Wilbur Glenn Voliva
Early life and education
Voliva was born on a farm in Indiana on Mar. 10, 1870. In 1889, he entered Union Christian College, Merom Indiana; he graduated five years later and became a minister. In 1898 he was drawn to the teachings of John Alexander Dowie and eventually joined his congregation, becoming an elder of the Christian Catholic Church of Zion, Illinois. In 1901 he emigrated to Australia to become overseer-in-charge of the Australian branch.
Leadership of church
In September 1905, Dowie suffered a stroke and recuperated in Jamaica, claiming $2,000 a month expenses from the investments, and asked Voliva to return to oversee the city in his absence. Voliva arrived in February 1906, whereupon the congregation revolted against Dowie's leadership accusing him of corruption and polygamy and elected Voliva as head of the church, which he then renamed to the "Christian Catholic Apostolic Church." By careful management he rescued Zion from bankruptcy gaining the support of the church members. He kept tight control on his some 6,000 followers, which made up the community, even up to the point of dictating their choice of marriage partners. The city of Zion was effectively controlled by the church; all of its real estate, while sold at market rates, was conveyed under an 1,100 year lease, subject to many restrictions and subject to termination at the whim of the General Overseer. Religions other than the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church were effectively banned - visiting preachers from rival sects were harassed and hounded out of town by the city police force.
Voliva diversified Zion Industries, an industrial concern owned by the church that manufactured Scottish lace, to include a bakery which produced the popular Zion brand fig bar cookies and White Dove chocolates. Zion was a one-company town and its workers were paid substandard wages.
He introduced many new rules for members and notices were placed around the town with stern warnings that the independents (who didn't belong to the church) resented and often burnt. But the city was established as a safe space for those within its boundaries.
Flat earth and other views
From 1914, he gained nationwide notoriety by his vigorous advocacy of flat earth doctrine. He offered a widely publicized $5000 challenge for anyone to disprove flat earth theory. The church schools in Zion taught the flat earth doctrine. In 1923 he became the first evangelical preacher in the world to own his own radio, which could be heard as far away as Australia. His radio station broadcast his diatribes against round earth astronomy, and the evils of evolution. He was quoted about the sun as follows:
The idea of a sun millions of miles in diameter and 91,000,000 miles away is silly. The sun is only 32 miles across and not more than 3,000 miles from the earth. It stands to reason it must be so. God made the sun to light the earth, and therefore must have placed it close to the task it was designed to do. What would you think of a man who built a house in Zion and put the lamp to light it in Kenosha, Wisconsin?
He became increasingly focused on destroying the 'trinity of evils': modern astronomy, evolution and higher criticism, insisting on a strict interpretation of 24-hour days for creation and travelling to Dayton to appear as a witness at the Scopes trial (he wasn't called). Voliva also frequently predicted the end of the world: his predictions that the end would come in 1923, 1927, 1930, and 1935 were incorrect.
Decline and death
Like his predecessor, Voliva increasingly developed an overtly lavish lifestyle, amassing a $5m personal fortune by 1927, which began to alienate his followers, especially after the hardships brought on by the Great Depression, which forced Zion Industries into bankruptcy. In 1935 Voliva tried to revive the flagging fortunes of the church by instituting the annual Zion Passion Play, along the lines of the famous one in Oberammergau. However, in 1937, a disgruntled employee set the church's huge Shiloh Tabernacle, where the play took place, ablaze. Shortly thereafter, Voliva was forced into personal bankruptcy and he was reduced to being the honorary president of Zion Industries. The governance of the city reverted to the independents and the new authorities selected a globe for the compulsory car sticker that he was forced to put on his car. He spent most of his time in Florida where he hoped to establish another fundamentalist colony, but in 1942 after being diagnosed with terminal cancer, Voliva made a tearful public confession to his followers that he had misappropriated church funds for his personal use and committed other misdeeds. Shortly thereafter on October 11, 1942 he died (he had previously stated that he would live to 120 due to his diet of Brazil nuts and buttermilk), and the church all but dissolved. A small remnant was reorganized under the leadership of Michael Mintern. It was later renamed to "Christ Community Church."
- "Obituaries". Time Magazine. 1942-10-19. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- Garwood, Christine (2007). Flat Earth. Macmillan. p. 194.
- Garwood 2007, p. 200
- Gardner, Martin (1957). "Flat and Hollow". Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (Second Edition ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-20394-8.
- Garwood 2007, p. 202, 208
- Garwood 2007, p. 217
- Reprint of "$5000 for Proving the Earth a Globe", Modern Mechanics and Inventions, May 1931.
- Poster banning smoking, erected by Voliva
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