Willem de Kooning
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (February 2015)|
|Willem de Kooning|
Willem de Kooning, c. 1961
April 24, 1904|
|Died||March 19, 1997
East Hampton, New York, United States
|Known for||Abstract expressionism|
|Notable work(s)||Woman I, Easter Monday, Attic, Excavation|
National Medal of Arts (1986)
In the post-World War II era, de Kooning painted in a style that came to be referred to as Abstract expressionism or Action painting, and was part of a group of artists that came to be known as the New York School. Other painters in this group included Jackson Pollock, Elaine de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franz Kline, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Adolph Gottlieb, Anne Ryan, Robert Motherwell, Philip Guston, Clyfford Still, and Richard Pousette-Dart.
Willem de Kooning was born in Rotterdam, in South Holland in the Netherlands, on April 24, 1904. His parents, Leendert de Kooning and Cornelia Nobel, were divorced in 1907, and de Kooning lived first with his father and then with his mother. He left school in 1916 and became an apprentice in a firm of commercial artists. Until 1924 he attended evening classes at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, the academy of fine arts and applied sciences of Rotterdam, now the Willem de Kooning Academie.
In 1926 de Kooning travelled to the United States as a stowaway on the Shelley, a British freighter bound for Argentina, and on August 15 landed at Newport News, Virginia. He stayed at the Dutch Seamen's Home in Hoboken and found work as a house-painter. In 1927 he moved to Manhattan, where he had a studio on West Forty-fourth Street. He supported himself with jobs in carpentry, house-painting and commercial art.
De Kooning began painting in his free time; in 1928 he joined the art colony at Woodstock, New York. He also began to meet some of the Modernist artists active in Manhattan. Among them were Stuart Davis, the Armenian Arshile Gorky and the Russian John Graham, who together de Kooning called the "Three Musketeers".:98 Gorky, who de Kooning first met at the home of Misha Reznikoff, became a close friend and, for at least ten years, an important influence.:100 Balcomb Greene said that "de Kooning virtually worshipped Gorky"; according to Aristodimos Kaldis, "Gorky was de Kooning's master".:184 De Kooning's drawing Self-portrait with Imaginary Brother, from about 1938, may show him with Gorky; the pose of the figures is that of a photograph of Gorky with Peter Busa in about 1936.:184
De Kooning joined the Artists Union in 1934, and in 1935 was employed in the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration, for which he designed a number of murals including some for the Williamsburg Federal Housing Project in Brooklyn. None of them was executed, but a sketch for one was included in New Horizons in American Art at the Museum of Modern Art, his first group show. From 1936, when De Kooning had to leave the Federal Art Project because he did not have American citizenship, he began to work full-time as an artist, earning income from commissions and by giving lessons.
De Kooning’s well-known Woman series, begun in 1950 the time after meeting his future wife and culminating in Woman VI, owns much to Picasso, not least in the aggressive, penetrative breaking apart of the figure, and the spaces around it. Picasso’s late works show signs that he, in turn, saw images of works by Pollock and de Kooning.
- Christoph Grunenberg, et al. (2011). De Kooning: (1) Willem de Kooning. Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Accessed February 2015. (subscription required)
- "de Kooning". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
- Tracy Schpero Fitzpatrick (2001). de Kooning, Willem. American National Biography Online, January 2001 update. Accessed February 2015. (subscription required)
- Matthew Spender (1999). From a High Place: a Life of Arshile Gorky. New York: Knopf. ISBN 9780375403781.
- Terry Smith, Contemporary Art, (New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2011) p17
- Marika Herskovic, American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless An Illustrated Survey With Artists' Statements, Artwork and Biographies. (New York School Press, 2009). ISBN 978-0-9677994-2-1. pp. 76–79; p. 127; p. 136.
- Marika Herskovic, American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s: An Illustrated Survey, (New York School Press, 2003). ISBN 0-9677994-1-4. pp. 94–97.
- Marika Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists: Artists Choice by Artists, (New York School Press, 2000). ISBN 0-9677994-0-6. p. 16; p. 36; p. 106–109.
- Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan, "de Kooning: An American Master",2004, Knopf, Borzoi Books ISBN 1-4000-4175-9
- Edvard Lieber, Willem de Kooning: Reflections in the Studio, 2000, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-4560-6
- ART USA NOW Ed. Lee Nordness; Vol.1, (Viking Press, 1963.) pp. 134–137.
- The American Presidency Project
- Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts
- Richard Shiff, On "Between Sense and de Kooning", The Montréal Review, September 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Willem de Kooning.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Willem de Kooning|
- Willem de Kooning at the Museum of Modern Art
- Links to reproductions
- Willem de Kooning at Xavier Hufkens, Brussels
- Woman in the Pool (1969) Phoenix Art Museum
- de Kooning's work in the Guggenheim Collection
- Willem de Kooning in the National Gallery of Australia's Kenneth Tyler collection
- Sam Hunter, "Willem de Kooning Lecture", The Baltimore Museum of Art: Baltimore, Maryland, 1964 Retrieved June 26, 2012
- Frank O'Hara — Rainbow Warrior