Wilbraham, Massachusetts

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Wilbraham, Massachusetts
Town
Wilbraham Center
Wilbraham Center
Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts
Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°07′25″N 72°25′55″W / 42.12361°N 72.43194°W / 42.12361; -72.43194Coordinates: 42°07′25″N 72°25′55″W / 42.12361°N 72.43194°W / 42.12361; -72.43194
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Hampden
Settled 1730
Incorporated 1763
Government
 • Type Open town meeting
Area
 • Total 22.4 sq mi (58.1 km2)
 • Land 22.2 sq mi (57.5 km2)
 • Water 0.2 sq mi (0.5 km2)
Elevation 290 ft (88 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 14,868
 • Density 640.5/sq mi (247.3/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01095
Area code(s) 413
FIPS code 25-79740
GNIS feature ID 0619390
Website http://www.wilbraham-ma.gov/

Wilbraham is a town in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. It is also a suburb of the City of Springfield, Massachusetts and part of the Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 14,868 at the 2010 census.

The zip code of North Wilbraham was 01067. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Wilbraham.

Boundaries and localities[edit]

Wilbraham was originally divided between North Wilbraham and Wilbraham. North Wilbraham was home to the industrial side of the town along with the Boston & Albany Railroad Line which is still in use today. Wilbraham was home to the Wilbraham & Monson Academy.

Wilbraham is made up of several neighborhoods, known as Wilbraham Center, North Wilbraham, East Wilbraham, Wilbraham Mountain, South Wilbraham, Boston Rd Corridor and the Pines Section. In 1878, the south end of Wilbraham officially broke away from Wilbraham and formed the Town of Hampden. The term North Wilbraham is now rarely used by town residents and has been replaced by Wilbraham.

Wilbraham has a regional School District, called the Hampden-Wilbraham Regional School District.

Origin of the name of Wilbraham[edit]

The name of Wilbraham comes from the villages of Little Wilbraham and Great Wilbraham located near Cambridge, England. The name originates from Wilburgham, a name indicating 'Wilburga's homestead', Wilburga being the daughter of the seventh century King Penda of the Mercians who gave her the land. In the 10th century (975 A.D.) it was still known as Wilburgeham; however in the Domesday Book it is known as Wiborgham. By the 1260s it was known as Great Wilbraham and right before that King's Wilbraham. During the Middle Ages the Knights Templar established a preceptory in 1226 in the villages. The manor house of Great Wilbraham was their temple and today it is still standing and is a house. Their regional headquarters was Denny Abbey in nearby Peterborough.

One statement within the Wilbraham Town History Book of 1963 states that a trustee of the Wilbraham & Monson Academy was attending Oxford University and found the following in a history book: That the two villages of Little Wilbraham and Great Wilbraham came into existence because Alfred the Great, an English King who upon hunting wild boar in a very good spot about 60 miles northeast of London, designated that spot as Wild Boar Haven. However Haven was later changed to Ham and over the years the three separate words became combined and distorted until you had Wilbraham.[1]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area today known as the Town of Wilbraham first became of interest in 1636 when a young man named William Pynchon (founder of Springfield) purchased the area from the Nipmuc starting at the Connecticut River in Springfield and extending to the foot of the Wilbraham Mountain Range by 1674. Wilbraham was first settled in 1730 by Nathaniel Hitchcock along with what is now Hampden, Massachusetts as the Fourth District of Springfield. It was also known as the Outward Commons, Mountains or Springfield Mountain. Hitchcock built a log hut along what is now Main St. Hunting and logging took place in the late 17th century.

The Native Americans did not maintain any villages prior to the colonials' arrival in the Outward Commons; however, they did hunt and fish along the Chicopee River as it was considered good fishing grounds. A soap stone quarry existed on Glendale Road and arrowheads can be found throughout Wilbraham. The poplar trees located along the Chicopee River made excellent canoes, and two have been found carved out along the Chicopee River over the years. The Nipmuc referred to this area as "Minnechaug" which means Berryland.

The major poem "Minneola" (1904) by Chauncey E. Peck tells, over several hundred pages, the stories of the Indians around Wilbraham. The last of which appears to have been an Indian woman named We-sha-u-gan who lived on Wigwam Hill in a wigwam for many years, "after the white man came" (History of Wilbraham, 1863).

Many town residents took part in both the French and Indian War and Revolutionary War, and at one time Wilbraham even had its own militia, which at one point was a field artillery battery and often supported the Hampshire Regiment. Wilbraham residents have also served in numerous wars since the French and Indian War.[2]

18th century[edit]

Its first church was the First Congregational Church, which was organized on June 24, 1741. This church would later merge into the Wilbraham United Church. The first minister of the town was Mr. Noah Merrick. The first three selectmen were Lieutenant Thomas Mirick, Deacon Nathaniel Warriner and Stephen Stebbins. Stebbins was the first person to settle in the southern part of the precinct in modern-day Hampden when he built a house on the north side of the Scantic River in 1741.[3]

The town was officially incorporated as the independent "Wilbraham" in 1763, when its population was about 400. Wilbraham was made a separate town because of the walking distance to Springfield, along with differing interests made the people of the fourth precinct petition several times for a new town to be incorporated.[4][5]

On August 7, 1761 on Wilbraham Mountain a young man named Timothy Merrick was bitten by a rattlesnake and died soon afterward. Folklore and legend has made its way over the years about this incident including a song titled "On Springfield Mountain". The incident probably took place within what is now the adjoining town of Hampden, but at the time was still part of South Wilbraham — though some have claimed it was as far south as Connecticut. This song was one of the earliest of the American ballads.

The Bay Path trail once ran through the north end of the town. It was this trail that Henry Knox used when he moved the cannons that he captured at Fort Ticonderoga in 1775. These cannons were brought to Boston (being pulled by oxen) and placed on Dorchester Heights and used against the British. Knox led the artillery train through the town.

The first President of the United States, General George Washington, traveled through the town and slept at a home along the Bay Path in 1790 while on his way to Boston.

19th century[edit]

The Underground Railroad ran through the town and several houses along Main St and on Wilbraham Mountain served as stations.

The Wilbraham town center is among the largest designated historical areas in the country, with fine examples of colonial and Victorian homes from as early as the 1730s along the historical areas of main street. The oldest Methodist meeting house in New England is located in the town's center, as is the campus of Wilbraham & Monson Academy, founded in 1804.

On April 29, 1799 a tragedy on Nine Mile Pond took the lives of six people, including three 16 year old girls. The boat that they were traveling in overturned. One of the victims was not found for sixteen days and a ditch had to be dug in order to drain the pond to find her. This ditch located across the street on Boston Rd became the first town dump.

North Wilbraham was the industrialized area of the town and was home to the Collins Manufacturing Company and other businesses. The Collins Manufacturing Company was once the main employer of the town. The building also known as the Collins Paper Mill (which still stands today) was located was built around 1872. It made fine writing paper and, for a short time, it made government currency paper. The mill officially closed down in 1940 but some part continued operating into the 1950s. A fire in 1945 did severe damage to the building, which now stands vacant.[6]

Wilbraham at one time was very famous for its peach orchards and some are still grown on the slope of the Wilbraham Mountain Range. Apples were also grown on the slopes and Rices Fruit Farm used to sell fresh apples, apple cider, apple pies and other items.

20th century[edit]

Wilbraham Center was the farming area of town and was home to Bennett's Turkey Farm, Pheasant Farm and Rice's Fruit Farm which grew the peaches later celebrated during the Peach Festival. Wilbraham had several potato farms in the south end of town around the time of World War II. None of those farms remain in operation today. Wilbraham was once of the home of a speakeasy called "Worlds End" on Burleigh Rd. It was destroyed by a fire in the mid-1930s.

In the summer of 1928, author H. P. Lovecraft stayed with the noted antiquarian Miss Evanore O. Beebe (co-author of the town's first history in 1913) at her farmhouse on Monson Road in west Wilbraham, touring the locality with his friend and author Mrs Miniter who was a local. He later he modeled the fictional town of Dunwich on the combination of towns in the area, in his story "The Dunwich Horror". He also used the area's folklore in the story. After his death Lovecraft's executor August Derleth later wrote the story "The Peabody Heritage", set in Wilbraham.

The hurricane of 1938 did considerable damage to the town and destroyed the old covered bridge over the Chicopee River on Cottage Ave. A steel bridge rests there today.

During World War I, the town suffered the loss of George M. Kingdon who died fighting in France. He was Wilbraham's only casualty.

The flood of 1955 washed out many of the roads in the town. The dam near the Chicopee River gave way washing out the railroad tracks and parts of Mountain Rd and Boston Rd.

21st century[edit]

On the afternoon of June 1, 2011 two tornados struck Wilbraham: an EF-1 and an EF-3. The EF-3 which originated in Westfield and traveled through West Springfield and Springfield caused extensive damage to the Tinkham Road corridor of the town. Heavy structural damage to homes, power poles, and trees was experienced. That tornado then moved eastward to cause more extensive damage to the towns of Monson, Brimfield, and Sturbridge. The EF-1 formed after the EF-3 and primarily caused damage to power poles and trees along a section from Stony Hill Rd east crossing Main St. just south of St. Cecilias Church to Crane Hill Rd.

Commercial[edit]

The corporate headquarters of Friendly's Ice Cream is located in Wilbraham.On the Massachusetts Turnpike, hedges along the side of the highway have a sign and have been trimmed to read "Welcome to Wilbraham, Home of Friendly Ice Cream".

Town Government[edit]

Wilbraham has a Board of Selectmen in which there are three members, each serving a two-year term. The town has an open town meeting rule and an annual town meeting is held every spring.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles (58.1 km²), of which 22.2 square miles (57.5 km²) is land and 0.2 square mile (0.5 km²) (0.89%) is water. Wilbraham is bordered by Springfield on the west, Ludlow on the north, Palmer on the northeast, Monson on the east, Hampden on the south, and East Longmeadow on the southwest.

Wilbraham is situated in such a way that its area lies within two broad physiographic provinces that cross Massachusetts from north to south. The Wilbraham Mountains which dominate the geography of the town are part of the Central Upland of Massachusetts, while the portion of town west of the mountains lies within the Connecticut Valley Lowland. Millions of years ago, the flat area of Wilbraham west of the mountains were once part of a shallow inland sea.[7]

Wilbraham also has the beautiful Wilbraham Mountains range which starts at the north end of town and extends into Hampden. The highest point in town is Mt. Chapin at 937 feet above sea level. Other high peaks are Mount Vision (formerly Rattlesnake Peak) and Wigwam Hill.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 2,127 —    
1860 2,081 −2.2%
1870 2,330 +12.0%
1880 1,628 −30.1%
1890 1,814 +11.4%
1900 1,595 −12.1%
1910 2,332 +46.2%
1920 2,780 +19.2%
1930 2,719 −2.2%
1940 3,041 +11.8%
1950 4,003 +31.6%
1960 7,387 +84.5%
1970 11,984 +62.2%
1980 12,053 +0.6%
1990 12,635 +4.8%
2000 13,473 +6.6%
2010 14,868 +10.4%

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 13,473 people, 4,891 households, and 3,873 families residing in the town. The population density was 606.3 people per square mile (234.1/km²). There were 5,048 housing units at an average density of 227.2 per square mile (87.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.40% White, 1.19% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, and 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.40% of the population.

There were 4,891 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.7% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.8% were non-families. 17.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 24.4%from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $65,014, and the median income for a family was $73,825. Males had a median income of $55,600 versus $36,922 for females. The per capita income for the town was $29,854. About 3.2% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.5% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Public Safety[edit]

Wilbraham has both a fire and police department. The fire department was formed in 1919 as the George M. Kingdon Fire Company. The fire company was named in honor of Mr. Kingdon as he was the only Wilbraham resident killed in France during World War I. The Wilbraham Fire Department was originally a volunteer force and had 32 members. The first fire chief was Andrew D. Macauley and the assistant chief was Augustus F. "Gus" Friend who also happened to be one of the town constables and was known by many for breaking up brawls no matter its size and his only weapons were his fists. It has recently been found that a hook & ladder truck most likely utilized to protect the students at the Wilbraham & Monson Academy existed in Wilbraham Center in the mid-19th century. The barn which housed the ladder truck burned in the Great Fire of 1877 which destroyed much of the center of town. The department once had two brothers who served as fire chiefs, the first being Paul E. Tupper in the 1930s and Ralph E. Tupper from 1943 to 1965. The police department was formed in 1954 to assist the state police in patrolling and responding to emergencies in the town during certain night hours. Its first police chief was William Pollitt.[9]

Library[edit]

The Wilbraham Free Public Library was established in 1892.[10][11] In fiscal year 2008, the town of Wilbraham spent 2.32% ($677,591) of its budget on its public library—some $48 per person.[12]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  2. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  3. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  4. ^ A Brief History of Wilbraham, from Wilbraham Bicentennial program, 1963
  5. ^ http://www.wilbraham-ma.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=category.display&category_id=134
  6. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  7. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  8. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  9. ^ Wilbraham 1963 Town History Book
  10. ^ Report of the Free Public Library Commission of Massachusetts. v.9 (1899)
  11. ^ http://www.wilbrahamlibrary.org/ Retrieved 2010-11-09
  12. ^ July 1, 2007 through June 30, 2008; cf. The FY2008 Municipal Pie: What's Your Share? Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Board of Library Commissioners. Boston: 2009. Available: Municipal Pie Reports. Retrieved 2010-08-04