Wildlife of Singapore
Singapore has a surprisingly diverse wildlife despite its rapid urbanisation. Most of the fauna that has remained exists in various nature reserves such as the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve.
Singapore's environment has changed rapidly due to the quick urbanisation and the immense population density. In 1819, when a British trading post was first established on the island, Singapore was still nearly entirely covered in rainforests. During that time it still contained flora similar to the Malay Peninsula but the biodiversity of the fauna was even then relatively low. Following the establishment of the trading post, a rapid deforestation began due to crop cultivation and was largely completed by the 20th century. By some estimates there had been a loss of 95% of natural habitats in Singapore in the past 183 years. Because of the deforestation over twenty species of freshwater fish and 100 species of bird as well as a number of mammals have gone locally extinct. A 2003 estimate has put the number of extinct species as over 28%.
In modern times, over half of the naturally occurring fauna and flora in Singapore is present only in nature reserves, which comprise only 0.25% of the land area of the country. Estimates made in 2003 have said that the rapid habitat destruction will culminate in a loss of 13-42% of populations in all of Southeast Asia.
To combat these problems the Singaporean government has made the Singapore Green Plan in 1992 and the new Singapore Green Plan 2012 to continue it. The plan aims to keep tabs on the unstable populations of fauna and flora, to place new nature parks and to connect existing parks as well as to set up a "National Biodiversity Reference Centre" (now known as the National Biodiversity Centre). The last goal has been reached in 2006 when the centre was founded (it also accomplished the establishment of two new nature reserves in 2002). Since its foundation it has been formulating various specific initiatives including attempts to conserve the Hornbill and the rare Dragonfly Indothemis limbata.
Singapore has roughly 80 species of mammals (out of 11 different Order (biology)orders) including 45 species of Bat and three species of non-human primates. Currently the only introduced species in Singapore is the Variable Squirrel. The abundance of bats however has been decreasing rapidly due to a habitat loss of over 95%.
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