Willamette Stone

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The Willamette Stone's location is now commemorated by a circular marker and plaque.
Close up of the current marker
The Willamette Stone is located where the meridian and baseline intersect on this BLM map.

The Willamette Stone was a small stone obelisk originally located in the western hills of Portland, Oregon in the United States. It marked the intersection and origin of the Willamette meridian and Willamette baseline, which defined the grid system of sections and townships from which all real property in the states of Oregon and Washington has been measured following the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850. The Willamette meridian runs north-south, and the Willamette baseline runs east-west through the marker.[1]

History[edit]

The location of the original stone is now indicated by a stainless steel marker in Willamette Stone State Heritage Site, an Oregon state park approximately four miles (6.4 km) west of downtown Portland. The site is near Skyline Boulevard, in the West Hills overlooking the Tualatin Valley and the Willamette River watershed.

The grid defined by the stone extended the Public Land Survey System and was used as the basis of land claims in the Oregon Territory. The first marker, a red cedar stake, was placed on the site on June 4, 1851, by John B. Preston, the first Surveyor General of the Oregon Territory.[1] Preston was appointed by President Millard Fillmore to create a system for surveying land in the territory;[2] he lost his position in 1853, and "drifted into obscurity."[3] The location was chosen such that the baseline would not cross the Columbia River and the meridian would lie west of Vancouver Lake.[4] The meridian and baseline were surveyed using solar compasses by James E. Freeman of Wisconsin and William Ives of Michigan. Ives surveyed the baseline in both directions and the meridian to the north; Freeman surveyed the meridian to the south.[5] The grid system was an extension of the system used in the Northwest Territory proposed by Thomas Jefferson. The Willamette Stone marked the location of the first townships and ranges north and south of the marker.

The stake was replaced by a stone obelisk on July 25, 1885.[1] On two sides, the stone was marked with the words "BASE" and "LINE", while on the other two sides it was marked with the words "WILL." and "MER." The stone was vandalized in the 1980s and replaced with the current marker, as well as an accompanying bronze plaque: "Beginning here, the Willamette meridian was established running north to Puget Sound and south to the California border, and the baseline was established running east to the Idaho border and west to the Pacific Ocean."[3]

Streets[edit]

The location of the Willamette meridian and Willamette baseline can be identified by various streets that follow their courses, often named to call attention to this fact.

North–South streets and the meridian[edit]

East–West streets and the baseline[edit]

  • Stark Street in east Portland and Washington County runs along the Willamette baseline.
  • Baseline Road in Tillamook, Washington, Hood River, Gilliam, and Morrow counties all run along or start at the Willamette baseline.
  • Division Street in Portland and Section Line Road in East Multnomah County follow the division between the first and second rows of square-mile sections south of the Willamette baseline.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Corning, Howard M. (1989) Dictionary of Oregon History. Binfords & Mort Publishing. p. 138.
  2. ^ Atwood, Kay (2008). Chaining Oregon: Surveying the Public Lands of the Pacific Northwest, 1851-1855. McDonald & Woodward. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-939923-20-5. 
  3. ^ a b Friedman, Ralph (1990). In Search of Western Oregon. Caxton Press. pp. 279–80. ISBN 978-0-87004-332-1. 
  4. ^ Atwood, p. 27.
  5. ^ White, C. Albert (1983). A History of the Rectangular Survey System. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. p. 114. ISBN 9780160335044. 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 45°31′10.32″N 122°44′37.68″W / 45.5195333°N 122.7438000°W / 45.5195333; -122.7438000