Willem Frederik Hermans
|Willem Frederik Hermans|
W. F. Hermans in 1977
1 September 1921|
|Died||27 April 1995
|Occupation||Physical geographer, writer|
|Genres||Poetry, novels, short stories, plays, essays|
Willem Frederik Hermans (September 1, 1921 – April 27, 1995) was a Dutch author of poetry, novels, short stories, plays, as well as booklength studies, essays, and literary criticism. His most famous works are The House of Refuge (novella, 1952), The Darkroom of Damocles (novel, 1958), and Beyond Sleep (novel, 1966). Hermans is considered one of the three most important authors in the Netherlands in the postwar period, along with Harry Mulisch and Gerard Reve.
Birth and Ancestry
Willem Frederik Hermans was born on September 1, 1921 in Amsterdam to Johannes ('Johan') Hermans (1879-1967) and Hendrika ('Rika') Hillegonda Hermans-Eggelte (1884-1967), who already had a daughter, Cornelia ('Corry') Geertruida (1918-1940). His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were breadbakers in the town of Brielle, members of the Dutch Reformed Church, and from the ranks of the "lower bourgeoisie." Johan Hermans, the only one of the eight children (two sons and six daughters) allowed to pursue an education, became a grammar school teacher. Hermans' predominantly Lutherian maternal family was slightly more middle-class. All three sons of the great-grandfather, a goldsmith, became schoolteachers.
Johan Hermans graduated as a teacher in 1898, and began his career as a teacher the same year in the Amsterdam area, where he met his future wife who was a teacher at the same school he worked. Right after the marriage in 1913 Rika Hermans quit working and devoted herself to the household, even though their first child would only be born five years later. From 1913 to 1929, the pair lived on the second floor[a] of an apartment in the "Old West" part of Amsterdam, near the center of the city, in a neighbourhood with blocks built in 1910 especially to accomodate schoolteachers. In 1929 the family moved to another apartment in the same block, where they occupied the fourth floor, Corry having a large room for herself in the attick. Johan Hermans continued to improve his teaching qualifications, eventually rising to teach beyond grammar school. Though his own career was unremarkble, he had great ambitions for his two children, both of whom he sent to the prestigious Barlaeus Gymnasium, evidently to have them prepared for a college education. To save money to pay for such education, the parents were forced to be as tight with money as they could, especially since the salaries of teachers would be decreased thirteen times in the years from 1925 to 1940, with a 10% decrease in the period 1930-1933 alone. These were precisely the years when their children were growing up.
Hermans married Emmy Meurs (1923–2008), a black Surinam woman, in 1950.
In 1958, Hermans was appointed reader in physical geography at Groningen University. In 1972, after accusations by among others the Calvinist Member of Parliament and later minister Jan de Koning that Hermans was using his time writing instead of lecturing, a parliamentary committee was set up to investigate the matter. The committee found that Hermans's chief crime was his use of university stationery for writing his notes.
In 1973, he resigned and settled as a full-time writer in Paris. In Onder professoren (Among professors) (1975) he described university life in Groningen in a bitter and satirical way. It can be read as a roman à clef and was entirely written on the empty sides of university letters, according to Hermans's alter ego Zomerplaag 'to do something useful with this expensive paper that would normally disappear unread in the garbage bin, polluting the environment'.
Underlying all of Hermans's works is the theme of epistemological nihilism. Only science is able to produce real knowledge, all other aspects of life are uncertain, hence the frequent misunderstandings and misinterpretations the characters experience. There does not exist any benefit of hindsight, and the past is just as unknowable as is the present, if only because the past is never fully accessible. Osewoudt, the protagonist of The Darkroom of Damocles, is unable to convince others of his past achievements, and geologist Alfred, the protagonist of Beyond Sleep, is not sure if he would recognize a meteorite crater if he saw one.
His style is existentialist and generally bleak, and his writing style is unique in Dutch literature with its short and pointed sentences. There is no doubt that he was influenced by World War II and the German occupation of the Netherlands between 1940 and 1945, and his longer novels (De tranen der acacia's and De donkere kamer van Damokles) are set during the war. Even his more upbeat writings (Onder professoren and Au pair) can have a strange, existentialist twist to them.
Hermans was notorious for his polemics, as was demonstrated in particular in the 'Weinreb affair', when he played a key role in the unmasking of a Jewish imposter who claimed to have been a resistance fighter helping other Jews during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
In 1986, the Mayor and City Council of Amsterdam, Ed van Thijn, officially declared Hermans persona non-grata in Amsterdam as he visited South Africa in 1983 in defiance of a cultural boycott that was declared on that country because of its apartheid policy. Being married to a non-white woman, Hermans remained totally unrepentant and did not visit his birthplace again until 1993 for a book presentation, after the City Council had ended that status on his insistence.
The best example of Hermans's notoriety was the minor issue of the first volume of the memoirs of the minor writer C. Buddingh', which Hermans savagely and condescendingly criticised in a review in 1979. The next volume was published only in 1995, ten years after the death of Buddingh' but only months after Hermans' death.
Translations in English
The earliest translation into English of a Hermans work was the novella The House of Refuge (translated by Estelle Debrot), which Steven Marcus included in his collection The World of Modern Fiction (New York, 1966). The original is called Het behouden huis and runs just under 80 pages.
In 2006 the novel Beyond Sleep (translated by Ina Rilke) was published. The story is about a geological expedition in the north of Norway, where the sun never goes under. The original is from 1966 and is called Nooit meer slapen and ranks as one of Hermans's two most important works. The other work, The Darkroom of Damocles, also translated by Ina Rilke, was published in 2007. The novel is set during the Occupation in World War II, and the protagonist, a member of the Dutch resistance against the Germans, is unable to come up with evidence for his resistance activities when the war is over. The original is from 1958.
- Moedwil en misverstand/Intention and misunderstanding (short stories, 1948)
- De tranen der acacia's/The tears of the acacias (novel, 1949)
- Ik heb altijd gelijk/I am always right (novel, 1951)
- Paranoia (short stories, 1953)
- Description et genèse des dépôts meubles de surface et du relief de l'Oesling (dissertation, 1955)
- De God Denkbaar Denkbaar De God/The God Thinkable Thinkable the God (novel, 1956)
- Drie melodrama's/Three pieces of melodrama (novel/short stories, 1957)
- Een landingspoging op Newfoundland/An attemptive landing on Newfoundland (short stories, 1957)
- The Darkroom of Damocles (De donkere kamer van Damokles, novel, 1958)
- Beyond Sleep (Nooit meer slapen, novel, 1966)
- Een wonderkind of een total loss/A child prodigy or a total loss (stories, 1967)
- Herinneringen van een engelbewaarder/Memories of a guardian angel (novel, 1971)
- Het evangelie van O. Dapper Dapper/The gospel of O. Dapper Dapper (novel, 1973)
- Onder professoren/Amongst professors (novel, 1975)
- Filip's sonatine (short story, 1980)
- Uit talloos veel miljoenen/From innumerable millions (novel, 1981)
- Geijerstein's dynamiek/Geijerstein's dynamic (short story, 1982)
- De zegelring/The signet ring (short story, 1984)
- Een heilige van de horlogerie/The saint of the clockmakers (novel, 1987)
- Au pair (novel, 1989)
- De laatste roker/The last smoker (short stories, 1991)
- In de mist van het schimmenrijk/In the mist of the shadow empire (short story, 1993; boekenweekgeschenk (Dutch Book Week Gift), later published as Madelon in de mist van het schimmenrijk/Madelon in the mist of the shadow empire)
- Ruisend gruis/Rustling grit (novel, published after his death in 1995)
- Willem Otterspeer, De mislukkingskunstenaar: Willem Frederik Hermans. Biografie, deel 1 (1921-1952), De Bezige Bij, Amsterdam 2013. [The Artist of Failure: Willem Frederik Hermans. A Biography, Vol. 1, (1921-1952)]
- In a correct English translation, Dutch floor counts must be upped by one, because the groundfloor is not included in the Dutch count. Otterspeer 2013, 62 counts the Hermans place as the first floor (eenhoog).
- Otterspeer 2013, 39: 'lagere burgerij'.
- Otterspeer 2013, 46, 62. The neighbourhood as a whole was built from 1900 to 1920.
- Otterspeer 2013, 58.
- Janssen 1985.
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