William Allen (governor)
|31st Governor of Ohio|
January 12, 1874 – January 10, 1876
|Preceded by||Edward F. Noyes|
|Succeeded by||Rutherford B. Hayes|
|United States Senator
March 4, 1837 – March 3, 1849
|Preceded by||Thomas Ewing|
|Succeeded by||Salmon P. Chase|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 7th district
March 4, 1833 – March 3, 1835
|Preceded by||Samuel Finley Vinton|
|Succeeded by||William K. Bond|
|Born||December 18 or 27, 1803
Edenton, North Carolina
|Died||July 11, 1879
Fruit Hill, Chillicothe, Ohio
Allen and his sister Mary Granberry Allen lived in Chillicothe together. His sister married Reverend Pleasant Thurman, and their son, Allen G. Thurman, followed in his uncle's footsteps, becoming a lawyer and politician.
Allen attended Chillicothe Academy before studying law with Colonel Edward King. He was admitted to the bar in Ohio at age 21. He began his career as a politician in the Democratic Party at a young age. Allen supported "popular sovereignty" and the presidential candidacy of Lewis Cass, identifying himself as a "Peace Democrat" and opposing the U.S. Civil War.
Allen served as United States Representative from Ohio from 1832 to 1834, losing his bid for re-election. He served as United States Senator from Ohio from 1837 to 1849, losing a bid for a third term in 1848.
While in the Senate, Allen was one of a group of Western Democrat expansionists who asserted that the U.S. had a valid claim to the entire Oregon Country, which was an issue during the 1844 U.S. presidential election. He suggested that the United States should be prepared to go to war with the United Kingdom in order to annex the entire Oregon Country up to Russian-owned Alaska at latitude 54°40′N. This position ultimately produced the famous line "54 40 or fight!", coined in 1846 by opponents of such a policy (not, as popularly believed, a slogan in the Presidential campaign).
Allen retired to his farm, "Fruit Hill", which had belonged to his father-in-law, and fellow Ohio Governor, Duncan McArthur, near Chillicothe, Ohio. Allen did not return to public service for nearly a quarter century, until he served as Governor of Ohio from 1874 to 1876. He unsuccessfully sought a second two-year term in an 1875 election.
Allen was noted for his loud voice. A friend asked Senator Benjamin Tappan if a fellow Ohioan was still in Washington. Tappan replied "No, he left yesterday and is probably by this time in Cumberland, Maryland, but if you will go to Bill Allen and tell him to raise that window and call him he will come back."
In 1887, Charles Henry Niehaus sculpted a statue of Allen to be placed in the National Statuary Hall. The statue was one of two statues in Ohio donated to the National Statuary Collection. Allen's statue stood in the National Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol until, after a statewide poll run by the Ohio Historical Society, the Ohio National Statuary Committee voted August 26, 2010 to replace him with the statue of inventor Thomas A. Edison. The Ohio General Assembly decided to replace the statue in part because "Allen’s pro-slavery position and outspoken criticism of President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War make him a poor representative for Ohio in the U.S. Capitol."  However, lack of funding for the $1.5–$2 million Edison statue has kept the Allen statue within the Capitol.
- "William Allen". Ohio History Central. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Ryan, Daniel J (1888). "William Allen". A History of Ohio with Biographical Sketches of her Governors and the Ordinance of 1787. Columbus, Ohio: A H Smythe. pp. 190–191.
- "William Allen". Architect of the Capital. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Hunter, W.H. (1898). "The Pathfinders of Jefferson County". Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications VI: 226.
- Renick, L W; Fullerton, M D; Nipgen, M P (1896). Che-le-co-the, glimpses of yesterday: a souvenir of the hundredth anniversary of the founding of Chillicothe, Ohio April 1896. Chillicothe. p. 76.
- "Grandview Cemetery". Grandview Cemetery. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
- "Profile for Allen County, Kansas, KS". ePodunk. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- The National Statuary Hall Collection
- Legacy for Ohio
- Inventive fundraising is called for Edison's statue
- William Allen at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- National Statuary Hall Collection: William Allen at Architect of the Capitol
- William Allen at Ohio History Central
- William Allen at Find a Grave
- "Allen, William (statesman)". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. 1900.