William Algernon Churchill
William Algernon Churchill (1865–1947) was an art historian and British diplomat.
Family and early life
He was the son of Henry Adrian Churchill (1828–1886) who was an archaeologist and British diplomat, and Countess Maria Braniefska (b. Warsaw 1839? - d. Rio de Janeiro 1905). His two older brothers, Harry Lionel (1860-1924) and Sidney John Alexander (1862-1921), were also diplomats.
He married Hannah Violet Myers whose sister married his brother Sydney. They had four children: Walter (1907-1943), Peter (1909-1972), Flora (1911-1929), and Oliver (1914-1997). His three sons served in the British Armed Forces during World War II - Walter becoming an ace during the Battle of Britain while Peter and Oliver each served in the Special Operations Executive - and all three were highly decorated, each being awarded the Distinguished Service Order and also a second high level medal of gallantry.
He was an art historian with particular interest in watermarks in paper. He was author of what is still the standard reference work on early European paper and papermaking ‘Watermarks in Paper in Holland, England, France, etc., in the XVII and XVIII centuries, and their interconnection’.  First published in 1935, this book is still in print. The extensive introduction contains inter alia an alphabetical List of Dutch papermakers, a list of French paper-makers who worked for the Dutch market, and a list of British paper-makers and mills. At the end a survey of particulars concerning the watermarks in question. The corpus of the work is systematically arranged according to motives and contains 578 fullsize reproductions of watermarks. With illustrations and 578 facsimiles of watermarks.
He also served as a diplomat. In 1891, he was appointed British Vice-Consul in Mozambique, then Consul in Mozambique (1892), Pará, Amazon Provinces, Brazil (1897), Amsterdam (1906), and Stockholm (1913), then Consul-General in Milan (1919), and finally Algiers He retired to live in Malvern, Worcestershire.
- Levantine Testimony
- National Library of Ireland Catalogue
- National Gallery of Australia
- Yale University - The Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art
- British Association of Paper Historians - Suggested readings for students
- Islamic Manuscript Studies - Resources for the study of watermarks
- Amazon books
- Watermarks in Paper
- The London Gazette - 14 February 1891
- The London Gazette - 16 August 1892
- The London Gazette - 30 April 1897
- The London Gazette - 1 May 1906
- The London Gazette - 1 July 1913
- The London Gazette - 16 June 1919
- Letter to The Times 3 September 1934
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