William Alexander, Lord Stirling
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|William Alexander (aka Lord Stirling)|
|Nickname(s)||Earl of Stirling|
New York City, Province of New York
|Died||15 January 1783
Albany, New York, U.S.A.
|Years of service||1775—1783|
|Commands held||1st New Jersey Regiment
Continental Army (2 months)
Alexander was an educated, ambitious and bright young man and was proficient in mathematics and astronomy. He joined his mother in a successful provisioning business and, in 1747, married Sarah Livingston, the daughter of Philip Livingston (1686-1749) and sister of Governor William Livingston. The couple had two daughters and one son William. One of his daughters, Mary Alexander, would marry wealthy merchant, Robert Watts of New York.
Stirling was a socially prominent and wealthy man, having inherited a large fortune from his father. He dabbled in mining and agriculture and lived a life filled with the trappings befitting a Scottish Lord. This was an expensive lifestyle and he eventually went into debt to finance it. He began building his grand estate in the Basking Ridge section of Bernards Township, New Jersey and upon its completion, sold his home in New York and moved there. George Washington was a guest there on several occasions during the revolution and gave away Stirling's daughter at her wedding. In 1767, the Royal Society of Arts awarded Lord Stirling a gold medal for accepting the society's challenge to establish viticulture and winemaking in the North American colonies by cultivating 2,100 grape (V. vinifera) vines on his New Jersey estate.
When the American Revolutionary War began, Stirling was made a colonel in the New Jersey colonial militia. Because he was a wealthy man, he outfitted the militia at his own expense and was always willing to spend his own money in support of the Patriot cause. He distinguished himself early by leading a group of volunteers in the capture of an armed British naval transport.
The Second Continental Congress appointed him brigadier general in the Continental Army in March 1776. At the Battle of Long Island, (also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights), in August of that year, Stirling led the stalwart, well-trained 1st Maryland Regiment (also known as the "Maryland Line") in repeated attacks against a superior British Army force under command of Gen. Sir William Howe at the Old Stone House near what is today named the Gowanus Creek (later Gowanus Canal and Bay) which empties into Upper New York Bay and took heavy casualties. The "Redcoats" had made a wide flanking attack sweeping to the east through the lightly-guarded Jamaica Pass, one of a series of low entrances through the ridgeline of hills running east to west through the center of Long Island, catching the Patriot forces on their left side. Outnumbered 25-1, his brigade was eventually overwhelmed and Stirling himself was taken prisoner during the disciplined and measured retreat, but not before repelling the British forces long enough to allow the main body of Washington's Continental troops to escape to defensive positions at Brooklyn Heights, along the East River shoreline. Later, under the cover of a miraculous fog which enveloped the East River, and the rear-guard covering actions of the Marylanders, Washington was able to barge his remaining troops and equipment across back to Manhattan Island and New York Town and so save his army and the Patriot cause for another more opportune fight. Because of his actions at Long Island, one newspaper called him "the bravest man in America" and he was praised by both Washington and the British for his bravery and audacity. Later a commemorative monument was erected at the site of the military engagements and embattled retreat and the plot of land deeded to the State of Maryland near Prospect Park as a sacred parcel of "blood-soaked Maryland soil".
He was released in a prisoner exchange (in return for governor Montfort Browne), and promoted to the rank of major general, and became one of Washington’s most able and trusted generals. Washington held him in such high regard that he placed Stirling in command of the entire Continental Army for nearly two months, while he was away on personal business and throughout most of the war he was considered to be third or fourth in rank behind General Washington. Though he cast his lot with the Patriot cause during the American Revolution, officers (including Washington) and men alike often referred to him as "Lord Stirling", in reference to his nobility of bearing. At Christmas Trenton, he received the surrender of a Hessian German mercenary regiment. On the 26th of June 1777, at Matouchin (now called Metuchen), he awaited an attack, contrary to Washington's orders. His position was turned and his division defeated, losing two guns and 150 men in the Battle of Short Hills. Subsequent battles at Brandywine, Germantown in Pennsylvania during the campaign to defend the colonial capital of Philadelphia and Monmouth (last battle of the northern campaigns of the War in New Jersey), cemented his reputation for bravery and sound tactical judgment. At the battles of Brandywine and Germantown he acted with bravery and discretion. At the Monmouth battle, he displayed tactical judgment in posting his batteries, and repelled with heavy loss an attempt to turn his flank. During the devastating winter encampment at Valley Forge, northwest of Philadelphia where the occupying "Redcoats" were enscounced in late-1777 and early-1778, his military headquarters was at the now preserved Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling Quarters. In January 1780, he led an ineffective raid against Staten Island on the western shores of New York Bay. Lord Stirling also played a part in exposing the "Conway Cabal", a conspiracy of disaffected Continental officers looking to remove Washington as Commander-in Chief and replace him with General Horatio Gates.
When Washington took his army south from above New York Town in 1781, joining French general Comte de Rochambeau from Newport, Rhode Island, with an allied army of Royal French and German troops to catch Lord Cornwallis at his temporary base on the York River and the Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown, Virginia, he appointed Stirling commander of the elements of the Northern Army that he left behind to guard New York and he was sent up the Hudson River to Albany. Stirling, always a heavy drinker, was in poor health by this time, suffering from severe gout and rheumatism. He died in Albany on the 15th January 1783. His untimely death just months before the official end of the War for American Independence with the Treaty of Paris of 1783 is the probable reason that he is not as well known today as many of the other generals. Still, his significant contributions made him one of the most important figures of the American Revolution. He was buried in the Churchyard of Trinity Church, facing the historic Wall Street district (adjoining nearby St. Paul's Chapel), in New York City.
- His nephew was Senator John Rutherfurd (1760–1840).
- His son-in-law was Congressman William Duer (1747–1799).
- His grandson was College president William Alexander Duer (1780–1858).
- His great-grandson was Congressman William Duer (1805–1879).
- His great-grandson was General Stephen Watts Kearny (1794–1848)
- His great-great-grandson was General Philip Kearny, Jr. who died in action during the Civil War
- MS51, a Middle School on the former Gowanus battlefield, is named William Alexander Middle School for him.
- Stirling, New Jersey, an unincorporated community in Long Hill Township is located a short distance from Alexander's house in Basking Ridge.
- The Lord Stirling School in New Brunswick, New Jersey is named for him.
- Lord Stirling Park in Basking Ridge, New Jersey is located on part of his estate.
- Sterling Hill Mine was named after him, as he once owned the property
- Lord Stirling 1770s Festival 
- The town of Sterling, Massachusetts was named in his honor.
- "Maj.Gen. William Alexander, Lord Stirling and Sarah Livingston". 2004. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- McCormick, Richard P. "The Royal Society, The Grape and New Jersey" in Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume LXXXI, Number 2, (April 1953); and later in Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (January 1962).
- "National Historic Landmarks & National Register of Historic Places in Pennsylvania" (Searchable database). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture & Archaeology. Retrieved 2012-11-02. Note: This includes David C. Stacks (June 1973). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form: Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling Quarters" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-03.
- "About Us/Admissions". MS 51 – William Alexander Middle School. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Mustac, Frank (11 September 2009). "Living-history 'Lord Stirling 1770s Festival' is October 4 at Environmental Education Center". New Jersey On-Line. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
For further reading
- William Alexander, Lord Stirling: George Washington's Noble General, Paul David Nelson, University of Alabama Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8173-5083-3
- Alexander, William, pages 175/76 in: Dictionary of American biography, Volume I. Edited by Alan Johnson, Publisher: C. Scribner's Sons New York, 1943
- The life of William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, Major-General in the Army of the United States during the Revolution: with selections from his correspondence. Collections of New Jersey Historical Society, Vol. II. By his Grandson William Alexander Duer. Published by Wiley & Putnam, New York 1847
- Works related to William Alexander, Lord Stirling at Wikisource
- Thomas Finlayson Henderson (1885). "Alexander, William (1726-1783)". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography 01. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- "Stirling, William Alexander, (titular) Earl of". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Alexander, William". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.