The works by which Becker is most widely known are the Gallus, oder, römische Scenen aus der Zeit Augusts: zur genaueren Kenntniss des römischen Privatlebens (1838, new ed. by Hermann Göll, 1880–1882), and the Charicles: Bilder altgriechischer Sitte, zur genaueren Kenntniss des griechischen Privatlebens (1840, new ed. by Göll, 1877–1878). These two books were translated into English by Frederick Metcalfe. They contain a description of the everyday life of the ancient Greeks and Romans, in the form of a romance, with notes and appendices.
A major work is Handbuch der römischen Alterthümer (1843–1868), completed after Becker's death by Marquardt and Mommsen. Becker's other treatises include De Comicis Romanorum Fabulis, a treatise on Roman dramatic poetry (1837); De Romae Veteris Muris atque Portis (1842); Die römische Topographie in Röm (1844); and Zur römischen Topographie (1845).