William Black Anderson is a former member of the US House of Representatives from Illinois. Born April 2, 1830 in Mount Vernon, Illinois, he attended McKendree College and studied law. Despite being admitted to the bar, he never practiced law, instead pursuing agricultural works. From 1856-58, he served in the Illinois House of Representatives. During the American Civil War, Anderson served the Union army, eventually rising to the rank of brigadier general. In 1871, he was elected to the Illinois Senate and then to the US House in 1875. After one term, he left politics, eventually taking a job with the IRS. He died in Chicago on August 28, 1901.