Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged has 475,000 entries (with many additional embedded headwords). It should be noted, though, that more detailed statistics now exist to distinguish more clearly the main entries from sub-entries.
The English Wiktionary, however does not rely on bots to the extent that newer editions do. The French and Vietnamese Wiktionaries, for example, imported large sections of the Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project (FVDP), which provides free content bilingual dictionaries to and from Vietnamese.[f] These imported entries make up virtually all of the Vietnamese edition's offering. Like the English edition, the French Wiktionary has imported the approximately 20,000 entries in the Unihan database of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters. The French Wiktionary grew rapidly in 2006 thanks in large part to bots copying many entries from old, freely licensed dictionaries, such as the eighth edition of the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française (1935, around 35,000 words), and using bots to add words from other Wiktionary editions with French translations. The Russian edition grew by nearly 80,000 entries as "LXbot" added boilerplate entries (with headings, but without definitions) for words in English and German.
Wiktionary has historically lacked a uniform logo across its numerous language editions. Some editions use logos that depict a dictionary entry about the term "Wiktionary", based on the English Wiktionary logo, which was designed by Brion Vibber, a MediaWiki developer.[g] Because a purely textual logo must vary considerably from language to language, a four-phase contest to adopt a uniform logo was held at the Wikimedia Meta-Wiki from September to October 2006.[h] Some communities adopted the winning entry by "Smurrayinchester", a 3×3 grid of wooden tiles, each bearing a character from a different writing system. However, the poll did not see as much participation from the Wiktionary community as some community members had hoped, and a number of the larger wikis ultimately kept their textual logos.[h]
In April 2009, the issue was resurrected with a new contest. This time, a depiction by "AAEngelman" of an open hardbound dictionary won a head-to-head vote against the 2006 logo, but the process to refine and adopt the new logo then stalled.[i] In the following years, some wikis replaced their textual logos with one of the two newer logos. In 2012, 55 wikis that had been using the English Wiktionary logo received localized versions of the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester".[j] As of 25 January 2013[update], 136 wikis, representing 51% of Wiktionary's entries, use the 2006 design by "Smurrayinchester", 31 wikis (48%) use a textual logo, and three wikis (2%) use the 2009 design by "AAEngelman".[k]
To ensure accuracy, Wiktionary has a policy requiring that terms be attested. Terms in major languages such as English and Chinese must be verified by:
- clearly widespread use,
- use in a well-known work, or
- use in permanently recorded media, conveying meaning, in at least three independent instances spanning at least a year.
For smaller languages such as Creek and extinct languages such as Latin, one use in a permanently recorded medium or one mention in a reference work is sufficient verification.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (May 2013)|
Critical reception of Wiktionary has been mixed. In 2006 Jill Lepore wrote in the article "Noah’s Ark" for The New Yorker,[l]
- There’s no show of hands at Wiktionary. There’s not even an editorial staff. "Be your own lexicographer!", might be Wiktionary’s motto. Who needs experts? Why pay good money for a dictionary written by lexicographers when we could cobble one together ourselves?
- Wiktionary isn’t so much republican or democratic as Maoist. And it’s only as good as the copyright-expired books from which it pilfers.
Keir Graff’s review for Booklist was less critical:
Is there a place for Wiktionary? Undoubtedly. The industry and enthusiasm of its many creators are proof that there’s a market. And it’s wonderful to have another strong source to use when searching the odd terms that pop up in today’s fast-changing world and the online environment. But as with so many Web sources (including this column), it’s best used by sophisticated users in conjunction with more reputable sources.
References in other publications are fleeting and part of larger discussions of Wikipedia, not progressing beyond a definition, although David Brooks in The Nashua Telegraph described it as wild and woolly.[m] One of the impediments to independent coverage of Wiktionary is the continuing confusion that it is merely an extension of Wikipedia.[n] In 2005, PC Magazine rated Wiktionary as one of the Internet's "Top 101 Web Sites," although little information was given about the site.
The measure of correctness of the inflections for a subset of the Polish words in the English Wiktionary showed that this grammatical data is very stable. Only 131 out of 4748 Polish words have had their inflection data corrected.
Wiktionary data in natural language processing
Wiktionary data mining is a complex task. There are the following difficulties: (1) the constant and frequent changes to data and schema, (2) the heterogeneity in Wiktionary language edition schemas [o] and (3) the human-centric nature of a wiki.
- DBpedia Wiktionary — a subproject of DBpedia, the data are extracted from English, French, German and Russian wiktionaries; the data includes language, part of speech, definitions, semantic relations and translations. The declarative description of the page scema, regular expressions and finite state transducer are used in order to extract information.
- JWKTL (Java Wiktionary Library) — provides access to English Wiktionary and German Wiktionary dumps via a Java Wiktionary API. The data includes language, part of speech, definitions, quotations, semantic relations, etymologies and translations. JWKTL is available for non-commercial use.
- wikokit — the parser of English Wiktionary and Russian Wiktionary. The parsed data includes language, part of speech, definitions, quotations[p], semantic relations and translations. This is a multi-licensed open-source software.
- Etymological entries have been parsed in the Etymological WordNet project.
- Rule-based machine translation between Dutch language and Afrikaans; data of English Wiktionary, Dutch Wiktionary and Wikipedia were used with the Apertium machine translation platform.
- Construction of machine-readable dictionary by the parser NULEX, which integrates open linguistic resources: English Wiktionary, WordNet и VerbNet. The parser NULEX scrapes English Wiktionary for tense information (verbs), plural form and part of speech (nouns).
- Speech recognition and synthesis, where Wiktionary was used to automatically create pronunciation dictionaries. Word-pronunciation pairs were retrieved from 6 Wiktionary language editions (Czech, English, French, Spanish, Polish, and German). Pronunciations are in terms of the International Phonetic Alphabet.[q] The ASR system based on English Wiktionary has the highest word error rate, where each third phoneme has to be changed.
- Ontology engineering and semantic network constructing.[r]
- Ontology matching.
- Text simplification. Medero & Ostendorf assessed vocabulary diffculty (reading level detection) with the help of Wiktionary data. Properties of words extracted from Wiktionary entries (definition length and POS, sense, and translation counts) were investigated. Medero & Ostendorf expected that (1) very common words will be more likely to have multiple parts of speech, (2) common words to be more likely to have multiple senses, (3) common words will be more likely to have been translated into multiple languages. These features extracted from Wiktionary entries were useful in distinguishing word types that appear in Simple English Wikipedia articles from words that only appear in the Standard English comparable articles.
- Part-of-speech tagging. Li et al. (2012) built multilingual POS-taggers for eight resource-poor languages on the basis of English Wiktionary and Hidden Markov Models.[s]
- Sentiment analysis.
- Wikipedia mailing list archive discussion announcing the opening of the Wiktionary project – Retrieved May 3, 2011
- Wikipedia mailing list archive discussion from Larry Sanger giving the idea on Wiktionary – Retrieved May 3, 2011
- Wiktionary's current URL is www.wiktionary.org.
- Wiktionary total article counts are here. Detailed statistics by word type are available here .
- The user list at the English Wiktionary identifies accounts that have been given "bot status".
- Hồ Ngọc Đức, Free Vietnamese Dictionary Project. Details at the Vietnamese Wiktionary.
- "Wiktionary talk:Wiktionary Logo", English Wiktionary, Wikimedia Foundation.
- "Wiktionary/logo", Meta-Wiki, Wikimedia Foundation.
- "Wiktionary/logo/refresh/voting", Meta-Wiki, Wikimedia Foundation.
- [Translators-l] 56 Wiktionaries got a localised logo
- m:Wiktionary/logo#Logo use statistics.
- The full article is not available on-line.
- David Brooks, "Online, interactive encyclopedia not just for geeks anymore, because everyone seems to need it now, more than ever!" The Nashua Telegraph (August 4, 2004)
- In this citation, the author refers to Wiktionary as part of the Wikipedia site: Adapted from an article by Naomi DeTullio (2006 (1st Quarter)). "Wikis for Librarians" (PDF newsletter). NETLS News #142 (Northeast Texas Library System). p. 15. Archived from the original on 2007-06-05. Retrieved April 21, 2007.
- E.g. compare the entry structure and formatting rules in English Wiktionary and Russian Wiktionary.
- Quotations are extracted only from Russian Wiktionary.
- If there are several IPA notations on a Wiktionary page – either for different languages or for pronunciation variants, then the first pronunciation was extracted.
- The source code and the results of POS-tagging are available at https://code.google.com/p/wikily-supervised-pos-tagger
- "Wiktionary.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- TheDaveBot, TheCheatBot, Websterbot, PastBot, NanshuBot
- LXbot[dead link]
- Lepore 2006.
- PC Mag 2005.
- Kurmas 2010.
- Meyer & Gurevych 2012, p. 140.
- Zesch, Müller & Gurevych 2008, p. 4, Figure 1.
- Meyer & Gurevych 2010, p. 40.
- Krizhanovsky, Transformation 2010, p. 1.
- Hellmann & Auer 2013, p. 302, p. 16 in PDF.
- Hellmann, Brekle & Auer 2012, p. 3, Table 1.
- Hellmann, Brekle & Auer 2012, pp. 8-9.
- Hellmann, Brekle & Auer 2012, p. 10.
- Hellmann, Brekle & Auer 2012, p. 11.
- Zesch, Müller & Gurevych 2008.
- Krizhanovsky, Transformation 2010.
- Krizhanovsky 2011.
- Krizhanovsky, Comparison 2010.
- Krizhanovsky 2012, p. 14.
- Otte & Tyers 2011.
- McFate & Forbus 2011.
- Schlippe, Ochs & Schultz 2012.
- Schlippe, Ochs & Schultz 2012, p. 4802.
- Schlippe, Ochs & Schultz 2012, p. 4804.
- Meyer & Gurevych 2012.
- Lin & Krizhanovsky 2011.
- Medero & Ostendorf 2009.
- Li, Graça & Taskar 2012.
- Chesley et al. 2006.
- Chesley, Paula; Vincent, Bruce; Xu, Li; Srihari, Rohini K. (2006). "Using verbs and adjectives to automatically classify blog sentiment". Training 580: 233–235. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Hellmann, Sebastian; Brekle, Jonas; Auer, Sören (2012). "Leveraging the Crowdsourcing of Lexical Resources for Bootstrapping a Linguistic Data Cloud". Proc. Joint Int. Semantic Technology Conference (JIST). Nara, Japan.
- Hellmann, S.; Auer, S. (2013). "Towards Web-Scale Collaborative Knowledge Extraction". In Gurevych, Iryna; Kim, Jungi. The People’s Web Meets NLP. Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing. Springer-Verlag. pp. 287–313. ISBN 978-3-642-35084-9.
- Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2010). "Transformation of Wiktionary entry structure into tables and relations in a relational database schema". arXiv:1011.1368 [cs].
- Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2010). "The comparison of Wiktionary thesauri transformed into the machine-readable format". arXiv:1006.5040 [cs].
- Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2011). "Оценка использования корпусов и электронных библиотек в Русском Викисловаре" [Evaluation of the corpora and digital libraries used in Russian Wiktionary]. Труды международной конференции "Корпусная лингвистика–2011" [International scientific conference "Corpus linguistics-2011"] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University. pp. 217–222.
- Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2012). "A quantitative analysis of the English lexicon in Wiktionaries and WordNet". International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies (IJIIT) 8 (4): 13–22. Retrieved May 9, 2013.
- Kurmas, Zachary (July 2010). "Zawilinski: a library for studying grammar in Wiktionary". Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration. Gdansk, Poland. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Li, Shen; Graça, Joao V.; Taskar, Ben (2012). "Wiki-ly supervised part-of-speech tagging". Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning. Jeju Island, Korea: Association for Computational Linguistics. pp. 1389–1398.
- Lin, Feiyu; Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2011). "Multilingual ontology matching based on Wiktionary data accessible via SPARQL endpoint". Proc. of the 13th Russian Conference on Digital Libraries RCDL’2011. Voronezh, Russia. pp. 19–26.
- McFate, Clifton J.; Forbus, Kenneth D. (2011). "NULEX: an open-license broad coverage lexicon". The 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Proceedings of the Conference. Portland, Oregon, USA: The Association for Computer Linguistics. pp. 363–367. ISBN 978-1-932432-88-6.
- Medero, Julie; Ostendorf, Mari (2009). "Analysis of vocabulary difficulty using wiktionary". Proc. SLaTE Workshop.
- Meyer, C. M.; Gurevych, I. (2010). "Worth its Weight in Gold or Yet Another Resource - A Comparative Study of Wiktionary, OpenThesaurus and GermaNet". Proc. 11th International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics, Iasi, Romania. pp. 38–49.
- Meyer, C. M.; Gurevych, I. (2012). "OntoWiktionary – Constructing an Ontology from the Collaborative Online Dictionary Wiktionary". In Pazienza, M. T.; Stellato, A. Semi-Automatic Ontology Development: Processes and Resources. IGI Global. pp. 131–161. ISBN 978-1-4666-0188-8.
- Otte, Pim; Tyers, F. M. (2011). "Rapid rule-based machine translation between Dutch and Afrikaans". In Forcada, Mikel L.; Depraetere, Heidi; Vandeghinste, Vincent. 16th Annual Conference of the European Association of Machine Translation, EAMT11. Leuven, Belgium. pp. 153–160.
- Schlippe, Tim; Ochs, Sebastian; Schultz, Tanja (2012). "Grapheme-to-phoneme model generation for Indo-European languages". Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). Kyoto, Japan. pp. 4801–4804.
- Zesch, Torsten; Müller, Christof; Gurevych, Iryna (2008). "Extracting Lexical Semantic Knowledge from Wikipedia and Wiktionary". Proceedings of the Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC). Marrakech, Morocco.
- "Wiktionary". Top 101 Web Sites. PC Magazine. April 6, 2005. Retrieved December 16, 2005.
- List of all Wiktionary editions
- Wiktionary front page
- Wiktionary's Multilingual Statistics
- Wikimedia's page on Wiktionary (including list of all existing Wiktionaries)
- Pages about Wiktionary in Meta.
- Meta:Main Page – OmegaWiki