Wild turkey

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Wild turkey
Gall-dindi.jpg
Male
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Subfamily: Meleagridinae
Genus: Meleagris
Species: M. gallopavo
Binomial name
Meleagris gallopavo
Linnaeus, 1758
Subspecies

6, see text

Wild Turkey.png
Distribution of M. gallopavo

The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes. It is the same species as the domestic turkey, which was originally derived from a southern Mexican subspecies of wild turkey (not the related ocellated turkey). Although native to North America, the turkey probably got its name from the domesticated variety being imported to Britain in ships coming from the Levant via Spain. The British at the time therefore, associated the wild turkey with the country Turkey and the name stuck.[2][better source needed]

Description[edit]

Closeup of wild turkey hen.

Adult wild turkeys have long reddish-yellow to grayish-green legs. The body feathers are generally blackish and dark brown overall with a coppery sheen that becomes more complex in adult males. Adult males, called toms or gobblers, have a large, featherless, reddish head, red throat, and red wattles on the throat and neck. The head has fleshy growths called caruncles. Juvenile males are called jakes, the difference between an adult male and a juvenile is that the jake has a very short beard and his tail fan has longer feathers in the middle. The adult male's tail fan will be all the same length.[3] When males are excited, a fleshy flap on the bill expands, and this, the wattles and the bare skin of the head and neck all become engorged with blood, almost concealing the eyes and bill. The long fleshy object over a male's beak is called a snood. When a male turkey is excited, its head turns blue; when ready to fight, it turns red. Each foot has three toes in front, with a shorter, rear-facing toe in back; males have a spur behind each of their lower legs.[4]

Male turkeys have a long, dark, fan-shaped tail and glossy bronze wings. As with many other species of the Galliformes, turkeys exhibit strong sexual dimorphism. The male is substantially larger than the female, and his feathers have areas of red, purple, green, copper, bronze, and gold iridescence. Females, called hens, have feathers that are duller overall, in shades of brown and gray. Parasites can dull coloration of both sexes; in males, coloration may serve as a signal of health.[5] The primary wing feathers have white bars. Turkeys have 5000 to 6000 feathers.[6] Tail feathers are of the same length in adults, different lengths in juveniles. Males typically have a "beard", a tuft of coarse hair (modified feathers) growing from the center of the breast. Beards average 230 mm (9.1 in) in length. In some populations, 10 to 20% of females have a beard, usually shorter and thinner than that of the male. The adult male (or "tom") normally weighs from 5 to 11 kg (11 to 24 lb) and measures 100–125 cm (39–49 in) in length. The adult female (or "hen") is typically much smaller at 2.5–5.4 kg (5.5–11.9 lb) and is 76 to 95 cm (30 to 37 in) long.[7][8] Per two large studies, the average weight of adult males is 7.6 kg (17 lb) and the average weight of adult females is 4.26 kg (9.4 lb).[9][10] The wings are relatively small, as is typical of the galliform order, and the wingspan ranges from 1.25 to 1.44 m (4 ft 1 in to 4 ft 9 in). The wing chord is only 20 to 21.4 cm (7.9 to 8.4 in). The bill is also relatively small, as adults measure 2 to 3.2 cm (0.79 to 1.26 in) in culmen length.[11] The tarsus of the wild turkey is quite long and sturdy, measuring from 9.7 to 19.1 cm (3.8 to 7.5 in). The tail is also relatively long, ranging from 24.5 to 50.5 cm (9.6 to 19.9 in).[12] The record-sized adult male wild turkey, according to the National Wild Turkey Federation, weighed 16.85 kg (37.1 lb), with records of tom turkeys weighing over 13.8 kg (30 lb) uncommon but not rare.[13] While it is usually rather lighter than the waterfowl, after the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), the turkey has the second heaviest maximum weight of any North American bird. Going on average mass, several other birds on the continent, including the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), the tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) and the very rare California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and whooping crane (Grus americana) surpass the mean weight of turkeys. On one hand, none of these other species are as sexually dimorphic in size as the wild turkey, but on the other, they are also far less numerous and are not legally hunted unlike the turkey, thousands of which are weighed every year during hunting season.[14][15]

Habitat[edit]

Eastern subspecies

Wild turkeys prefer hardwood and mixed conifer-hardwood forests with scattered openings such as pastures, fields, orchards and seasonal marshes. They seemingly can adapt to virtually any dense native plant community as long as coverage and openings are widely available. Open, mature forest with a variety of interspersion of tree species appear to be preferred. In the Northeast of North America, turkeys are most profuse in hardwood timber of oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) and forests of red oak (Quercus rubra), beech (Fagus grandifolia), cherry (Prunus serotina) and white ash (Fraxinus americana). Best ranges for turkeys in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont sections have an interspersion of clearings, farms, and plantations with preferred habitat along principal rivers and in cypress (Taxodium disticum) and tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) swamps. Appalachian and Cumberland plateaus, birds occupy mixed forest of oaks and pines on southern and western slopes, also hickory with diverse understories. Bald cypress and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) swamps of s. Florida; also hardwood of Cliftonia (a heath) and oak in north-central Florida. Lykes Fisheating Creek area of s. Florida has up to 51% cypress, 12% hardwood hammocks, 17% glades of short grasses with isolated live oak (Quercus virginiana); nesting in neighboring prairies. Original habitat here was mainly longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) with turkey oak (Quercus laevis) and slash pine (Pinus caribaea) “flatwoods,” now mainly replaced by slash pine plantations.

Behavior[edit]

Flight[edit]

In flight

Despite their weight, wild turkeys, unlike their domesticated counterparts, are agile fliers. In ideal habitat of open woodland or wooded grasslands,[16] they may fly beneath the canopy top and find perches. They usually fly close to the ground for no more than 400 m (a quarter mile).

Vocalizations[edit]

Turkeys have many vocalizations: "gobbles”, "clucks”, "putts”, "purrs”,"yelps”, "cutts”, "whines”, "cackles”, and "kee-kees”. In early spring, male turkeys, also called gobblers or toms, gobble to announce their presence to females and competing males. The gobble can carry for up to a mile. Males also emit a low-pitched "drumming" sound; produced by the movement of air in the air sack in the chest, similar to the booming of a prairie chicken. In addition they produce a sound known as the "spit" which is a sharp expulsion of air from this air sack. Hens "yelp" to let gobblers know their location. Gobblers often yelp in the manner of females, and hens can gobble, though they rarely do so. Immature males, called jakes, often yelp.

Foraging[edit]

Hen with poults

Wild turkeys are omnivorous, foraging on the ground or climbing shrubs and small trees to feed. They prefer eating hard mast such as acorns, nuts, and various trees, including hazel, chestnut, hickory, and pinyon pine as well as various seeds, berries such as juniper and bearberry, roots and insects. Turkeys also occasionally consume amphibians and small reptiles such as lizards and snakes. Poults have been observed eating insects, berries, and seeds. Wild turkeys often feed in cow pastures, sometimes visit back yard bird feeders, and favor croplands after harvest to scavenge seed on the ground. Turkeys are also known to eat a wide variety of grasses.

Turkey populations can reach large numbers in small areas because of their ability to forage for different types of food. Early morning and late afternoon are the desired times for eating.

Social structure and mating[edit]

Nest with 10 eggs

Males are polygamous, mating with as many hens as they can. Male wild turkeys display for females by puffing out their feathers, spreading out their tails and dragging their wings. This behavior is most commonly referred to as strutting. Their heads and necks are colored brilliantly with red, blue and white. The color can change with the turkey's mood, with a solid white head and neck being the most excited. They use gobbling, drumming/booming and spitting as signs of social dominance, and to attract females. Courtship begins during the months of March and April, which is when turkeys are still flocked together in winter areas.

Males may be seen courting in groups, often with the dominant male gobbling, spreading their tail feathers (strutting), drumming/booming and spitting. In a study, the average dominant male that courted as part of a pair of males fathered six more eggs than males that courted alone. Genetic analysis of pairs of males courting together shows that they are close relatives, with half of their genetic material being identical. The theory behind the team-courtship is that the less dominant male would have a greater chance of passing along shared genetic material than if it were courting alone.[17]

When mating is finished, females search for nest sites. Nests are shallow dirt depressions engulfed with woody vegetation. Hens lay a clutch of 10–14 eggs, usually one per day. The eggs are incubated for at least 28 days. The poults are precocial and nidifugous, leaving the nest in about 12–24 hours.

Predators[edit]

Predators of eggs and nestlings include raccoons (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), groundhogs (Marmota monax), other rodents and spotted skunks (Spilogale ssp.).[18][19][20][21] Predators of poults in addition to nestlings and eggs also include several snakes, namely rat snakes (Elaphe ssp.), gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer) and pinesnakes (Pituophis ssp.), and predators mainly on poults include raptors such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), barred owl (Strix varia), red-shouldered (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed (Buteo jamaicensis), white-tailed (Geranoaetus albicaudatus) and harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) and even the smallish Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus) (both likely of very small poults).[22][23][24][25][26][27] Mortality of poults is greatest in the first 14 days of life, especially of those roosting on the ground, decreasing most notably after half a year, when they attain near adult sizes.[28]

A hen with juveniles.

Predators of both adults and poults include coyotes (Canis latrans),[29] gray wolf (Canis lupus),[30] bobcats (Lynx rufus),[31] cougars (Puma concolor),[32] golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)[33] and possibly American black bears (Ursus americanus).[34] In addition to poults, hens and adult-sized fledglings (but not, as far as is known, adult male toms) are vulnerable to predation by great horned owls (Bubo virginianus),[35] northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis),[36] domestic dogs (Canis lupus domesticus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).[37] Humans are now the leading predator of adult turkeys.[38][39] When approached by potential predators, turkeys and their poults usually run away rather than fly away from potential predators, though they may also fly short distances if pressed.

Occasionally, if cornered, adult turkeys may try to fight off predators and large male toms can be especially aggressive in self-defense. When fighting off predators, turkeys may kick with their legs, using the spurs on their back of the legs as a weapon, bite with their beak and ram with their relatively large bodies and may be able to deter predators up to the size of mid-sized mammals.[40][41] Hen turkeys have been seen to chase off at least two species of hawks in flight when their poults are threatened.[42] Occasionally, turkeys may behave aggressively towards humans, especially in areas where natural habitats are scarce. They also have been seen to chase off humans as well. However, attacks can usually be deterred and minor injuries can be avoided by giving turkeys a respectful amount of space and keeping outdoor spaces clean and undisturbed.[43]

Range and population[edit]

The range and numbers of the wild turkey had decreased at the beginning of the 20th century due to hunting and loss of habitat. Game managers estimate that the entire population of wild turkeys in the United States was as low as 30,000 in the early 20th century. By the 1940s, it was almost totally extirpated from Canada and becoming localized in pockets in the United States, in the north-east effectively restricted to the Appalachians, only as far north as central Pennsylvania. Game officials made efforts to protect and encourage the breeding of the surviving wild population, and some trapped birds were relocated to new areas, including some in the western states where it was not native. There is evidence that the bird does well when near farmland, which provides grain and also berry-bearing shrubs at its edges.[44] As wild turkey numbers rebounded, hunting was legalized in 49 U.S. states (excluding Alaska). In 1973, the total U.S. population was estimated to be 1.3 million, and current estimates place the entire wild turkey population at 7 million individuals. In recent years, "trap and transfer" projects have reintroduced wild turkeys to several provinces of Canada as well, sometimes from across the border in the United States.

Attempts to introduce the wild turkey to Britain as a game bird in the 18th century were not successful. George II is said to have had a flock of a few thousand in Richmond Park near London, but they were too easy for local poachers to catch, and the fights with poachers became too dangerous for the gamekeepers. They were hunted with dogs and then shot out of trees where they took refuge. Several other populations, introduced or escaped, have survived for periods elsewhere in Britain and Ireland, but seem to have eventually died out, perhaps from a combination of lack of winter feed and poaching.[45] Small populations, probably descended from farm as well as wild stock, in the Czech Republic and Germany have been more successful, and there are wild populations of some size following introductions in Hawaii and New Zealand.[46]

Subspecies[edit]

There are subtle differences in the coloration, habitat, and behavior of the different subspecies of wild turkeys. The six subspecies are:

M. g. silvestris.

Eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) (Viellot, 1817)[edit]

This was the turkey species first encountered in the wild by the Puritans, the founders of Jamestown, and the Acadians; its range is one of the largest of all subspecies. The natural range covers the entire eastern half of the United States from Maine in the north to northern Florida and extending as far west as Michigan, Illinois, and into Missouri. In Canada, its range extends into Southeastern Manitoba, Ontario, Southwestern Quebec (including Pontiac, Quebec and the lower half of the Western Quebec Seismic Zone), and the Maritime Provinces. They number from 5.1 to 5.3 million birds. They were first named 'forest turkey' in 1817, and can grow up to 4 ft (1.2 m) tall. The upper tail coverts are tipped with chestnut brown. Males can reach 30 lb (14 kg) in weight. The eastern wild turkey is heavily hunted in the Eastern USA and is the most hunted wild turkey subspecies.

Osceola wild turkey or Florida wild turkey (M. g. osceola) (Scott, 1890)[edit]

Most common in the Florida peninsula, they number from 80,000 to 100,000 birds. This bird is named for the famous Seminole leader Osceola, and was first described in 1890. It is smaller and darker than the eastern wild turkey. The wing feathers are very dark with smaller amounts of the white barring seen on other subspecies. Their overall body feathers are an iridescent green-purple color. They are often found in scrub patches of palmetto and occasionally near swamps, where amphibian prey is abundant.

M. g. intermedia has relatively long legs

Rio Grande wild turkey (M. g. intermedia) (Sennett, 1879)[edit]

The Rio Grande wild turkey ranges through Texas to Oklahoma, Kansas, New Mexico, Colorado, Oregon, and was introduced to central and western California, as well as parts of a few northeastern states. It was also introduced to Hawaiʻi in the late 1950s. Population estimates for this subspecies range from 1,022,700 to 1,025,700.[47] This subspecies, native to the central plain states, was first described in 1879, and has relatively long legs, better adapted to a prairie habitat. Its body feathers often have a green-coppery sheen. The tips of the tail and lower back feathers are a buff-to-very light tan color. Its habitats are brush areas next to streams, rivers or mesquite, pine and scrub oak forests. The Rio Grande turkey is gregarious.

Merriam's wild turkey (M. g. merriami) (Nelson, 1900)[edit]

The Merriam's wild turkey ranges through the Rocky Mountains and the neighboring prairies of Wyoming, Montana and South Dakota, as well as much of the high mesa country of New Mexico, with number from 334,460 to 344,460 birds.[citation needed] The subspecies has also been introduced into Oregon. The initial releases of Merriam’s turkeys in 1961 resulted in establishing a remnant population of Merriam’s turkeys along the east-slope of Mt. Hood and natural immigration of turkeys from Idaho has established Merriam’s flocks along the eastern border of Oregon.[48] Merriam's Wild Turkeys live in Ponderosa Pine and mountainous regions. The subspecies was named in 1900 in honor of Clinton Hart Merriam, the first chief of the U.S. Biological Survey. The tail and lower back feathers have white tips and purple and bronze reflections.

Gould's wild turkey (M. g. mexicana) (Gould, 1856)[edit]

Gould's wild turkey

Native from the central valleys to the northern mountains of Mexico and the southernmost parts of Arizona and New Mexico. Gould's wild turkeys are heavily protected and regulated. The subspecies was first described in 1856. They exist in small numbers in the U.S. but are abundant in northwestern portions of Mexico. A small population has been established in southern Arizona. Gould's are the largest of the five subspecies. They have longer legs, larger feet, and longer tail feathers. The main colors of the body feathers are copper and greenish-gold. This subspecies is heavily protected owing to its skittish nature and threatened status.

South Mexican wild turkey (M. g. gallopavo) (Linnaeus, 1758)[edit]

The south Mexican wild turkey is considered the nominate subspecies, and the only one that is not found in the United States or Canada. Preclassic peoples in Mesoamerica domesticated the southern Mexican subspecies, M. g. gallopavo, giving rise to the domestic turkey. The Spaniards brought this tamed subspecies back to Europe with them in the mid-16th century; from Spain it spread to France and later Britain as a farmyard animal, usually becoming the centerpiece of a feast for the well-to-do. By 1620 it was common enough so that Pilgrim settlers of Massachusetts could bring turkeys with them from England, unaware that it had a larger close relative already occupying the forests of Massachusetts. It is one of the smallest subspecies and is best known in Spanish from its Aztec-derived name, guajolote. This wild turkey subspecies is thought to be critically endangered, as of 2010.

Benjamin Franklin and the National Bird Suggestion[edit]

Female wild turkey with young, from Birds of America by John James Audubon

The idea that Benjamin Franklin preferred the turkey as the national bird of the United States comes from a letter he wrote to his daughter Sarah Bache on January 26, 1784.[49] The main subject of the letter is a criticism of the Society of the Cincinnati, which he likened to a chivalric order, which contradicted the ideals of the newly founded American republic.[50] In one section of the letter, Franklin remarked on the appearance of the bald eagle on the Society's crest:

Franklin never publicly voiced opposition to the bald eagle as a national symbol.[50]

Significance to Native Americans[edit]

Eastern wild turkey (M. g. silvestris) hens

The wild turkey, throughout its range, plays a significant role in the cultures of many Native American tribes all over North America. Outside of the Thanksgiving feast, it is a favorite meal in Eastern tribes. Eastern Native American tribes consumed both the eggs and meat, sometimes turning the latter into a type of jerky to preserve it and make it last through cold weather. They provided habitat by burning down portions of forests to create artificial meadows which would attract mating birds, and thus give a clear shot to hunters. The feathers of turkeys also often made their way into the rituals and headgear of many tribes. Many leaders, such as Catawba chiefs, traditionally wore turkey feather headdresses.[51] Significant peoples of several tribes, including Muscogee Creek and Wampanoag, wore turkey feather cloaks.[52] The turkey clan is one of the three Lenape clans.[53] Movements of wild turkeys inspired the Caddo tribe's turkey dance.[54]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Meleagris gallopavo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Dickson, 362; "Why a Turkey Is Called a Turkey". Npr.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  3. ^ Wild Turkey Identification and Anatomy. NWTF. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  4. ^ "Turkey Habitat". Habitat Tracker - Florida State University. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  5. ^ Hill, G; Doucet SM; Buchholz R (2005). "The Effect of Coccidial Infection on Iridescent Plumage Coloration in Wild Turkeys". Animal Behaviour 69 (2): 387–94. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.03.013. 
  6. ^ National wild turkey Federation: wild turkey Facts. Nwtf.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  7. ^ Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo. animals.nationalgeographic.com
  8. ^ Meleagris gallopavo wild turkey. Animal Diversity Web
  9. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  10. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008), ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5.
  11. ^ Birds Master Database Search. flmnh.ufl.edu
  12. ^ Pheasants, Partridges, and Grouse : A Guide to the Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Grouse, Guineafowl, Buttonquails, and Sandgrouse of the World (Princeton Field Guides) by Tami Davis Biddle. Princeton University Press (2002). ISBN 978-0691089089.
  13. ^ Welcome to the National Wild Turkey Federation | Conserve. Hunt. Share. Nwtf.org. Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  14. ^ Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. 
  15. ^ CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, John B. Dunning Jr. (ed.). CRC Press (1992), ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5.
  16. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008). Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  17. ^ Krakauer, AH (March 3, 2005). "Kin selection and cooperative courtship in wild turkeys". Nature 434 (7029): 69–72. doi:10.1038/nature03325. PMID 15744300. 
  18. ^ Baker, B. W. (1978). Ecological factors affecting wild turkey nest predation on south Texas rangelands. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (Vol. 32, pp. 126-136).
  19. ^ Holdstock, D. P., Wallace, M. C., Ballard, W. B., Brunjes, J. H., Phillips, R. S., Spears, B. L., & Gipson, P. S. (2006). Male Rio Grande turkey survival and movements in the Texas Panhandle and southwestern Kansas. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(4), 904-913.
  20. ^ Pharris, L. D., and R. C. Goetz. 1980. An evaluation of artificial wild turkey nests monitored by automatic cameras. Proceedings of the National Wild Turkey Symposium 4:108–116.
  21. ^ Williams, L. E., Jr., D. H. Austin, and N. F. Eichholz. 1976. The breeding potential of the wild turkey hen. Proc. Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies 30:371-376.
  22. ^ Reagan. J. M.. and K.D. Morgan. 1980. Reproductive potential of Rio Grande turkey hens in the Edwards Plateau of Texas. Proc. Natl. Wild Turkey Symp. 4:136-144.
  23. ^ Peoples, J. C., Sisson, D. C., & Speake, D. W. (1995). Mortality of wild turkey poults in coastal plain pine forests. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (Vol. 49, pp. 448-453).
  24. ^ Beasom, S.L. and Pattee, O.H. An Encounter Between a Turkey and a Bullsnake. Wilson Bulletin, 87(2):281-282, 1975.
  25. ^ Dreibelbis, J. Z., Melton, K. B., Aguirre, R., Collier, B. A., Hardin, J., Silvy, N. J., & Peterson, M. J. (2008). Predation of Rio Grande wild turkey nests on the Edwards Plateau, Texas. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 120(4), 906-910.
  26. ^ McEwan, L. C., & Hirth, D. H. (1980). Food habits of the bald eagle in north-central Florida. Condor, 229-231.
  27. ^ Haucke, H.H. Predation by a White-Tailed Hawk and a Harris Hawk on a Wild Turkey Poult. Condor, 73(4):475, 1971.
  28. ^ Glidden, J. W. and D. E. Austin. 1975. Natality and mortality of wild turkey poults in southwestern New York. Proc. Natl. Wild Turkey Symp. 3:48-54.
  29. ^ MacCracken, J. G., & Uresh, D. W. (1984). Coyote foods in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Journal of wildlife management, 1420-1423
  30. ^ Reed, J. E., Ballard, W. B., Gipson, P. S., Kelly, B. T., Krausman, P. R., Wallace, M. C., & Wester, D. B. (2006). Diets of free-ranging Mexican gray wolves in Arizona and New Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(4), 1127-1133.
  31. ^ Beasom, S. L., & Moore, R. A. (1977). Bobcat food habit response to a change in prey abundance. The Southwestern Naturalist, 451-457
  32. ^ Maehr, D. S., Belden, R. C., Land, E. D., & Wilkins, L. (1990). Food habits of panthers in southwest Florida. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 420-423.
  33. ^ Lehman, C. P., & Thompson, D. J. (2004). Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) predation attempts on Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. Journal of Raptor Research, 38(2), 192-192.
  34. ^ Stratman, M. R., & Pelton, M. R. (1999). Feeding ecology of black bears in northwest Florida. Florida Field Naturalist, 27(3), 95-102.
  35. ^ Schemnitz, S. D., D. L. Goerndt & . H. Jones. 1985. Habitat needs and management of Merriam’s turkeys in southcentral New Mexico. Proc. Natl. Wild Turkey Symp., 5:199-232
  36. ^ Golet, G.H., Golet, H.T. and Colton, A. Immature Northern Goshawk Captures, Kills, and Feeds on Adult-Sized Wild Turkey. Journal of Raptor Research, 37(4):337-340, 2003
  37. ^ Goldyn, B., Hromada, M., Surmacki, A., & Tryjanowski, P. (2003). Habitat use and diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in an agricultural landscape in Poland. Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft, 49(3), 191-200.
  38. ^ ADW: Meleagris gallopavo: INFORMATION. Animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu (2006-03-12). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  39. ^ Kennamer, James Earl. Predators and Wild Turkeys. NWTF Wildelife Bulletin NO.16
  40. ^ Wild Turkey Predators, Wild Turkey Predation: National Wild Turkey Federation. Nwtf.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  41. ^ Wild Turkey Predators. Waterandwoods.net (2008-09-20). Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  42. ^ Johnson, R.R. Aerial Pursuit of Hawks by Turkeys. The Auk, 78(4):646, 1961.
  43. ^ Living with wildlife: Turkey: Minnesota DNR. Dnr.state.mn.us. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  44. ^ Dickson, pp. 368-379
  45. ^ Dickson, p. 363; Maxwell, William Hamilton, The field book; or, Sports and pastimes of the British islands, by the author of 'Wild sports of the West, p. 540, London, 1833, google books
  46. ^ Dickson, pp. 363-368
  47. ^ Kennamer, Mary C. "NWTF Wildlife Bulletin No. 3: Rio Grande Wild Turkey". NWTF. 
  48. ^ “Oregon State Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Division, Wild Turkey Management Plan“.
  49. ^ "Benjamin Franklin to Sarah Bache, January 26, 1784".Library of Congress, Manuscript Division.
  50. ^ a b "American Heraldry Society | MMM / The Arms of the United States: Benjamin Franklin and the Turkey". Americanheraldry.org. 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  51. ^ Pritzker 367
  52. ^ Pritzker 381, 474
  53. ^ Pritzker 423
  54. ^ "Caddo Nation Today." Texas Beyond History. (retrieved 28 Dec 2010)

References[edit]

  • Dickson, James G., The Wild Turkey: Biology and Management (A National Wild Turkey Federation and USDA Forest Service book), 1992, Stackpole Books, ISBN 081171859X, 9780811718592, google books
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.

External links[edit]