Methodist Mission

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The Methodist Mission began as an effort by the Methodist Episcopal Church to convert the indigenous of the Oregon Country to Christianity. Superintendent Jason Lee was the principal leader for almost a decade. Two years after it began, the mission was hoped by the Church's Board of Foreign Missions to begin "reclaiming these wandering savages, who are in a very degraded state, to the blessings of Christianity and civilized life."[1] Alongside several posts opened through out the region, were several secular operations opened to allow for material independence from the Hudson's Bay Company, then the area's preeminent economic force. The Methodists were active participants in the Oregon boundary dispute, and were apart of sending three petitions to United States Congress requesting that the United States extend its jurisdiction over the portion of Oregon Country south of the Columbia River. The Methodist stations became important center for European-American politics as people associated with the mission took part in the establishment of the Provisional Government of Oregon. Jason Lee's leadership became criticized from members attached to various posts and his inability to send the Board a continuous account of the financial dealings led to his dismissal as superintendent in 1843. To reduce the financial burdens many stations were abandoned and the commercial activities were sold off in 1844. While the main station in the Willamette Valley remained active in missionary efforts, it no longer held as much prominence upon the changing political scene of Oregon. Despite failure towards its initial goal to convert the natives west of the Rocky Mountains, the Methodist Mission played significant role in the westward expansion of the United States of America.

Background[edit]

In 1832, four Nez Perce Indians and Salish (also known as Flatheads) traveled to St. Louis, Missouri and met with General William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to inquire about the “white man’s God” from the General.[2] Upon meeting, they told Gen. Clark that they had come from the land of the setting sun in order to learn about the Christian’s book and the white man’s God. General Clark gave them religious instruction but did not give them a Bible. The Indians returned west, several dying along the way, unaware of the stream of events that they had set in motion.[2]

The visit of St. Louis by the delegation was announced by William Walker, a Wydandot Methodist, who published an article in the Christian Advocate and Journal. The editorial stimulated the Methodist Episcopal Church and other churches to begin the first transcontinental missions in Oregon Country.[3] President Wilbur Fisk of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut was the first church leader to respond, by advising the establishment of a mission among the "Flathead" people.[4] A former student of his, Jason Lee, and his nephew Rev. Daniel Lee volunteered to serve as priests in Oregon.[4] Jason Lee was a young teacher from Ontario, Canada and was involved in missionary work to Indians in that region. Bishop Elijah Hedding ordained Lee into the New England Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, now the United Methodist Church, and he was appointed superintendent of the newly created "Aboriginal Mission west of the Rocky Mountains"[5] to preach to the Salish. The entrepreneur Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth was contacted by the Methodists to travel overland with his party and to ship supplies around Cape Horn on Wyeth's ship May Dacre, a proposition he agreed to.[3]

Early years[edit]

The now Rev. Lee left Boston for St. Louis in March 1834 with Daniel Lee, to rendezvous with Wyeth and his group. Along the way two laypersons, Cyrus Shepard from Boston, Massachusetts, and Philip Leget Edwards, from Missouri were hired by Daniel to accompany them.[6] After crossing the continent the Methodists met Thomas McKay of the British Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) at Wyeth's recently created Fort Hall. McKay guided the group all the way to Fort Vancouver, headquarters of the HBC Columbia district, in what is now Vancouver, Washington. Lee and his companions were greeted by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, district director of the HBC recommended the Willamette Valley as a better spot for settlement than the area to the north where the Flathead lived.[7]

Upon entering the valley, the Methodists came in contact with the Kalapuya, residents of the Willamette Valley. Epidemics of malaria had begun to afflict the Kalapuya and neighboring Chinookan peoples of the Lower Columbia region starting in 1830, and continued throughout the decade.[8] While accurate reports of population numbers of local indigenous are few, the diseases certainly decimated their populations. Upon visiting the various indigenous tribes of the Lower Columbia region, Daniel Lee reported that they were the "most degraded human beings that we have met", and concluded that "the time is not far distant when the last deathwail will proclaim their universal extermination."[2] It is often said that on September 28, 1834, Rev. Jason Lee preached the first Protestant sermon on the Pacific coast yet, to be precise, he was perhaps fifty miles from the Pacific coast. Lee ignored the missionary board’s instructions and set up a mission located 60 miles up the Willamette River from its junction with the Columbia.[3] The original mission became known as either the Willamette Mission or Mission Bottom. Missionaries untrained in manual labor slowly built log cabins and a school before the first winter set in.[3] Lee remarked, “Men never worked harder or performed less.” At the request of the superintendent, the Board changed the Mission's designation to "Oregon Mission" on October 21 1835.[9]

The Mission Bottom in 1834.

In March 1836, Rev. Lee wrote to Dr. Fisk telling of the need for tradesmen and farmers to relieve the staff of temporal duties. This resulted in additional members being sent in 1836 and 1837. In the same year the Methodists received a small donation from McLoughlin and other employees of the HBC, hoping that God would "bless and prosper your pious endeavours."[10] Arriving in May 1837 at Fort Vancouver on the ship Diana[11] was a party of seven adults and four children under the leadership of Dr. Elijah White.[12] Included in the party was White's wife, William H. Willson, Anna Maria Pittman, Alanson Beers, Susan Downing, Elvira Johnson.[12] Several marriages were soon contracted, with a double marriage ceremony of Jason Lee to Anna Pittman and Cyrus Shepard to Susan Downing occurring on June 16, 1837.[13] A second group of a teacher Margaret Jewett Smith Bailey and two more ministers, David Leslie and H. K. W. Perkins, arrived at the Mission on September 7, 1837.[12]

As the number of members increased, missionaries added a large granary and hospital to Mission Bottom and eventually a small retail store was opened.[13] Surplus manufactured goods were traded for items such as lumber or food stuffs with the French Canadian settlers and the Native Americans.[14] The mission also began to provide for the protection of American immigrants in the area by appointing a magistrate and constable in 1838. John Sutter, while traveling to Alta California, visited the Mission Bottom over several weeks in 1838.[10] Lee also preached, preformed marriages and baptisms for the Catholic French-Canadian settlers of the French Prairie.[7] There were no Catholics priests were yet in the Willamette Valley, thus the Methodists were the first priests to engage the French-Canadians.[7] François Norbert Blanchet and Modeste Demers reached the region in 1838 and held the first mass at the St. Paul church in January 1839.[15]

Dalles mission[edit]

Mission at The Dalles

The second Methodist mission was opened on March 21, 1838 at the Dalles along the Columbia River on March 21, 1838 by Rev. Daniel Lee and Rev. Henry K. W. Perkins.[3] Lumber for the buildings was cut mostly by neighboring Wascos and the mission was often called Wascopam after them.[2] The mission consisted of a schoolhouse, garden, stable, barn, and two dwellings along with a cleared pasture adjacent to the wood huts used by the Native American villagers.[16] Supplies were procured from HBC Forts Vancouver and Nez Percés along with the Methodist stations of Mission Bottom and later Mission Mill with Chinookan and Walla Walla escorts.[2] During one such trip the provisions for the party had dwindled and a horse had to be consumed until salmon could be purchased from a Clackamas village.[10] The main tribes proselytized to from this location were the Walla Wallas, the Wascos, the Wishram, the Klickitats, the Cascades and the Shastas.[2] Missionaries used Pulpit Rock to preach to the natives and was at first successful in converting some.[3]

Expansion[edit]

By the end of 1837 Lee was leading a community divided about his leadership. The community advised him to return to the east as it "would result advantageously to himself and the mission."[17] Additionally a petition was sent to him from fellow missionaries advising he resign as superintendent.[18] In March 1838, Jason Lee and Phillip Edwards began the planned visit to the United States to recruit more laborers for the mission.[13] With them were two Chinookan teenagers christened William Brooks and Thomas Adams along with three of Thomas Mckay's mixed race sons.[19] Before departing Lee appointed David Leslie as acting superintendent.[4] While waiting on an escort of the HBC headed to the annual rendezvous the party spent several weeks at the ABCFM missionary posts ran by Henry H. Spalding and Marcus Whitman.[19] On this journey they carried a petition signed by 36 pioneer farmers from both the American and French-Canadian communities along with members of the Methodist mission asking the United States Congress to create a territory out of Oregon lying south of the Columbia River.[12] Without the protection of the American government, a "good community" would not form and only "the reckless and unprincipled adventurer..." would move to the region the address warned.[12]

Upon entering the United States in Missouri a messenger dispatched from John McLoughlin informed Lee that his wife Anna Maria Pittman Lee and infant child died in June.[20] While the Methodists and Chinooks were holding a speech in Peoria, Illinois, Thomas Adams fell ill and stayed there to recover. His stories of the lands west of the Rocky Mountains helped inspire the Peoria Party.[19] Lee also lectured along the way and on the East Coast, leading to the raising of $42,000 for the missionary efforts.[13] The lectures included speeches from William Brooks, and both speakers tended focused more on public donations than amassing pioneers to head West.[18] The Board continued this theme in an advertisement recruiting farmers for the mission, wanting only "pious" men.[18] While in a conference with the Board Lee requested for a replacement, though the Board retained him as superintendent.[12] Other members of the mission had often mentioned the need to "civilise" the indigenous of Oregon Country before they could be converted.[18] Still in the meetings the superintendent stressed the need for conversion before "civilization" could occur.[18]

Jason Lee sailed back to Oregon in 1840 aboard the ship Lausanne with the "Great Reinforcement".[3] Besides the superintendent, the Lausanne brought 50 people, including needed tradesmen, teachers, and physicians along with 12 children.[12] With this arrival the population of Mission Bottom was forty adults and fifty children. The additional missionaries and laymen, as with previous "reinforcements", allowed for more extensive operations across the Oregon Country. In a meeting at Fort Vancouver on June 4, the missionaries were given their appointments.[2] After returning Lee ordered the abandonment of Mission Bottom to the Mission Mill or Willamette station in what is now Salem.[13] George Abernethy was appointed steward of the secular services of the Mission, allowing for Lee to focus on proselytization.[4] Methodist commercial activities reached their zenith, with two timber mills and a grist mill opened on Mill Creek,[9] with operational costs being upwards of $10 daily to run.[21] The main mercantile store of the Mission was transferred to Oregon City in August 1842.[14]

Nisqually Mission[edit]

The sole missionary station north of the Columbia was opened during this time, outside Fort Nisqually in modern DuPont.[12] Prior to leaving for the United States in 1838, Jason Lee instructed temporary superintendent Leslie and blacksmith Wilson to establish a house at the location.[12] An arrival aboard the Lausanne, John Richmond, was appointed as the missionary of the post. The staff of the mission included Wilson and a teacher, Chloe Clark, who married while there.[12] The diet of the families included oysters and clams which were given to them from the Nisqually people.[22] Support for the station also came from John McLoughlin, who ordered donations of peas and flour along with the loaning of milk cows.[22] Richmond attended the celebration of the Fourth of July at American Lake held by the visiting United States Exploring Expedition in 1841.[23] In an oration heard by the commanding officer Charles Wilkes, sailors, along with indigenous such as and Duwamish chief Slugamus, Richmond stated that "The time will come... when these hills and valleys will have become peoples by our free and enterprising countrymen..."[23] Richmond began to lose interest in proselytizing by 1841, finding the Native populations "fast sinking into the grave. Extinction seems to be their inevitable doom..."[9] After a year and a half of residency on the Puget Sound he departed with his family back to the United States.[12]

Clatsop Mission[edit]

Joseph H. Frost was sent to the Clatsop Plains at the mouth of the Columbia River. Until a residency was complete, Frost and his family resided at Astoria.[24] After Frost returned to the Willamette station to request additional members, Kone was assigned to accompany him as the planned Umpqua mission had been forfeited.[24] After sailing down the Columbia on a boat, loaned from McLoughlin, to the planned mission the Methodists began to reside according to Frost in an area "surrounded by Indians, who were ignorant, superstitious and barbarous."[24] A band of Clatsops, the local tribe, assisted the Methodists in the construction of their house and provided food as well.[25] A small house was made to house visiting natives who had till then slept on the floor of the mission as outright refusing any guests was feared to possibly lead to a violent confrontation.[25] Describing the heads of the Tillamooks in the terms of Phrenology, Frost found the to have a "bump of avariciousness being very prominent".[26] The Tillamook practice of head flattening according to the priest likely made this result.[26] In correspondence to the Board in September 1841 Kone stated that Clatsop were "few in number, and not prepared to receive the Gospel."[9] Consequentially he and his family left for the United States in November 1841 due to the "unpromising prospects among the natives..."[2] By February 1842 Frost concluded that "there never will be anything like a permanent Christian church raised up among [the Clatsops]." and and decided the budget of the mission "ought to be expended to better purpose elsewhere."[26] Frost was unable to convert any Natives during his three years there and he left the "land of darkness"[25] with his family on August 14 1843.[2] His replacement was Rev. Parrish, who operated the mission until its closure in the following year.[13]

Planned Umpqua Mission[edit]

As early as February 1838 Jason Lee had considered establishing a mission among the Umpquas and explored the area but was unable to come in contact with any.[10] The considered station was to be located in the vicinity of the HBC Fort Umpqua.[27] After the Lausanne and its passengers arrived in Oregon, Gustavus Hines and William Kone were appointed to work in the region.[27] A party was organized in August 1840 composed of Jason Lee, a native guide, Hines and White to find a suitable location for the mission.[27] The group was greeted at Fort Umpqua by Jean Baptiste Gagnier and his wife Angelique, a daughter of an Umpqua chief, acted as an interpreter for them.[28] While meeting with the Umpquas, one chief stressed that their reputation of being "a bad people" was undeserved and they desired for a priest.[27] The negative impression of the Umpquas was gained after the murder of the majority of a fur trapping party under Jedediah Smith in 1828. The Methodists however never opened a station among the Umpquas, with Hines concluding that

the doom of extinction is suspended over this wretched race, and that the hand of Providence is removing them to give place to a people more worth of this beautiful and fertile country...[27]

Educational efforts[edit]

When the housing at the Mission Bottom was complete, the Indian Mission School was built to be used to teach the Native American children the ways of Western society.[3] Cyrus Shepard became the first teacher of the school in March 1835.[27] The students came from a variety of Native tribes, which over the years included Kalapuyas, Cayuses, Chehalis, Walla Wallas, Iroquois, Shastas, Tillamooks, Klickitats, Umpquas, Chinooks, Yamhills and even Hawaiians.[10] [2] Additionally there was participation from the children of the French-Canadian settlers and Native wives.[3] Besides being the main source of labor for maintaining the growing farms, the students also hunted game for the mission.[10] The initial class had 14 Native students though during the summer upwards of 40 were in attendance.[4] Over the years illness from exposure to new diseases killed many students, and some ran away.[21] Relatives of deceased students sometimes blamed the Methodists and occasionally attempted to get revenge, though no acts of violence have been recorded.[4] Shepard died on January 1 1840[2] and the school went into a decline without his teaching abilities.[19] The school was relocated to the Mission Mill in 1842 in a building under construction with a budget of $40,000 planned to accommodate upwards of 300 students.[9]

A song taught to the girls of the school illustrates the limitations of using Chinook Jargon to preach religious concepts.[12] [5]

Chinook Jargon lyrics English translation
Mican tum-tum Cloosh? Your heart good?
Mican tum-tum wake cloosh. Your heart no good.
Alaka mican ma-ma lose. Bye-and-bye you die.
Mican tum-tum cloosh mican clatamy Sakalatie. Your heart good you go to God.
Sakalatie mamoke hiyas cloosh mican tum-tum. God make very good your heart.
Hiyack wah-wah Sakalatie. Quick speak to God.


After almost a decade of operation the viability of the school was in doubt. An assessment by mission members was not promising with the most positive feature being "quite a number had experienced religion here and died when in school and hopefully gone to heaven."[21] The students at that time were cultivating 34 acres fields of peas, potatoes, wheat and oats outside the school.[21] Runaway students were treated as "criminals", and when caught "[they were] put in chains, severely whipped, &c., &c., guarded and kept in a high enclosure, like prisoners."[21]

Oregon Institute[edit]

Further information: Oregon Institute
The Oregon Institute founded in 1842.

In Salem on January 17, 1842 at Jason Lee’s home, a group of settlers met and formed the Oregon Institute as a school for the Euro-American children in the area, eventually evolving into present-day Willamette University.[13] A ten-person board of trustees was created; they selected the Wallace House three miles north of Salem to serve as the school.[13] Later in 1844, the school opened in the new building intended for the indigenous with Chloe A. Clark Willson as the first teacher of the school, considered the first for European-American children west of the state of Missouri.[13] (Note: Early Oregon histories bragged that this was the first school for European Americans west of the Mississippi River, but St. Louis Academy was founded by Jesuits in Saint Louis, Missouri in 1818.)

Reduction of mission activities[edit]

There was considerable concern that the account of the Mission had been "injudiciously managed" by the Board in 1841.[9] Additionally criticisms of Jason Lee from Elijah White, John P. Richmond, Gustavus Hines and other mission members were sent over the years to the Board.[29] While David Leslie had remained supportive of Lee, it wasn't enough to counter the negative appraisals.[29] After receiving instructions to detail the financial history of the mission, Lee admitted he "was not accountant enough to understand..."[18] No action by the Methodist Church was taken until July 1843, when Rev. George Gary was appointed as the new superintendent. The Board wanted a "more full and satisfactory account of this Mission, than our present information will permit" and instructed Gary "to curtail the secular departments of the mission..."[1] Fellow missionary Marcus Whitman was then in the United States and carried the letter that informed Lee of his dismissal.[12] Shortly after reading the letter, the former superintendent crossed Mexico and reached New York City in May 1844.[12] In June during a conference with his superiors, it was determined that Lee was not given his position back until after a financial report from Gary arrived.[12] Lee began to collect donations for the school he helped form, the Oregon Institute, and while in his hometown Stanstead on March 12, 1845 he died.[29]

After holding a meeting on June 7 1844 with the other members of the mission Gary determined to discontinue most of the operations. The Dalles and the Mission Hill stations were to remain open with the others closed.[4] After the sales the focus of the mission turned to the settlers and away from attempting to converting the indigenous of the region.[5] The grain and timber mills were sold for $6,000 to a pioneer who resided in Oregon for the previous two years.[21] The extensive herds of horse and cattle brought another $4,200 for the treasury.[21] The majority of the plots claimed by the Methodists in Oregon City were sold to John McLoughlin for $6,000.[21] The Clatsop mission was purchased by its priest Rev. Parrish, who settled there.[13] The Indian Labor School building was sold to to the Oregon Institute board of trustees for $4,000.[13] The Wascopam Mission was sold for $600 to Marcus Whitman in 1847, who intended to move there.[16] However after the Whitman Massacre the post became inactive until its return to the Methodist Mission in 1849, with the yet to be paid bill of purchase waived.[16] The Dalles mission didn't get used again by the Methodists, and it was sold to the Federal Government for $24,000. During litigation that reached the Supreme Court in 1883 between the church and settlers in the area, the Methodists land claims of the Dalles were rejected. Three years later the church gave $23,000 to settlers who had previously paid for lots on the now defunct claim.[16]

After the reduction of the mission operations Gary requested in August 1845 a new superintendent be sent to replace him.[4] His successor, Rev. William Roberts, appeared in June 1847 after establishing a church in San Francisco.[4] In 1848 the Methodists organised the "Oregon and California Mission Conference" which had six priests, four being in Oregon.[4] In an endeavor with large sums of money were spent, the Methodist Mission of Oregon ultimately had results left in a "painful mystery".[30] After 14 years of operation the Methodists had 348 members in Oregon, the vast majority being settlers.[4] Before the division of the Oregon and California Conference in 1852, California already surpassed Oregon for number of Methodist converts.[4]

Legacy[edit]

With the flood in 1861, all buildings at the Mission Bottom site were washed away except the granary and hospital.[13] The remaining buildings are preserved as Willamette Mission State Park.[31] Some of the original structures of the Willamette station may be seen at Mission Mill Museum located in Salem, Oregon.

A city street and a cemetery in Salem bear the name of Jason Lee. A statue of Jason Lee stands in the U. S. Capitol Building’s Statuary Hall in Washington, D.C. as one of the two statues allotted to the state of Oregon.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carey, Charles. "Methodist Annual Reports." The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 23, no. 4, 303-364
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lee, Daniel and Joseph H. Frost. Ten Years in Oregon, New York City: J. Collard, 1844
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Horner, John B. (1919). Oregon: Her History, Her Great Men, Her Literature. The J.K. Gill Co.: Portland.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hines, Harvey K. Missionary history of the Pacific Northwest. Portland: Marsh Printing Co. 1899
  5. ^ a b c Whaley, Gray. Oregon and the collapse of Illahee U.S. empire and the transformation of an indigenous world, 1792-1859. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010.
  6. ^ Loewenberg, Robert. "Daniel Lee's Plan to Save Oregon." Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 74, no. 1 (1973), 73
  7. ^ a b c Skinner, Constance L. Adventurers of Oregon: A Chronicle of the Fur Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1920
  8. ^ Boyd, Robert. "Another Look at the 'Fever and Ague' of Western Oregon." Ethnohistory 22, No. 2 (1975), pp. 135-154
  9. ^ a b c d e f Gatke, Robert M. "A Document of Mission History, 1833-43." Oregon Historical Quarterly 36, No. 1 (1935), 71-94
  10. ^ a b c d e f Carey, Charles. "The Mission Record Book." The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 23, No. 3 (1922), 230-266
  11. ^ Shirley, Gayle. More than Petticoats: Remarkable Oregon Women. Helena, Montana: Falcon Publishing Inc. 1998, p. 24
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Brosnan, Cornelius J. Jason Lee, Prophet of New Oregon. New York City: MacMillian Company, 1932
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Corning, Howard M. Dictionary of Oregon History. Binfords & Mort Publishing, 1956.
  14. ^ a b Chapman, J. S. "French Prairie Ceramics: The Harriet D. Munnick Archaeological Collection, circa 1820-1860: A Catalog and Northwest Comparative Guide." Anthropology Northwest 8. (1993)
  15. ^ Blanchet, Francis Norbert, and Edward J. Kowrach. Historical sketches of the Catholic Church in Oregon. Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1983.
  16. ^ a b c d Shackelford, R. S. "The Methodist Mission Claim to the Dalles Town Site." The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 16, No. 1 (1915), 24-32
  17. ^ Allen, A. J. Ten Years in Oregon, Itchaca: Mack, Andrus, & Co. 1848
  18. ^ a b c d e f Loewenberg, Robert J. "New Evidence, Old Categories: Jason Lee as Zealot." Pacific Historical Review 47, No. 3 (1978), 343-368
  19. ^ a b c d Lavender, David. Land of giants; the drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750-1950. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1958.
  20. ^ Bashford, James W. The Oregon Missions: The Story of how the Line was Run Between Canada and the United States, New York City: Abingdon Press, 1918, p. 162
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Carey, Charles. "Diary of Rev. George Gary." Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 24, no. 1 (1923), 68-105
  22. ^ a b Meeker, Ezra. Pioneer Reminiscences of Puget Sound. Seattle: Lowman & Hanford Printing Co. 1905
  23. ^ a b Hunt, Herbet and Floyd C. Kaylor. Washington, West of the Cascades. Tacoma: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co. 1917
  24. ^ a b c Pipes, Nellie B. "Journal of John H. Frost, 1840-43." Oregon Historical Quarterly 35, No. 1 (1934), 50-73
  25. ^ a b c Pipes, Nellie B. "Journal of John H. Frost, 1840-43." Oregon Historical Quarterly 35, No. 2 (1934), 139-167
  26. ^ a b c Pipes, Nellie B. "Journal of John H. Frost, 1840-43." Oregon Historical Quarterly 35, No. 3 (1934), 239
  27. ^ a b c d e f Hines, Gustavus History of the Oregon Mission, Buffalo: George H. Derby and Company, 1850.
  28. ^ Barman, Jean. French Canadians, Furs, and Indigenous Women in the Making of the Pacific Northwest. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2014
  29. ^ a b c Barclay, Wade Crawford. Early American Methodism, 1769-1844, New York: Board of Missions and Church Extension of the Methodist Church, 1950
  30. ^ Peck, George. The Methodist Quarterly Review. 1847. New York City: Lane & Tippett, 1847
  31. ^ Oregon State Parks

Bibliography[edit]

  • Smith, Sarah Gilbert White, et al. (1999). The Mountains We Have Crossed: Diaries and Letters of the Oregon Mission, 1838. University of Nebraska. ISBN 978-0-8032-6621-6. 
  • Luccock, Halford; Hutchinson, Paul (1926). The Story of Methodism. The Methodist Book Concern. ISBN 978-0-687-06387-1. 
  • Loewenberg, Robert J. (1976). Equality on the Oregon Frontier: Jason Lee and the Methodist Mission, 1834-1843. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-95491-2. 
  • Boyd, Robert (1996). People of the Dalles: The Indians of Wascopam Mission. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1236-4. 
  • Ludwig, Charles (1993). Jason Lee, Winner of the Northwest. Fromm International. ISBN 0-88062-161-3. 
  • National Park Service Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. Accessed April 30, 2004.
  • Clarke, S.A. Pioneer Days of Oregon History: Volume II, J.K. Gill Company, 1905.

External links[edit]