Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (22 November 1710 – 1 July 1784), the second child and eldest son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach, was a German composer and performer. Despite his acknowledged genius as an organist, improviser and composer, his income and employment were unstable and he died in poverty.
Wilhelm Friedemann (hereafter Friedemann) was born in Weimar, where his father was employed as organist and chamber musician to the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. In July 1720, when Friedemann was nine, his mother Maria Barbara Bach died suddenly; Johann Sebastian Bach remarried in December of 1721. J. S. Bach supervised Friedemann's musical education and career with great attention. The graded course of keyboard studies and composition that J. S. Bach provided is documented in the Clavier-Büchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (modern spelling: Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach), with entries by both father and son. This education also included (parts of) the French Suites, (Two-Part) Inventions, (Three-Part) Sinfonias (popularly known as "Inventions"), the first volume of The Well-Tempered Clavier, and the six Trio Sonatas for organ. At the age of 16 he went to Merseburg to learn the violin with his teacher Johann Gottlieb Graun.
In addition to his musical training, Friedemann received formal schooling beginning in Weimar. When J.S. Bach took the post of Cantor of the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig (in 1723), he enrolled Friedemann in the associated Thomasschule. (J.S. Bach—who had himself been orphaned at the age of 10—said that he took the position in Leipzig partly because of the educational opportunities it afforded his children). On graduating in 1729, Friedemann enrolled as a law student in Leipzig University, a renowned institution at the time, but later moved on to study law and mathematics at the University of Halle. He maintained a lifelong interest in mathematics, and continued to study it privately during his first job in Dresden.
Friedemann was appointed in 1733 to the position of organist of the St. Sophia's Church at Dresden. In competing for the post he played a new version of his father’s Prelude and Fugue in G Major, BWV 541. The judge described Friedemann as clearly superior to the other two candidates. He remained a renowned organist throughout his life. Among his many pupils in Dresden was Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, the keyboardist whose name is erroneously enshrined in the popular nickname given to J. S. Bach's 1742 publication, “Aria with Diverse Variations”—that is, “The Goldberg Variations.” The scholar Peter Williams has discredited the story which links the work to Goldberg stating that J. S. Bach wrote the work for the Russian Ambassador Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk, who would ask his employee, Goldberg, to play variations for him to ward off insomnia. Williams instead has argued that J.S. Bach wrote the variations to provide a display piece for Friedemann.
In 1746 Friedemann became organist of the Liebfrauenkirche at Halle. In 1751, Friedemann married Dorothea Elisabeth Georgi (1721–1791), who was 11 years his junior and who outlived him by seven years. Dorothea was the daughter of a tax collector. The landed estates she inherited caused the family to be placed in a high tax bracket by Halle authorities, who were raising taxes to meet the revenue demands of the Seven Years' War. To raise cash for these payments, she sold part of her property in 1770. The couple produced two sons and a daughter, Friederica Sophia (born in 1757), who was the only one of their offspring to live past infancy. The descendents of Friederica Sophia eventually migrated to Oklahoma.
Friedemann was deeply unhappy in Halle almost from the beginning of his tenure. In 1749 he was involved in a conflict with the Cantor of the Liebfrauenkirche, Gottfried Mittag, who had misappropriated funds that were due to Friedemann. In 1750 the church authorities reprimanded Friedemann for overstaying a leave of absence (he was in Leipzig settling his father's estate). In 1753 he made his first documented attempt to find another post, and thereafter made several others. All these attempts failed. Bach had at least two pupils, Friedrich Wilhelm Rust and Johann Samuel Petri.
In 1762, he negotiated for the post of Kapellmeister to the court of Darmstadt; although he protracted the negotiations for reasons that are opaque to historians and did not actively take the post, he nevertheless was appointed "Hofkapellmeister of Hessen-Darmstadt", a title he used in the dedication of his Harpsichord Concerto in E minor.
In June 1764, Friedemann left the job in Halle without any employment secured elsewhere. His financial situation deteriorated so much that in 1768 he re-applied for his old job in Halle, without success. He thereafter supported himself by teaching; not surprisingly, he died in penury. After leaving Halle in 1770, he lived for several years (1771–1774) in Braunschweig where he applied in vain for the post of an organist at the St. Catherine's church. Then he moved to Berlin, where he initially was welcomed by the princess Anna Amalia (the sister of Frederick the Great), but later fell into disgrace under still opaque circumstances. He died in Berlin.
Earlier biographers have concluded that his “wayward” and difficult personality reduced his ability to gain and hold secure employment, but the scholar David Schulenberg writes (in the Oxford Composer Companion: J.S. Bach, ed. Malcolm Boyd, 1999) that “he may also have been affected by changing social conditions that made it difficult for a self-possessed virtuoso to succeed in a church- or court-related position” (p. 39). Schulenberg adds, “he was evidently less willing than most younger contemporaries to compose fashionable, readily accessible music”.
Friedemann Bach was renowned for his improvisatory skills. It is speculated that when in Leipzig his father's accomplishments set so high a bar that he focused on improvisation rather than composition. Evidence adduced for this speculation includes the fact that his compositional output increased in Dresden and Halle.
Friedemann’s compositions include many church cantatas and instrumental works, of which the most notable are the fugues, polonaises and fantasias for clavier, and the duets for two flutes. He incorporated more elements of the contrapuntal style learned from his father than any of his three composer brothers, but his use of the style has an individualistic and improvisatory edge which endeared his work to musicians of the late 19th century, when there was something of a revival of his reputation.
Friedemann's students included Johann Nikolaus Forkel, who in 1802 published the first biography of Johann Sebastian Bach; Friedemann, as well as his younger brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, were major informants for Forkel. Friedemann has in earlier biographies been called a poor custodian of his father's musical manuscripts, many of which he inherited; however, more recent scholars are uncertain how many were lost. It is known that Friedemann sold some of his father's collection to raise cash to pay debts (including a large sale in 1759 to Johann Georg Nacke). Also, his daughter took some of the Sebastian Bach manuscripts with her when she moved to America, and these were passed on to her descendants, who inadvertently destroyed many of them. Others were passed on through his only known Berlin pupil, Sarah Itzig Levy, the daughter of a prominent Jewish family in Berlin and great-aunt of Felix Mendelssohn; it was she who gave Mendelssohn the manuscript of the St. Matthew Passion, which she had received from Friedemann. Some of his scores were collected by Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch and his pupil Carl Friedrich Zelter, the teacher of Felix Mendelssohn and through them these materials were placed in the library of the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin, which Fasch founded in 1791 and Zelter took charge of in 1800.
Friedemann is known occasionally to have claimed credit for music written by his father, but this was in keeping with common musical practices in the era.
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach is not to be confused with Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach, his nephew, also a composer. Friedemann himself may have been one of the models for Diderot's philosophical dialogue Rameau's Nephew (Le Neveu de Rameau).
"BR" denotes "Bach-Repertorium"; "F." denotes "Falck catalogue number".
- Keyboard works
BR A1 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (F 200)
BR A2 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (F 1)
BR A3 \ Keyboard Sonata in C major (F 2)
BR A4 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major (F 3)
BR A5 \ Keyboard Sonata in D major (F 4)
BR A6 \ Sonata for 2 harpsichord in D major (F 11) (lost)
BR A7 \ Keyboard Sonata in E flat major (F 5)
BR A8 \ Keyboard Sonata in E flat major (F 201)
BR A9 \ Keyboard Sonata in E minor (F 204) (lost)
BR A10 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (F 202)
BR A11 \ Keyboard Sonata in F major (F 6)
BR A12 \ Sonata for 2 harpsichords in F major (F 10)
BR A13 \ Concerto for harpsichord solo in G major (F 40)
BR A14 \ Keyboard Sonata in G major (F 7)
BR A15 \ Keyboard Sonata in A major (F 8)
BR A16 \ Keyboard Sonata in B flat major (F 9)
BR A17 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in C major (F 14)
BR A18 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in C minor (F 15)
BR A19 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in C minor (F 16)
BR A20 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in D major (F 17)
BR A21 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in D minor (F 18)
BR A22 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in D minor (F 19)
BR A23 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in E minor (F 20)
BR A24 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in E minor (F 21)
BR A25 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in G major (F 22)
BR A26 \ Fantasia for harpsichord in A minor (F 23)
BR A 27-38 \ Twelve Polonaises (F 12)
BR A39 \ Harpsichord Suite in G minor (F 24)
BR A 40-41 \ 2 German Dances for harpsichord in G minor (F 205)
BR A 42-43 \ 2 Menuets for harpsichord
BR A 44-47 \ 4 Preludes for harpsichord (F 206)
BR A 48-49 \ 2 pieces for harpsichord (F 25)
BR A50 \ Menuetto for harpsichord in F major (F 208)
BR A51 \ L'imitation de la chasse for harpsichord in C major (F 26)
BR A52 \ La Reveille for harpsichord in C major (F 27)
BR A53 \ Gigue for harpsichord in G major (F 28)
BR A54 \ Prelude for harpsichord in C minor (F 29)
BR A55 \ Scherzo for harpsichord in D minor
BR A56 \ March for harpsichord in E flat major (F 30)
BR A57 \ March for harpsichord in F major
BR A58 \ Polonaise for keyboard in C major (F 13)
BR A59 \ Ouverture for harpsichord in E major
BR A60 \ Andante for harpsichord in E minor (F 209)
BR A61 \ Allegro non troppo for harpsichord in G major (F 203) (lost)
BR A62 \ Un poco allegro for harpsichord in C major
BR A 63-80 \ 18 pieces for clock-organ (F 207)
BR A 81-88 \ Eight fugues for harpsichord (F 31)
BR A89 \ Fugue for organ in C minor (F 32)
BR A90 \ Fugue for organ in F major (F 33)
BR A91 \ Fugue (triple) for organ in F major (F 36)
BR A92 \ Fugue for organ in G minor (F 37)
BR A 93-99 \ 7 Chorale preludes for organ (F 38)
BR A100 \ Trio on "Allein Gott in der Höh dei Ehr" for organ (F 38) (lost)
BR A101-104 \ 4 Chorale preludes for organ (lost)
BWV 534 \ Prelude and Fugue in F minor (once attr. to J.S.Bach)
- Chamber music
BR B 1 \ Flute Duetto in E minor (F 54)
BR B 2 \ Flute Duetto in E flat major (F 55)
BR B 3 \ Flute Duetto in E flat major (F 56)
BR B 4 \ Flute Duetto in F major (F 57)
BR B 5 \ Flute Duetto in F minor (F 58)
BR B 6 \ Flute Duetto in G major (F 59)
BR B 7 \ Viola Duetto in C major (F 60)
BR B 8 \ Viola Duetto in G major (F 61)
BR B 9 \ Viola Duetto in G minor (F 62)
BR B10 \ Flute Sonata in F major (F 51) (lost)
BR B11 \ Flute Sonata in A minor (F 52) (lost)
BR B12 \ Flute Sonata in D major (F 53) (lost)
BR B13 \ Trio Sonata in D major (F 47)
BR B14 \ Trio Sonata in D major (F 48)
BR B15 \ Trio Sonata in A minor (F 49)
BR B16 \ Trio Sonata in B flat major (F 50)
BR B17 \ Sonata for flute, violin and continuo in F major
- Orchestral works
BR C1 \ Symphony in C major (F 63)
BR C2 \ Symphony in F major (F 67)
BR C3 \ Symphony in G major (F 68) (lost)
BR C4 \ Symphony in G major (F 69) (lost)
BR C5 \ Symphony in B flat major (F 71) (lost)
BR C6 \ Symphony in A major (F 70) (fragment)
BR C7 \ Symphony in D minor (F 65)
BR C8 \ Symphony in D major (F 64)
BR C9 \ Harpsichord Concerto in D major (F 41)
BR C10 \ Harpsichord Concerto in E flat major (F 42)
BR C11 \ Concerto for 2 harpsichords in E flat major (F 46)
BR C12 \ Harpsichord Concerto in E minor (F 43)
BR C13 \ Harpsichord Concerto in F major (F 44)
BR C14 \ Harpsichord Concerto in A minor (F 45)
BR C15 \ Concerto for flute in D major
Concerto for harpsichord and winds in F minor
- Liturgical works
BR E1 \ Mass in G minor (F 100)
BR E2 \ Missa in D minor (F 98)
BR E3 \ Heilig ist Gott in D major (F 78a)
BR E4 \ Agnus Dei in D minor
BR E5 \ Amen (F 99)
BR E6 \ Halleluja (F 99)
BR E7 \ Lobet Gott, unsern Herrn in D major (F 78b)
- Sacred cantatas
BR F 1 \ Lasset uns ablegen die Werke der Finsternis (F 80)
BR F 2 \ O Wunder ! wer kann dieses fassen? (F 92)
BR F 3 \ Ach, daß du den Himmel zerrissest (F 93)
BR F 4 \ Ehre sei Gott in der Höhe (F 250)
BR F 5 \ Der Herr zu deiner Rechten (F 73)
BR F 6 \ Wir sind Gottes Werk (F 74)
BR F 7 \ Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern (F 82)
BR F 8 \ Cantata for Palm Sunday (lost)
BR F 9 \ Erzittert und fallet (F 83)
BR F 10 \ Auf, Christen, posaunt
BR F 11 \ Gott fähret auf mit Jauchzen (F 75)
BR F 12 \ Wo geht die Lebensreise hin? (F 91)
BR F 13 \ Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort halten (F 72)
BR F 14 \ Dies ist der Tag (F 85)
BR F 15 \ Ertönt, ihr seligen Völker (F 88)
BR F 16 \ Ach, daß du den Himmel zerrissest
BR F 17 \ Es ist eine Stimme eines Predigers in der Wüste (F 89)
BR F 18 \ Der Herr wird mit Gerechtigkeit (F 81)
BR F 19 \ Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein (F 96)
BR F 20 \ Introduzzione delle predicazione del Catechismo (F 76)
BR F 21 \ Wie ruhig ist doch meine Seele (F 77) (lost)
BR F 22 \ Der Höchste erhöret das Flehen der Armen (F 86)
BR F 23 \ Verhängnis, dein Wüten entkräftet die Armen (F 87)
BR F 24 \ Auf, Christen, posaunt (F 95)
BR F 25 \ Dienet dem Herrn mit Freuden (F 84)
BR F 26 \ Der Trost gehöret nur für Kinder
BR F 27 \ Zerbrecht, zerreist, ihr schnöden Banden (F 94)
BR F 28 \ Laß dein Wehen in mir spielen
BR F 29 \ Gnade finden (F 79) (fragment)
- Secular cantata and opera
BR G1 \ O Himmel, schöne (F 90)
BR G2 \ Lausus und Lydie (F 106) (lost)
BR H1 \ Cantilena nuptiarum consolatoria (F 97)
- Miscellaneous works
BR I1 \ Canons and Studies for organ (F 39)
BR I2–5 \ 4 Triple Canons for organ (F 212)
BR I6 \ Fugal exposition for organ in C major (F 35)
BR I7 \ Fugue exposition on B-A-C-H for organ (F 210)
BR I8 \ Abhandlung vom harmonischen Dreiklang (lost)
- Other works in Falck catalogue
F 34 \ Fugue for organ in B flat major
F 211 \ 3 Fugues for organ
Fnv8 \ Keyboard Sonata in A minor
Use by later composers
- In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's set of six Prelude and Fugues for string trio, K. 404a, contains five fugues transcribed from The Well-Tempered Clavier by Johann Sebastian Bach while the sixth fugue in F minor, is a transcription of one of the Eight Fugues (Falck 31) of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. The preludes in K. 404a are Mozart's own, except for 4 (from BWV 527) and 5 (second movement from BWV 526).
Performed by Sylvia Kind on a harpsichord of the type made in the early 20th century
Salzburg Chamber Philharmonic Orchestra
Yoon K. Lee (Conductor)
Courtesy of NAXOS
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- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- The New Grove Dictionary served as a source for revision.
- Schulenberg, David: entry on Wilhelm Friedemann Bach in The Oxford Composer Companion: J.S.Bach (ed. Malcolm Boyd, 1999: ISBN 978-0-19-866208-2)
- The harpsichord concertos of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
- Borysenko, Elena. The Cantatas of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Thesis (Ph.D.) Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, 1981. In 2 volumes. ("Vol. II ... consists primarily of selected movements from the cantatas of W.F. Bach, followed by translations of the texts of these movements and a critical commentary.")
- Falck, Martin. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach; Sein Leben und seine Werke, mit thematischem Verzeichnis seiner Kompositionen und zwei Bildern. Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt, 1919.
- Helm, Eugene. "Wilhelm Friedemann Bach", in Christoph Wolff et al., The New Grove Bach Family. NY: Norton, 1983 (ISBN 0-393-30088-9), pp. 238–50.
- Kahmann, Ulrich. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Der unterschätzte Sohn. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, 2010.
- WF Bach - the neglected son Biography, major works and recommended recordings. Gramophone, April 2010
- Schulenberg, David. The Music of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2010.
- Daniel Hensel: Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Epigone oder Originalgenie, verquere Erscheinung oder großer Komponist?; Stuttgart: ibidem, April 2011, ISBN 978-3-8382-0178-8
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.|
- Free scores by Wilhelm Friedemann Bach at the International Music Score Library Project
- Concertos, harpsichords (2), orchestra, F. 46, E♭ major, arranged for two pianos (from the Sibley Music Library Digital Score Collection)
- Duets for Two Flutes Complete MP3 Creative Commons Recording (Dead Link)