October 10, 1925|
|Died||November 17, 2008
|Known for||Polish-Ukrainian relations|
Wiktor Poliszczuk (10 October 1925 in Dubno near Rivne — 17 November 2008 in Toronto) was a Polish-Ukrainian-Canadian politologist specialising in the history of political thought (a Canadian citizen of Polish-Ukrainian descent), who wrote about the Polish-Ukrainian relations during World War II and issues relating to the emergence of Ukrainian nationalism in the 20th century resulting in a campaign of ethnic cleansing. Poliszczuk's work has been criticized by several Polish, Canadian, American, and Ukrainian historians, but also acknowledged for his Polish-Ukrainian reconciliation effort.
Poliszczuk was born in Dubno (then in the Second Polish Republic), into a family of Ukrainian father and Polish mother. He was raised as an Eastern Orthodox Christian. When he was a child Wiktor, his mother and two sisters were deported to Kazakh SSR by the Soviet authorities (in April 1940). His father (an ethnic Ukrainian who had served as government official in interwar Poland) was executed by the Soviets. After World War II his family resettled in Dnipropetrovsk and in 1946 moved to Poland following Polish-Soviet repatriation agreement, to re-unite with the family of his aunt. In Poland Poliszczuk graduated from the Pedagogical Liceum and worked as a teacher. Later he studied law at the Wrocław University, and political science at the University of Silesia in Katowice, where he obtained a PhD (his doctoral thesis was about the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism). He worked as an attorney in the People's Republic of Poland. In 1981 during the time of martial law in Poland he emigrated to Canada. He lived in Toronto until his death in November 2008.
Poliszczuk's research and his extensive writing were devoted to the anatomy of bolshevism, theory and practice of national rights in the former Soviet Union as well as the theory and practice of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army activities. His on-line biography does not list any affiliations with a Canadian university. His two books were translated into English-language books are self-published.
Wiktor Poliszczuk was the author of over 200 papers, books and scientific publications, scientific articles, polemics, reviews, and press releases written in English, Ukrainian and Polish, including five large volumes bearing the title Integral Ukrainian nationalism as a variant of fascism (Toronto, 2003). His two books were translated into English-language. In his writing, Poliszczuk clearly separates the issues of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Ukrainian nation, stating that the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists was based on terror. He explores the sources of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists' actions as based on the theories of Dmytro Dontsov. On April 16, 2009, Wiktor Poliszczuk received posthumously the „Polonia Mater Nostra Est” award.
Wiktor Poliszczuk was criticised as biased against OUN-UPA and nonscientific by several historians. Polish historian Rafał Wnuk of the Institute of National Remembrance in Lublin categorized Poliszczuk's work as belonging to the "para-scientific" tradition along with some other Polish authors who are "neither scientific nor objective".[dead link] Although Poliszczuk was described by Wnuk as a "left-wing democrat" (quotes provided by Wnuk), he was said by Wnuk to have used the same jargon and to have reached the same conclusions as the Polish national nonscientific writers. Ukrainian academic Yaroslav Isayevich of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine called Poliszczuk an "expert practitioner of anti-Ukrainian hysteria."  Canadian historian David Marples described Poliszczuk's work as detailed, although taking the form of a polemic similar to the views regarding UPA from the Soviet perspective to which Poliszczuk's work can be added. In an interview published in translation by the Warsaw-based Ukrainian newspaper Our Word (Нашe Слово), Polish historian Ryszard Torzecki dismissed Poliszczuk as an "NKVD prosecutor" (which he was not) and one of the named writers unworthy of discussion.
Ukrainian nationalist historians also condemned Poliszczuk's works. For example, Volodomyr Serhiichuk of Ukraine published an entire book in response to his writing, defending OUN-UPA and claiming the Polish community's alleged collaboration with the Germans and with the Bolsheviks. However, the aforementioned book also "denigrates the Poles at every opportunity; it is thus a diatribe – wrote Marples – rather than an academic work..." (Heroes and Villains). Poliszczuk was a "left-wing democrat" who fully supported Operation Vistula, wrote Rafal Wnuk (referring to the forced deportation of the Ukrainian community from eastern Poland after the assassination of Communist minister Karol Świerczewski there); however, any attempts at his work's classification "using a national key" (suggested by Motyka) would be the least convincing. Historian of Ukraine Timothy Snyder from Yale wrote that Poliszczuk's argument about the purpose of resettlement was his "blatant" mistake, because this action was undertaken in order to disperse Ukrainian communities so they "could never arise again in Poland" according to him. The purported removal of the civilian base from the Ukrainian Insurgent Army after the war was only a pretext used by the authorities in Operation "Wisla" wrote Snyder. Nevertheless the UPA pacification actions have also ceased permanently as shown through historical data.
- (English) "Legal and political assessment of the OUN and UPA, Toronto, 1997, 173 pages, ISBN 0-9699444-4-6 
- (English) "Bitter truth": The criminality of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), the testimony of a Ukrainian, 403 pages, ISBN 0-9699444-9-7 
- (Polish) "Dowody zbrodni OUN i UPA" (Proofs of OUN and UPA's crimes)
- (Polish) "Gorzka prawda" (Bitter truth)
- (Polish) "Ideologia nacjonalizmu ukraińskiego" (Ideology of Ukrainian nationalism)
- (Polish) "Apokalipsa według Wiktora Ukrainca" (Apocalipse according to a greater Ukrainian)
- (Polish) "Fałszowanie historii najnowszej Ukrainy" (Falsifying of the modern history of Ukraine)
- (Polish) "Ocena polityczna i prawna OUN i UPA" (Political and legal judgement of OUN and UPA)
- (Polish) "Akcja Wisła - próba oceny" (Action Vistula - an attempt to evaluate)
- (Polish) "Zginęli z rąk ukraińskich" (They died from Ukrainian hands)
- (Polish) "Pojęcie integralnego nacjonalizmu ukraińskiego" (Notion of the integral Ukrainian nationalism)
- (Polish) "Ukraińskie ofiary OUN-UPA" (Ukrainian victims of OUN-UPA) Excerpts available in English at Lemko.org
- (Polish) "Integralny nacjonalizm ukraiński jako odmiana faszyzmu" (Integral Ukrainian nationalism as a variety of fascism)
- Zmarł prof. Wiktor Poliszczuk Eulogy in Polish.
- “Theory and Practice: Historical Representation of the War Time Activities of the OUN-UPA (the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - the Ukrainian Insurgent Army),” East European Jewish Affairs 36: 2 (December 2006): 163-189. By Anders Rudling.
- Recent Polish Historiography on Polish-Ukrainian Relations During World War II and its Aftermath,[dead link] pages 4-5 and 11-12. Written by Rafal Wnuk, Institute for National Remembrance, Lublin.
- David R. Marples (2007), Heroes and villains: creating national history in contemporary Ukraine. Pages: 228, 131. Central European University Press.
- Timothy Snyder. (2001). “To Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and For All”: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947
- Віктор ЗАМ’ЯТІН, "Не змішувати історію з політикою". Re: Jaroslav Isayevich, member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, director of Ukrainian Studies of the National Academy of Sciences in Lviv, interviewed in the newspaper Den, No. 47, March 15, 2003. Google translate.
- Magdalena Mazajczyk, Mateusz Raj-Chirowski, "Wiktor Poliszczuk pośmiertnie udekorowany." Wiktor Poliszczuk posthumously awarded the medal of Polonia Mater Nostra Est. Including photograph of award ceremony at the Warsaw Friendship House, April 16, 2009. Światowy Kongres Kresowian, 2009-05-08.
- "Dr Wiktor Poliszczuk, pisarz, badacz (Poliszuk's biography) at the Wayback Machine (archived March 17, 2008). Prince John Circle, Oakville, Ont. (Polish)
- Viktor Polishchuk library, at WorldCat catalog.
- Tadeusz Isakowicz-Zaleski (2009-04-19). "Laury dla Wiktora Poliszczuka i Kresowian (Laurels for Wiktor Poliszczuk...)".
- David R. Marples (2007), Heroes and villains: creating national history in contemporary Ukraine, Central European University Press, pp. 207-208.
- Interview in translation reprinted in Svoboda 2001, issue 12, pg. 9 Torzecki: " Немає сенсу говорити про Пруса. Це совєтський аґент. Подібно як прокурор НКВД Віктор Поліщук. Це люди, на тему яких не дискутується."
- David R. Marples (2007). "The Ukrainian Polish Conflict" (Google books preview). Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Central European University Press. p. 231. ISBN 9637326987. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Rafal Wnuk, "Recent Polish Historiography..." (ibidem), page 1. [dead link] See note #2: Motyka Grzegorz., Problematyka stosunków polsko-ukraińskich w latach 1939-1948 w polskiej historiografii po roku 1989 in Historycy polscy i ukraińscy wobec problemów XX wieku, ed. Piotr Kosiewski, Grzegorz Motyka, Kraków 2000, pp. 166-178; Konflikt polsko-ukraiński na Wołyniu w świetle polskiej historiografii, Przegląd Wschodni 1997 (1/13); Motyka G., Spór o UPA w najnowszej polskiej historiografii, Warszawskie Zeszyty Ukrainoznawcze 2002(13), pp. 127-139.
- Rafal Wnuk, "Recent Polish Historiography..." (ibidem), page 4. [dead link] Re: G. Motyka's classification of trends "using a national key" in Problematyka stosunków polsko-ukraińskich... Kraków, 2000.
- Akcja Wisła. Pertinent Data and Cumulative statistics Bieszczady Semper.pl 2005, Internet Archive.
- (Polish) Wiktor Poliszczuk bio at the Wayback Machine (archived March 17, 2008)
- Lemkos' Tragedy by Wiktor Poliszczuk